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Un producto es todo aquello que se le oferta al mercado para satisfacer una necesidad, este puede ser un producto fisico, servicio, evento, idea, experiencia o puede tener cualquier otra forma de presentacion.  El producto es el atractivo que se le ofrece al mercado,  asi como los beneficios y caracteristicas que este tiene para que el consumidor potencial lo elija.
Esta P es el valor que se cobrara en el mercado por un producto o un servicio,  es importante mencionar el precio va en referencia con el valor percibido que tiene el cliente por el producto. La promocion es en la mezcla de mercadotecnia uno de los factores fundamentales, ya que es la forma en la que daremos a conocer al mercado y por ende a los potenciales compradores todos los beneficios que tiene nuestro producto. Espero que la ejemplificacion y la demostracion de estos conceptos basicos de la mezcla de marketing puedan de ser de gran ayuda para replantear tu estrategia en torno a los beneficios que ofrece al mercado tu producto, la gama de precios que maneja para atender a diferentes tipos de consumidores, el lugar ideal para que esto consumidores puedan encontrarlo y los medios idoneos para que tu producto pueda ser dado a conocer a la mayor cantidad de consumidores potenciales.  Asi mismo me gustaria invitarte a que me dejes tus dudas o comentarios que puedan enriquecer este tema de mercadotecnia.
Coincido con GIOVANNI HIGUERA hay que agregar las otras P son parte fundamental en el mix marketing. The marketing mix is the unique combination of pricing, promotion, product offerings and distribution system (place) to reach a specific group of consumers (the target market).
To better understand the marketig mix click on the below link to see a brief summary of the marketing mix for NIKE.
Statement – Successful companies have different marketing mixes for different products.
The paradigm of marketing mix can be defined as “a unique blend of product, place, promotion, and pricing strategies designed to produce mutually satisfying exchanges with a target market” (Lamb et al, 2011, p.47). The product element of the marketing mix relates to decisions about product design, name of the brand, packaging, warranties etc. Promotion includes, advertising, personal selling, sales promotion, public relations, and any other activities that are aimed to advertise brand and its products and services.
Nargundkar (2008) convincingly argues that the main benefit of marketing mix paradigm relates to its assistance in selecting competitive edge for the business. In other words, marketing mix paradigm communicates the idea that it is not possible for businesses to have competitive edge for all four aspects of the business – product, place, promotion, and price, and adopting one element of marketing mix as a source of competitive edge would mean compromising other elements.
For instance, UK clothing retailer Primark has adopted price element as the source of competitive edge for the business, and thus the brand has to compromise on some of the other elements of the marketing mix. There have been many additional Ps added by business researchers over the course of the last several decades, however as Baker and Hart (2007) inform, the most acknowledged additional Ps apart from the original four elements are physical evidence, people, process.
Despite the convenience the paradigm of marketing mix offers to marketers and other senior-level managers in terms of decision making, it has faced criticism from a range of business researchers and practitioners and the amount of criticism has increased with the changing market environment in the global level. Specifically, it has to be stressed that “basic criticism has been that the 4Ps represent the seller’s mind-set, not the buyer’s mind-set” (Kotler, 2011, p.69). However, there is no provision for customer relationship management within the paradigm of marketing mix, and this fact can be highlighted as one of the most significant shortages of the concept. The same issue has been discussed during the presentation with the case studies of Apple and Nikkon.
Moreover, according to Lambin (2008) the marketing mix paradigm emphasises an “inside-out” approach to marketing, whereas the general marketing concept is supposed to have “outside-in” approach.


