Marketing information system help to,professional movie maker for android 2014,adwords landing pages examples,adwords video advertising exam questions 5 3 2 - How to DIY

Marketing strategies must be based on consumer needs, and also on the company’s industry position and resources relative to competitors. In order to find the best competitive marketing strategy and put it into action, marketing managers perform four important marketing management functions: (1) marketing analysis, (2) marketing planning, (3) marketing implementation, and (4) marketing control. In carrying out marketing analysis, planning, implementation, and control, the marketing manager needs information at almost every turn. Yet marketers frequently complain that they lack information of the right kind or have too much of the wrong kind.
A Marketing Information System (MIS) consists of people, equipment, and procedures to gather, sort, analyse, evaluate, and distribute needed, timely, and accurate information to marketing decision makers. A good marketing information system balances the information managers would like to have against what they really need and what is feasible to offer.
This Bulletin discusses the agricultural marketing system used for three major commodities in Malaysia: palm oil, vegetables and fish. This paper reviews agricultural marketing information system for selected commodities in Malaysia.
Agriculture, forestry and fishing are an important part of the Malaysian economy, as evidenced by their significant contribution to the country's GDP and export earnings.
There are three major types of oil palm producers: independent smallholders, producers in the land development schemes, and private estates. The fishing industry is characterized by a distinct dualism between the small-scale and the large-scale commercial operators. Malaysia is a net importer of vegetables, in spite of the policy emphasis since 1984 on developing production to meet domestic requirements. Characteristically, vegetables are pro-duced on small, scattered farms of less than 1.3 ha, using mainly traditional methods of farming (Low 1993). The agricultural information system paradigm provides a framework for discussing the agricultural marketing information process.
Since both data and analysis are dependent on the conceptualization of reality, if the concept of reality or reality itself changes, the information system must change.
As mentioned before, the purpose of data collection is to generate information, and the purpose of seeking information is to help managers in their decision-making. The center of the agricultural information system in Malaysia is the Ministry of Agriculture. The type of data collected varies according to the objectives of the particular institution. A number of ministries and institutions are involved in the agricultural marketing information system. The two main institutions involved in marketing information for palm oil are PORLA and the KLCE. The major function of PORLA is to ensure efficient marketing for palm oil by means of market monitoring (licensing and registration), data collection and information dissemination. PORLA collects data on prices, production, imports and exports, stocks and inventory levels of palm oil products. To provide information on the current supply situation of palm oil products, PORLA collects data on production and stock of fresh fruit bunches, processed palm oil, palm kernel cake and oil and oleo-chemical products. To discover the import and export flow of palm oil products, PORLA collects data from Custom Declaration forms collected at five important ports. The major output produced by PORLA is market information on a daily, weekly and monthly basis. Marketing information for the fish industry is the responsibility of the Fisheries Development Authority of Malaysia (FDAM), better known by its Malay acronym, LKIM. FDAM has established 3 major modules a€” Integrated Accounting System, Marketing Information System and Fishermen's Institutions' Information Monitoring System. Before the MOS was formalized in 1991, FDAM had already implemented an informal version of the system from 1982 which collected data on landings, prices at landing points and wholesale and retail centers, and import and export figures. The main output is data on daily prices of fish at all market levels, which are distributed to the mass media, and to the Ministry of Domestic Trade and Consumer Affairs as well as the Ministry of Agriculture. Data entry and processing is handled by the computer unit of FDAM, which was established in 1991. Poor planning: management staff were not able to identify the real needs of the users during the planning stage. FDAM hopes to establish an Integrated MIS (IMIS), integrating the Integrated Accounting System, Marketing Information System and Fishermen Institution Monitoring System. MIS in FAMA serves two major groups, the external agencies and the internal divisions of FAMA. Currently, FAMA has a computer mainframe IBM 4331-L02 (which was acquired in 1982) and 84 PCs. Secondly, FAMA has set up a database system called TELITA to provide a link between information supplier and user.
The functions of MIS in FAMA are shared by the Market Information Unit and the Computer Unit, both under the Corporate Planning Division.
The funds allocated FAMA for information technology have increased from US$46,300 under the Second Malaysia Plan (1971-1975) to US$8.5 million under the Sixth Malaysia Plan (1995-2000).
