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The marketing mix is the unique combination of pricing, promotion, product offerings and distribution system (place) to reach a specific group of consumers (the target market).
To better understand the marketig mix click on the below link to see a brief summary of the marketing mix for NIKE.
Statement – Successful companies have different marketing mixes for different products. To effectively market a product or service there are four things you need to get right: Product, Price, Place and Promotion. As the product is the item being sold to the customer, the thing that will bring in money, its features and design need careful consideration. The answers to these questions will help a firm design, package and add value to its products.
There are lots of different pricing strategies but every strategy must cover at least your costs unless the price is being used to attract customers to the business (loss leader pricing).
The Place element of the marketing place is about where the product is made, where is it stored and how is it transported to the customer. The following link provides further information on place: Marketing Mix and Place Strategies.
A successful product or service means nothing unless the benefit of such a service can be communicated clearly to the target market. Promotional activities for consumer sales will be different to promotional activities for business to business sales. E-Marketing Mix: A massive increase in internet sales has changed the way the marketing mix is implemented by firms. The term Promotion encompasses all of the various ways a business can communicate with customers and includes advertising, public relations and publicity (PR), sales promotion, direct mail, the internet and direct communications as well as sponsorship. Is a paid-for, mostly non-personal form of communications and includes, TV, radio, newspaper & magazines, public transport, outdoor displays and exhibitions, billboards, brochures and catalogues and the internet.
ABL uses mass media such as TV, radio, newspapers to promote brands and is used predominantly to create awareness. As the term suggests direct marketing communicates directly with a targeted customer group.
To contact a customer through most but not all of the methods above a business needs to gather information on their customers. A data base can contain some of the information shown below and is a useful source of information to assist business in customer segmentation. The key to data marketing is to ensure that the information collected is as accurate as possible and that actual and potential customers are not bombarded with telephone calls and leaflets promoting products they clearly do not want! As we have discussed in this module before, how interested are you to buy from telesales or door to door sales people? Although, there might not be a direct cost in placing the story in say a local or national newspaper there are hidden costs such as the time needed to write the story and research contacts in the media.
Public Relations can be concerned with the management and control of the process of publicity.
Public Relations is also concerned with the communication between an organisation and its key stakeholders or publics shown in the diagram. Supporting a special event or cause whether financially or materially (such as computers for schools given by Tesco) is called Sponsorship. Why do you think that so many top brands get involved in sponsorship of top sporting events? Although the link below follows through to a blog the amount of money used in sports sponsorship is staggering. At the time of producing this module information there was debate whether BP could be allowed to remain a sponsor of the games after their oil leak tragedy in the USA.
This is face-to-face communications with the buying customer by a representative of the company interested in selling products.
The choice of promotional methods employed is influenced by a number of factors including; communication objectives, target audience needs, and promotional spend. So for example advertising has a high ability to reach a large number of potential customers, is expensive but moderately easy to control but the medium is not an effective way to deliver a personal message and offers little customer interaction. Most business will use a combination of some maybe all of the promotional methods we have discussed, some will spend a little others will spend a lot!
Integrated Marketing Communications is concerned with co-ordinating all of the marketing communication tools available rather than use one in splendid isolation. There is an array of communications tools which can be used so it is vital to ensure that all are co-ordinated to achieve maximum effect.
Jobber (2010 p 464) says something very similar, ‘Integrated Marketing Communications is the concept that companies co-ordinate their marketing communication tools to deliver a clear, consistent, credible and competitive message about the organization and its products.
With a huge selection of marketing communications tools to chose from, many companies are moving away from using mass media advertising only and are employing a combination of promotional methods.
As with any academic subject, there is plenty of theory relating to marketing and this section on communications is no exception. Shannon and Weaver in the late 1940s developed a linear process of communication looking at the source of a message and its transmission to another. For a message to be effective, the sender's encoding process must match up with the receiver's decoding process. The key is to ensure that effective communications cut out noise or barriers to communication from the process so that understanding of the message is spot on. In order to communicate effectively, a company needs to understand its target audience at the same time determining communication objectives. There are competing views on the effectiveness of adverting and how it works; the strong theory of advertising and the weak theory of advertising.
The model importantly stresses that advertising is strong enough to increase consumer knowledge of a product and can change attitudes and buying behaviour. Whether advertising and other communication methods too have the power to change attitudes and buying behaviour is very much open to debate, yet the AIDA model has been effectively used to design communication messages.