To put it simply marketing mix paradigm downplays the role of data about customers when making decisions related to individual ingredients.
One of the main advantages of customer relationship management, as it has been discussed in the presentation involves learning about customer needs and desires and offering new products and services to satisfy these needs. Nikons consumer data collection strategy, on the other hand, involves asking relevant questions from customers when they sign up in company website with their e-mails. Marketing mix has been one of the most popular concepts in marketing in the second half of the last century. However, the conditions in the marketplace have changed dramatically and irreversibly mainly during the first decade of the twenty first century due to the increasing forces of globalisation, rapid advancement in technology, increasing role of internet and other factors. Due to these changes the level of competition along all industries has greatly intensified. At the same time, it would be inappropriate to brand the concept of marketing mix as inadequate the changing marketing environment. In conclusion it can be stated that marketing mix paradigm is still an adequate tool for marketing decision making, however businesses cannot afford to rely on the paradigm as an only tool in terms of satisfying customer needs and wants in the current highly dynamic marketing environment. Instead, companies are recommended to integrate the use of marketing mix paradigm with proactive customer relationship management practices that would enable to adopt a proactive approach in terms of identifying the future needs and wants of customers and develop products and services in order to satisfy these needs.
These four P’s are the parameters that the marketing manager can control, subject to the internal and external constraints of the marketing environment.
In the context of the marketing mix, promotion represents the various aspects of marketing communication, that is, the communication of information about the product with the goal of generating a positive customer response. The marketing mix framework was particularly useful in the early days of the marketing concept when physical products represented a larger portion of the economy. I haven’t checked in here for a while because I thought it was getting boring, but the last few posts are great quality so I guess I’ll add you back to my daily bloglist.
Asi mismo el producto nos ofrece una gran variedad de gamas para solucionar los problemas del consumidor y al mismo tiempo para diferenciarnos con otros productos de la competencia como son: la calidad del producto y de las materias primas con las que fue hecho, el diseno del mismo, su tamano con respecto a la necesidad que se pretende cubrir, lo ergonomico de su empaque, la marca a la que pertenece,  y si este cuenta con alguna garantia o devolucion por si el producto fallase.
Asi mismo el precio se puede fijar de muchas formas, ya sea con lo que parece que es “justo” cobrar, o con el precio maximo que el consumidor esta dispuesto a pagar o se puede tomar en referencia al precio de la competencia, en realidad no existe una forma en concreto todo dependera de la estrategia que queramos seguir.  El precio en la mezcla de mercadotecnia,  no solo es definir la lista de precios de los productos de una marca, sino tambien incluye los descuentos e incentivos que se ofertaran si se hace un pago anticipado, o si se compra un gran volumen del producto,  asi mismo lascondiciones y periodos de pago que se aceptaran si es que a alguno de los clientes se le otorga credito para pagar el producto. The pricing element, on the other hand, relates to decision-making about the pricing strategy and the calculation of total costs of products and services to customers.
Place element of the marketing mix mainly involves the location where products and services are sold. Specifically, if Primark management decide to increase the quality of products and promotion this would result in the prices of its products to be increased, thus its current competitive advantage of low prices would be compromised. In other words, decisions marketers take regarding individual elements of the marketing mix represent their own viewpoint that do not take into account customer’s perspective on these issues. Namely, the presentation has revealed successful consumer relationship management to be critical condition for surviving in the modern marketplace.


Doyle (2008) asserts that the adoption of marketing mix paradigm as the main tool in terms of satisfying customer needs and wants present short-term approach to the important issue of sustaining long-term growth of the business. Specifically, it has been identified that Apple and Nikkon customer relationship management initiatives pursue the primary objective of achieving lifetime customer loyalty through maintaining these relationships in a strategic level. Muller (2010) specifies that “inside-out” approach involves devising products and services and attempting to raise the interests of the target group to these products and services, whereas “outside-in” approach is more proactive, in a way that initially the needs of customers are studied and only then products and services are devised in order to satisfy these needs. The importance of the role of data about customers is stressed by Kitchen (2010), who specifies customer data as an integral component of customer relationship management.
As presentation informs, following this principle has allowed Apple and Nikon to attain leadership positions in their respective markets. The types of data collected include website preferences, behaviour as an internet user, application preferences, demographics etc.
Regardless, of the manner in which customer information is collected, the information plays vital part in devising new products and services for customers. By relying on this concept as the main tool in terms of satisfying customer needs and wants a wide range of companies such as Coca-Cola Company, McDonald’s, Sony Electronics have been able to reach leadership positions in their industries. As a result, markets are imposing to companies the requirements of establishing relationships with their customers in order to increase the levels of customer attraction and retention, and thus survive in current highly competitive marketplace. This is because companies still need to make decisions regarding product, price, promotion and place aspects of their products and services and they would also need to base their competitive edge in one or two of these elements.
The goal is to make decisions that center the four P’s on the customers in the target market in order to create perceived value and generate a positive response.
Today, with marketing more integrated into organizations and with a wider variety of products and markets, some authors have attempted to extend its usefulness by proposing a fifth P, such as packaging, people, process, etc.
The appropriateness of this statement has been illustrated using the case studies of Apple and Nikkon, where it has been identified that these companies have achieved considerable success due to their effective use of consumer data management and consumer relationship management.
Nevertheless, this important issue is overlooked within marketing mix paradigm, and thus the concept attracts criticism from some business researchers and practitioners. Product placement paradigm offers a theoretical tool to accomplish this task in an effective manner. The ingredients in Borden’s marketing mix included product planning, pricing, branding, distribution channels, personal selling, advertising, promotions, packaging, display, servicing, physical handling, and fact finding and analysis. Despite its limitations and perhaps because of its simplicity, the use of this framework remains strong and many marketing textbooks have been organized around it.



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