In order to realize this new role, FAMA has outlined the future developments for its LAN and WAN. Integrating the current system of LANs by means of PABX, fax, telephone and a Relational Database Management System with WAN. To provide PCs for all FAMA's staff, giving them direct communication with each other by LANs, making possible workgroup computing and providing more effective communication.
As for WAN, FAMA intends to upgrade its computerized system through its FAMA Network System (Appendix VI). It is hoped also that through WAN, information in the data bank at the Head Office will be shared with other agencies.
We can now draw some general conclusions with respect to the agricultural marketing information system in Malaysia. The above discussion indicates that the three institutions studied have adequately defined their role and functions in marketing their respective commodities. While we must keep in mind that improving the information system is not entirely a measurement problem, there are obvious problems with respect to the hardware. A more general concern related to computing power is the optimal mix of hardware, software, and personnel. As discussed earlier, information is data that has been transformed to meet the needs of the user.
Secondly, most of the output produced by the agricultural information system involves a considerable time lag. Private participants in marketing rely more on their own business contacts for the timely, reliable and accurate data they need for operational purposes. Thirdly, the main users of the information system are the government agencies themselves, rather than the private sector. Under the Sixth and Seventh Malaysia Plans, programs have been designed and funds allocated to improve the agricultural marketing information of these three institutions, as well as other institutions in the country. Secondly, any upgrading of the computer systems of the institutions implies that the relevant personnel have also to be upgraded in number, expertise and skill through appropriate training programs. There is no doubt that information is going to play an increasingly vital role in the more developed and technologically oriented economy of the future.
Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. The company must continually monitor competitors’ products, prices, channels, and promotion.
He or she needs information about customers, competitors, dealers, and other forces in the marketplace.
Or marketing information is so widely spread throughout the company that it takes great effort to locate even simple facts. In many cases, additional information will do little to change or improve a manager’s decision, or the costs of the information will exceed the returns from the improved decision. It shows how the information system is related to the the type of production and marketing of each commodity.
It facilitates marketing decisions, regulates the competitive market processes and facilitates marketing mechanisms (Kohls 1990). Agriculture is the second largest contributor to the GDP of Malaysia, accounting for 16.3% in 1992. Malaysia produced 53% of world output and accounted for 66.8% of world exports in 1992 (Oil World 1992).
The area under oil palm hectarage has exceeded that of rubber since 1989 (Malaysia, Ministry of Primary Industries 1990). Besides FELDA, FELCRA and RISDA, other significant public institutions include the Palm Oil Registration and Licensing Authority (PORLA), the Palm Oil Research Institute of Malaysia (PORIM), and the Kuala Lumpur Commodity Exchange (KLCE).
Small-scale fishermen do most of their fishing close to shore, make little use of specialized skills and are characterized by low productivity, a high incidence of poverty and limited market outlets. In fact, in the late 1980s and early 1990s, imports increased by an average of 5.6% every year.
The Federal Agricultural Marketing Authority (FAMA) (1992) has indicated that annual per capita consumption of 53 types of vegetables has increased from 38 kg in 1982 to 53 kg in 1988. However there are some areas, mainly in the highlands, where there is a concentration of commercial production.
Before one embarks on establishing an information system, it is important to realize that information is not equivalent to data or statistics. The demand for data usually comes from decision-makers faced with the need to make decisions regarding particular situations.
It is widely accepted that the market for agricultural produce is constantly evolving and highly dynamic. The function of establishing the information system is entrusted to the Management Information Unit a€” a major unit in the Macro and Strategic Planning Division.
As noted by the Ministry of Agriculture (1994a), each department and agency is developing its own database center.
The KLCE, which was founded in 1980, aims at providing a hedging facility to redece price discovery function and hedging facility to reduce the risks to industry participants. Hence, establishing an information system is an integral function of PORLA in implementing its policy objectives. It collects daily prices of crude palm oil (CPO), processed palm oil products (PPO), palm kernel oil (PKO) and palm kernel cake (PKC).
The firms concerned are required to fill out standardized forms before the 14th of each month.
Although this information system was planned as long ago as 1985, it was not implemented until 1991.
The first module was finalized in December 1992 for internal financial and administrative purposes.
The introduction of MOS was aimed at improving data collection so that it could be integrated as one of the systems in the main Marketing Information System.