Chose another well known brand that advertises on TV, or in magazines or newspapers and see if the AIDA model has been applied? Push strategy: trade promotions and personal selling efforts push the product through the distribution channels. Read the following scenario and then put together an Integrated Marketing Communications Plan for Sony’s new product as detailed in the Task instructions below. Sony is to launch a new multi functional handset incorporating a mobile telephone, a small TV, camera, video, and MP3 player. With wireless technology this should represent one of the most up to date models in its class. Despite its high threshold price, it is anticipated that the product will also appeal to the age group 16-22, as the price is within the ballpark figure for many games consoles, although relatively more expensive than a mobile phone with added features. Design is key, and Sony has shaped the new handset on the lines of an ipod, with colour and simplicity representing key features. Devise an outline marketing communications plan for the new Sony handset for each segment identified.
Use all of the stages listed in the framework below or use the headings from the Jobber advertising framework in section 2.
Affects decisions related to what, how, when, and where message will be said, as well as who will say it.
Push strategy: trade promotions and personal selling efforts push the product through the distribution channels.

Pull strategy: producers use advertising and consumer sales promotions to generate strong consumer demand for products. Putting the plan into action can take some time and often businesses will employ an advertising or specialist agency to undertake this work for them. At the same time technology in tele-communications had developed to encompass the mobile phone plus digital and online television. Jobber also points out the difference between Internet marketing and Digital marketing by stating that Internet Marketing is concerned with meeting customer needs through the utilisation of the internet only whereas as Digital Marketing includes the internet, mobile phones and digital TV.
Electronic commerce is often thought to simply refer to buying and selling using the internet, but as Jobber explores further it is also a provider of information.
E-business is a term generally used to refer to both buy-side and sell side e-commerce and the use of Internet technologies throughout an organisation. There are a variety of forms of e-commerce from business to business to consumer to consumer.
Permission based simply means that by supplying your contact details to a business you have given them permission to communicate with you.
It is unlikely that the 5Is will knock the traditional marketing mix off its top spot, but it does offer food for thought.
The use of internet and other digital technologies has made marketers review the application of the marketing mix in a different way as illustrated above.
The big change has been place…… top UK supermarkets use the internet as a virtual shopping experience, indeed some sites have virtual shopping baskets and check-outs!
To conclude marketing is a big subject and we have touched on quite bit of it, yet there is much more to add!
Your Marketing Communication Mix is the "Promotion" of the Marketing Ps and covers every method and medium of communicating with your target audience.
The Traditional Marketing Communication MixThe first step in the marketing communication process is deciding what components of the Marketing Communication Mix you are going to utilize in communicating with your target audience. The traditional components of the marketing communication mix are discussed below and put into perspective for successful marketing to today's consumers by today's business.
Do you have insights, strategies or a story about marketing communication to share with other readers? Please use my contact form next time so that I can get …Click here to write your own. Whether the firm is manufacturing the product or purchasing the product for resale, they need to determine what product features will appeal to their target market. The place for each of these things should ensure that the product gets to the right place at the right time without damage or loss. Promotion is any activity to raise awareness of a product or to encourage customers to purchase a product.
An increased focus on environmental issues, has contributed to a rise in the demand for environmentally friendly products and services. It is a flexible form of communication which has the potential to reach a vast audience (depending on the medium used) yet is not always suitable if the business needs to communicate to a small, select group of customers.
The suggestion here is that agencies can be offered commission from printers for using them to print direct mail, brochures and the like. Until recently direct marketing included direct mail through the door and mail order catalogues, but due to its popularity direct marketing also encompasses telemarketing, direct response TV advertising (the red button during advertisements and the shopping channels!), door to door and personal selling and the internet. Someone somewhere must be buying in this way as this type of promotion has seen a surge in popularity in recent years.
Unlike the direct marketing techniques discussed above sales promotion can be employed as an incentive to all channel members. Many companies will employ the services of a PR agency who will deal with press stories and maintain good links with the media.
This is the professional body for the UK public relations industry, providing PR training and events, PR news and research. Think of Max Clifford when some celebrity gets into trouble and how quick he takes control of the publicity. Funds are made available to a recipient organisation in return for recognition of the benefactor’s generosity.