These complexes send daily information on the quantity and value of catches according to the type and size of fish. Both Ministries are also provided with data on fish landings at the FDAM complexes, and on fish imports and exports. Since the IT section of FDAM is still relatively new, it faces a number of organizational, management and implementation problems.

The feasibility of the IMIS will be studied once the MIS, IAS and FIMS have been implemented successfully. Its MIS center was established in 1969, and concentrated on collecting data on marketing activities (Mukhtiar 1992).
For internal purposes, MIS provides the information on the business performance and other activities of FAMA branches all over the country, and other data related to personnel and management.
FAMA has also established its own Local Area Network, comprising a total of 28 micro computers connected to a computer server at the computer branch Ethernet.
Firstly, FAMA provides a telephone answering service at its head and state offices for consumers.
The two units are instrumental in providing information to help FAMA in its planning decisions. The amount spent on information technology has increased from 1.2% of development funds to a staggering 28% during this period.
While maintaining its developmental role, it intends to commercialize some of its activities in order to be a self-financing institution. As for the LAN, it intends to upgrade its capacity to provide services using voices, image and text. This integration is expected to establish an integrated desktop Computing Information System for Executives. It intends to use the DATEC (public telephone service) to connect district offices with the FAMA state offices.
Carbon Copy Plus will be used to integrate a voice response system of both a state and head office level. Included in the data bank will be publications, for which customers will have to pay according to the computer time they utilize. The above analysis suggests that there is a strong awareness in each institution of the important role of information systems in performing their tasks a€” be it for internal or external purposes. The agricultural marketing information system in each institution is designed to provide the policy makers who are the major users with the marketing information they need for policy decisions.
One of the major problems cited by FDAM and FAMA is the difficulty of getting the data input.
Ideal information is readily available, comprehensible, relevant, useful, timely, accurate and consistent. This is hardly surprising in view of the large number of products involved, the number of markets to be covered, and the sheer volume of input sources. We have also observed that there are differences and disparities in sources of data, methods of data collection, processing and information dissemination.
The above discussions suggest that a number of improvements have to be made to ensure a more effective system.
Thirdly, the discrepancies in data collection methods and data bank systems have resulted in an inefficient exchange of data between related agencies involved in agriculture information. With increasing specialization of the data collection and analysis functions, coordination and management of the information base is of critical importance. You can send these slides to your personal contacts who might be interested in Business Diagrams .
Subordinates may withhold information they believe will reflect badly on their performance. But managers do not always need all the information they ask for, and they may not ask for all they really need.
Generally, existing systems benefit government agencies and large-scale producers and dealers. Market information is vital to minimize information gaps and uncertainties that exist in the agricultural sector of a developing economy such as that of Malaysia.
Palm oil is chosen to represent the agricultural export sector, while both fish and vegetables represent the food sector. Agricultural exports are also the country's second largest foreign exchange earner, accounting for 17.4% of total earnings in the same year (manufacturing contributes more than 60%). Palm oil is currently the second most important vegetable oil in the world, accounting for 14.5% of the world production of 17 major oils and fats.
Palm oil contributed 5.2% of the country's foreign exchange earnings in 1992 - the third most important source of foreign exchange earning, after petroleum and timber products. Land development schemes are projects introduced by the government to resettle landless farmers on new land as producers of export crops such as palm oil or rubber. PORLA's function is mainly to monitor the market situation, through registration and licensing. The fish passes through the hands of assemblers, wholesalers and retailers before reaching the final consumer. This figure, however, is relatively low compared to consumption levels in Japan, Taiwan, South Korea (94 kg) and in Western Europe and North America (145-188 kg) (Moon 1989).
There are more than 50 commercial varieties of vegetables, including both highland and lowland types.
Farmers normally sell their produce on a consignment basis to a wholesaler or his agent or collectors. The system begins with some understanding of the problem (reality) a€” in other words, we must answer the question of what the problem is that we are trying to solve. However, to be useful, data need to be interpreted or evaluated through statistical and economic analyses, and hence transformed into information which can easily be used by decision-makers. If to begin with, the concept is not an accurate representation of the reality, increasingly sophisticated statistical analysis of the measurements will not lead to a better understanding of the reality.
This is even more the case in developing countries where significant structural changes are occurring. However, to leave data collection to the statisticians, and blame data problems on statisticians, is not justifiable.
Most books on management indicate that upper level management, is responsible for directing the organizations future course.
This Division is responsible for coordinating the collection and compilation of statistical data to support the planning process of the Ministry. This paper gives a brief review of the agricultural marketing information system for the three commodities discussed earlier a€” palm oil, fish and vegetables.
It publishes prices of futures contracts a€” for spot and distant months a€” nationwide through various media. Prices collected are based on the contracts traded, which have to be registered with PORLA within 24 hours after the contracts are signed.
Currently, there are 275 palm oil mills, 38 refineries, 15 oleo-chemical firms, 50 palm kernel cake processing plants and 35 bulking installations firms which supply the required data. This information is sent to Bernama, Reuters, other government agencies and also made available to the public by telex, fax and telephone. It is designed to help FDAM in its decision-making to ensure the growth and development of the fisheries sector (LKIM 1994).
The Marketing Information System, which was finalized in 1992, is designed to provide relevant information for FDAM's marketing division to use in implementing its marketing policies. Each submodule was designed to provide FDAM with information on the relevant policy objectives of the sub-module. Under the new MOS, the same type of data is collected a€” daily prices (wholesale and retail), landings by type of boat at the various FDAM landing complexes, and fish imports and exports. FDAM also publishes monthly reports on the current fish market situation in Malaysia, which is distributed to government agencies and private traders.
Since then, its MIS has evolved into one of Malaysia's leading marketing information systems, and is considered to play a major role in helping FAMA realizes its goal as a development agency for the marketing of horticultural produce, food and agroindustrial products through market development. Agricultural marketing information is the most important contribution to external agencies. A total of 10 micro computers are connected to a computer server located in the Finance Department. Data collected are mainly daily prices of selected commodities, collected by staff of FAMA's branches in all the states in Malaysia.
The major output produced is prices at a national and state level, supplies and market potential (Appendix IV).
In terms of personnel, a total of 250 staff are currently employed to implement the marketing information service, with a total salary expenditure of more than US$800,000 per annum. With this shift in objectives, marketing information will play an even greater role in the decision-making process. Each FAMA state office will have dial-up access to receive and send information from the FAMA head office. FAMA's WAN will also be linked with the International Network Corporation (INC), for international users. For instance, a significant amount of resources are devoted to maintaining each organization's own information system.
FAMA, for instance, has long recognized the structural inefficiency of the vegetable market.
The PDP machine currently in use is simply obsolete, and cannot handle PORLA's computing needs. If the software is more user-friendly, and the skills of users of the data system enhanced, the burden of the computer centers can be somewhat reduced, as can the problem of ensuring that the data is relevant and useful. An examination of the output published by the three institutions reveals a number of points. Most of those involved agree that the information is not timely with regard to day-to-day operational requirements. All this information is used to support the planning processes of the main user, the Ministry of Agriculture. Firstly, there is a need to establish a user committee, to determine what information is required by the various types of users from the private and public sectors. As recommended by the institutions themselves, there is a need to centralize all information services under a central database at the Ministry of Agriculture. Important information often arrives too late to be useful or on-time information is not accurate.
Small-scale farmers receive little benefit, although they are the targets of most agricultural development plans in Malaysia. It is much needed by farmers in planning production and marketing, and equally needed by other market participants in arriving at optimal trading decisions. The paper begins with a brief overview of the economic role of agriculture in Malaysia, with a special emphasis on these three selected commodities.
In addition, the agricultural sector is the largest source of employment, currently employing 25.9% of the labor force (Bank Negara 1992). One main agency entrusted with this scheme is the Federal Land Development Authority (FELDA), which is also involved in the marketing of the produce. However, with the current increases in household income, we can expect that domestic consumption will continue to increase. Raw data must be given form and meaning through analysis and interpretation to generate information that will be useful to decision-makers (Bonnen 1975). For the data to be useful to the analyst, it must be based on the same set of theoretical concepts and, ideally, the same set of definitions used to operationalize the concept through the measured variables.
The problems faced vary over time, and this requires similar adjustments in the information system.
Close cooperation between those responsible for data collection and those who use the data is crucial.

Upper level measurement is primarily required for strategic planning, and setting long-term goals and plans.
The sources of these data are varied and widespread, and include six other Ministries (for instance the Department of Statistics in the Prime Minister's Department ) and 36 departments and agencies under the Ministry of Agriculture. The development of many independent database centers has given rise to a number of problems.