The reputation of this top global company had certainly taken a hammering and the Olympic organisers were unsure whether the games should be associated with the company. Like all of the promotions techniques we have reviewed personal selling has its advantages and disadvantages. PR on the other hand offers high credibility with low costs at the expense of low control once the media gets the story. Rather than advertise a new product or change in price on the TV only, the company will use a range of methods to ensure that the product is noticed even more by many more customers. As consumers ourselves we do not only seek product information from the TV, but look at the internet, read magazines, leaflets and brochures and speak to sales staff. The consumers are pulling the product through the distribution channels as opposed to a push strategy which is employed to communicate to members of the distribution channel.
We shall briefly review some theories, concepts and models relating to communication starting with the communication process. In latter years Schramm (1962) added a feedback back loop to review whether the message had been received correctly.
However, there can be noise in the process which hinders or halts the message being understood.
Then its needs to select the appropriate media and encode a message appropriate to the audience, decide on communication strategies, what promotional tools to use and how much money to spend. Buy-side e-commerce refers to transactions to procure resources needed by an organisation from its suppliers. Changes can be made on-line almost immediately through the flick of HTML, think of changing pricing through established distribution channels. In the Western world we assume all have access to a computer yet in the developing world this is hardly the case.
In many ways, the marketing communication mix is the heart of your marketing strategy around which everything else in sales and marketing is predicated. The five traditional elements of the MARCOM mix are Advertising, Direct Marketing, Personal Selling, Public Relations and Sales Promotion.
Although marketing underwent a great transformation similar to that of business as a whole in the twentieth century, the traditional components of the marketing communication process are still in use and important today.AdvertisingThis is the mass media method of marketing communication and provides exposure to the largest, most geographically dispersed audience at the lowest cost per head.
Perhaps you have implemented a new strategy that is working really well or have insights into how the Internet is changing the communication landscape. The four elements should be viewed as one unit and structured to support each other; Otherwise a firm's marketing strategy will be confusing and uncoordinated. A business might contract an advertising agency to design and place advertisements on their behalf in the mass media.
His recent national story lines have included the girlfriend of married Chelsea footballer, John Terry and the death of Jade Goody. Recognition can include the display of the sponsors’ name and logo and plenty of public recognition of the charitable act.
The good bit is that it is very intensive and aimed at a small number of customers through meetings and regular updates; good relationships can be maintained and developed. The link below shows a developmental timeline of the internet from onset to what we know today!
A co-ordinated, customer-focused and harmonised use of methods from billboards to product packaging, website to internet advertising, sponsorship and publicity, in-store publicity through sales staff and sales promotions, plus direct marketing, all reiterating the same message with the same logo and branding.

If the message is not consistent, say McDonalds are promoting a 50p burger on the TV but in the store the sales-staff haven’t a clue what is happening, this is a little frustrating for the consumer and hardly professional for the company. So a manufacturer such as Wella (still on hair care!) will use promotional tools to inform their wholesaler of product pricing or change.
Noise can include language and cultural differences - using the wrong language can certainly stop the message being understood!
Consumers can seek information and buy products from all over the world at any time of the day. Sell-side e-commerce refers to the transactions involved with selling products to customers.
If business consists of creating value and creating customers, Marketing Communication (MARCOM) covers exactly how you are going to create customer by taking your value message to the market.This sections covers the elements of the Marketing Communication Mix and discusses how to optimize your marketing communication process based on what you are trying to accomplish. That being said, advertising costs can ad up quickly with mediums like television, radio and even online advertising which can be prohibitively expensive for many businesses. This article provides you with a quick introduction to each element and links if you would like more information. You will also need to consider competitor pricing and factors within your marketing environment. Many organisations have adapted their marketing strategies to capitalise on the consumer appetite for Environmentally Friendly Products. Segment profile to include, wealthy younger professionals age 23-30, looking for a multifunctional device, with good design and all features in one handset.
Research cited in Jobber 2010 suggests that on average people spend 29% of their time on the web.
Your Marketing Communication Plan should be centered around the idea of Integrated Marketing Communication meaning that all of the components of your communication mix are aligned and conveying the same message in the same way to your customers and target audience. The Marketing Communication Process, Marketing Communication Strategy and Marketing Communication Plan pages also provide additional thoughts and tools for optimizing your marketing communication mix.
Other traditional forms of paid advertising include newspapers and magazines, the Yellow Pages, billboards, signs and posters.
Select it and click on the button to choose it.Then click on the link if you want to upload up to 3 more images. Click on this link to read more about how the marketing mix can be used to market environmentally friendly products and services. Another advantage is that communications can be judged so much better on a face-to-face basis. As well, you should be aware of considerations pertinent to successful sales and marketing in today's high tech world.