In view of its efficiency in information system and the minimal participation by the smallholders in hedging, further discussion on KLCE is omitted here. Relatively more emphasis is given to the role of information in its marketing function, as the nature of fish marketing requires it to do so. The Fishermen's Institu-tions' Information Monitoring System monitors the membership and activities of the Fishermen's Associations. For instance, the market operation module is aimed at collecting and processing data concerning the operational aspects of the fish market at all levels a€” landing, wholesale, retail, import and exports. A standard form is used by the complex managers, who have to fax it to the FDAM head office daily.
The market will be developed by means of increasing the demand, determining the supply and developing marketing chains. The data collected and distributed are mainly daily, monthly and annual prices of selected commodities, quantities of imports and exports, and general information on production and consumption for selected commodities. FAMA's branches send this data to the FAMA state office, by either telex or telephone, three times a week (Tuesday, Thursday and Saturday). The role of marketing information in the new system will be to inform producers about market demand (domestic and external), and dealers and consumers about the supply status and other market developments which are significant to their decision-making (Mukhtiar 1992). The database at head office will still be updated three times a week, but a new batch program will be developed to update the data in the PCs at a state level. This is not surprising, as any organization has to keep its house in order first, so to speak, before it can concentrate on supplying services (in this case information) to external organizations. Hence, PORLA is able to collect comprehensive data on the current status of business and the market situation, from a farm to an export level.
The other major issue concerning the hardware is the problem of obsolescence, which requires institutions to weigh the alternatives of leasing vs buying a machine. First, what they are providing is basically data output a€” in other words data which has been summarized in a more concise form, rather than being processed or analyzed to produce information.
As one of the requirements of centralized data base management, the institutions involved must be encouraged to practise open system interconnection, to make possible the sharing of information. 753) points out that the information base should be viewed as a capital stock that requires increasingly greater investment over time. Paper presented at the Agricultural Information Technology Symposium organized by the Ministry of Agriculture. Paper presented at the International Symposium and Workshop on Commercial Production of Fruits and Vegetables, organized by IILP and UPM.
In conclusion, the paper discusses the nature of an ideal information system, and the problems encountered in trying to achieve this. The agricultural sector in Malaysia is beset with a high degree of uncertainty due to the nature and structure of the production sector, organization of the marketing system and natural hazards. Other land development agencies are FELCRA (Federal Land Consolidation and Rehabilitation Authority) and RISDA (Rubber Industry Smallholders Development Authority). For instance, FELDA buys and sells fresh fruit bunches at the farm level, processes them into processed palm oil, and sells this to either local or foreign manufacturers.
The late 1980s saw a rapid increase in catches as a result of technological development a€” better fishing techniques, replacement of fiber nets by synthetic ones, use of larger and more powerful vessels and rapid adoption of trawling gear. In other words, the producers do not have a say in the pricing decision, which is made at the major wholesale center or terminal markets in large cities.
Theoretical concepts are operationalized through suitably defined empirical variables and hence measured. The results of analysis and interpretation produce information needed by the decision makers. Middle level management is involved in control and in shorter term planning, tactical planning, or finding the best way to get the job done.
There are also around 30 agricultural associations, trade associations and chambers of commerce in Malaysia which collect and provide agricultural information for their members. There is a lack of data unity, which makes direct data exchange between institutions impossible. The framework for FDAM's marketing information is governed by its marketing objective, that is to ensure the dynamic development of the marketing sector.
The same procedure is applied to wholesale and retail fish marketing centers, for the reporting of daily prices.
The role of MIS is to provide and process data and information to help FAMA in its planning decisions. These data are summarized in a predefined fax form which is then faxed to FAMA's head office, also three times a week (on the same days).
FDAM's Integrated Accounting System module is basically monitoring its own financial and accounting system. To assess the market prospects for a particular commodity, FAMA has also embarked on a number of studies on market potential and forecasts.
For the other two commodities, data collection tends to be a demanding exercise in terms of both the funding and the personnel required. The applications are written in COBOL, and whatever data generated cannot be downloaded to PCs for use by the Economics Division, the main user of the data.
They also have to measure the relative advantage of buying a commercially available software package or writing their own programs.
For instance, FDAM gives the prices and quantities sold at various market levels in its monthly reports, with minimum analysis of the data. While some feel that the task is impossible, others feel that the possibility should be explored of linking and networking, what are currently separate activities.
An important user group that needs to be emphasized is the producers, in particular the smallholders and fishermen who do not yet get much direct benefit from the information system.
A feasibility study of the viability of establishing such a database system is recommended.
Production is characterized by a large number of small, scattered farms and marketing is still unorganized, with too many middlemen handling small quantities of agricultural produce. This is subsequently followed by a description of the agricultural marketing information system for each of the three commodities. KLCE provides the price discovery center, as well as a hedging mechanism to market players in their attends to minimize price risk.
The acquisition of more extensive fishing grounds under the EEZ Declaration in 1980, and the subsequent development of the deep-sea fishery industry, also contributed to higher fish catches.
At these terminal markets, substantial quantities of vegetables converge for redistribution in other urban centers. Data, which are measured representations of these variables, are then collected and used in the analytical framework (or model) to test its predictions concerning the reality. Low level management is generally responsible for overseeing the operations of the organization. Variations in the methods of maintaining the databases also hinder the efficient exchange of information.
The strategies identified to achieve this objective are market monitoring, trade promotion, and monitoring the landing of fish at the FDAM landing complexes by Fishermen's Associations. The complex management portion of the Marketing Information System sub module is concerned with the management of the FDAM's landing complexes.
PORLA, in its bid to ensure healthy competition in the palm oil industry, has designed a standardized form to be filled out by those applying for a license, asking for details on their current state of business. Fish and vegetables both include dozens of species and varieties sold on the market, although the structures of the industries are very different. PORLA does produce market reviews of the palm oil industry, but with little statistical or economic analysis of the forecasted supply and demand, policy impact analysis and so on.
The use of the Joint Advanced Research Integrated Networking Project (JARING), under the auspices of the Malaysian Institute of Microelectronic Systems (MIMOS), is an obvious possibility.
It is suggested that research be carried out to determine the information needs of this group, as well as of private firms, and to identify a suitable communication system to relay market information to them effectively. Within such a structure, market information is deemed necessary to provide the right signal to participants. Currently, private estates account for about 45% of the area planted in oil palm, land settlement schemes 46%, and independent smallholders 9% (PORLA 1992). Catches have increased from 198,377 mt in 1965 to 747,000 mt in 1989 (an increase of almost 300%).
These wholesale markets tend to have a marked influence on the prices received by farmers and paid by consumers (Low 1993). In short, there are three steps in producing data: conceptualization, operationalization and measurement. Since the kinds of decisions to be made are different, it is not surprising that the information needs of these levels of management are different. These data are stored and processed to produce market price reports on a daily, monthly and annual basis. In the case of FAMA, two of the four information systems, Financial Position Information and Personnel and Management Information, deal with FAMA's operational aspects.
In short, the institutions are correctly performing their role in solving the marketing problems of their respective sectors.
An Agribusiness Information and Consultancy Centre (AGINFOR) has also been proposed recently. Their needs have to be identified and understood, so that the system is designed accordingly. In fact, the existence and transmission of complete and accurate marketing information is the key to achieving both operational and pricing efficiency in the marketing system (Beal 1966). A plantation firm not only has its own production farms, but also milling and processing plants.
There is a greater need for information external to the organization as we go up the management scale. Hence, there is a need to coordinate and integrate all these information systems into a single comprehensive central database under the Ministry of Agriculture. This point is not meant as a criticism but rather to stress the fact that this is a necessary developmental phase for the organization. One of the major problems of establishing an system open to all institutions is that some agencies are still employing proprietary computer systems (a total of 8 out of 13 agencies are using such system). Hence, raw materials are easily absorbed into their mills and refineries, before the processed products are sold to domestic users or foreign manufacturers. The need for a longer time scale, and a greater degree of summarization of the information, is evident for higher level management. A more pertinent question concerns the optimal amount of resources to devote to internal operational aspects.
Nevertheless, irrespective of the level, for the information to be of any use it must be available, comprehensible, relevant, useful, timely, reliable, accurate and consistent.

How to market a home business
Website landing page design examples resources
Seo services marketplace
Online album sharing sites

Comments to «Marketing information system help to»

  1. SEQAL writes:
    Into consideration, ALL NCH software program ratings.
  2. BOMBAOQLAN writes:
    The top quality of audio computer.