As well, advertising on buses, benches, gas pumps and even public restrooms is in vogue today. Non-verbal communications such as body language and tone of voice, can offer clues as to how a meeting is proceeding. This component of the marketing communication process includes direct mail, catalogs, coupons and inserts, telemarketing, online marketing and television infomercials. Done correctly, Direct Marketing is extremely effective in the long run and allows for a targeted marketing approach to specific consumers to create valuable lasting relationships.Direct Marketing is the marketing communication method that enables companies to interact with a relatively large number of customers and encourage a "call to action" or "most wanted response" which is usually a purchase. The downside of Direct Marketing is that it is usually unsolicited and seen as a nuisance by the general public.
Telemarketing, e-mail spamming and junk mail are universally despised and so Direct Marketing tools should be used with thought and caution. Visit the Direct Marketing Association website for guidance on legal and ethical Direct Marketing.Personal SellingThis is the most dreaded as well as the most expensive of all methods in the marketing communication process.
However, if you are a small business owner or otherwise have the ability to personally sell and build relationships with customers, it can be one of the most rewarding aspects of the marketing process, both personally and professionally.Just as with traditional marketing, successful selling begins and ends with the customer. Along the way you build relationships and continue to gather information about how you can better serve customers which is your reason for being in business in the first place.Sales and marketing are fundamental to the survival of any business and both involve creating customers for the business value you have created.
Successful sales and successful marketing both begin with an attitude and that attitude is customers first. Sales is covered in more detail in The Sales Lead Center section.Public Relations This refers to how you handle your relationships and the flow of information with your various "publics" or the people who have a stake in or are affected by your business. This includes the general public, consumers, shareholders, employees, partners, competitors and the government. PR becomes a more and more crucial element of the marketing communication mix as a business or organization grows larger.
That being said, it is still a vital component of the marketing communication process to think about for smaller businesses as well. PR tools include press and media releases, lobbying, charitable and public events, advertorials, financial reports, promotional collateral, facility tours, sponsorships, interviews and any other method for the promotion of a positive image to people.Being "people conscious" starts with the individual and carries through to the organization. Once again, people buy from people at the end of the day and the most successful people and organizations are those that benefit other people the most. The good side of PR is fostering socially conscious business practices whereas the bad side is epitomized in shady political lobbying, "spin doctors" and so forth that divert from the truth as opposed to promote it. These can assume a number of forms including offering free goods or services, coupons and vouchers, gifts and prizes, discounts, samples, financial incentives, charitable promotions and any other value-add over and above your standard product or services.Sales Promotions are generally short-lived, "one off" incentives intended to provide consumers with that last "push" to buy.
The main takeaway is that regardless of the size and type of your business, you should continually look at ways in which to create additional value for customers.
Your customers will appreciate it and, in facts, customers have been shown to pay premium prices for real value and real service.Marketing Communication ProcessWhile the information age may have changed how the world runs and how business is done, some fundamental principles still hold true for marketing in general and the marketing communication process as well.
After all, people continue to buy from people, technology and the hustle and bustle of modern life notwithstanding.The Marketing Communication Process page covers additional individual marketing communication tools such as e-mail, flyers, mailing lists, newspaper and magazine ads, Yellow Pages, merchandising and packaging, trade fairs and events and eMarketing. As well, other disciplines related to the marketing communications mix such as branding, product placement, underwriting, graphic design, sponsorship and online marketing are touched on in that section.Marketing Communications is a very broad discipline and there are a tremendous number of ways and means for reaching out to your customers in today's high tech world. The goal of these sections is not to provide an exhaustive study but to touch upon the various elements of the marketing communication mix so that you are equipped with the basic facts for further inquiry and experimentation.
As well, a lot of the "bunk" is deconstructed and presented in plain language to make your study of the various marketing communication processes and tools as easy as possible.Marketing Communication StrategyJust like you cannot always predict the market in general, similarly you cannot always predict which element of the marketing communication mix will prove most successful.
You will change your Marketing Communication Strategy as your business grows and evolves, always focusing on those areas that provide maximum return for your efforts. As with every aspect of your overall marketing strategy, marketing communication management requires careful planning, monitoring and adjustment to continually refine your approach and achieve the best results.Good promotion captures the imagination and is celebrated by sales and marketing professionals as well as the general public (see the much-touted NFL Super Bowl Ads for example). Stories abound of super-successful advertising campaigns that struck the right cord with the right message at the right time to create phenomenal results (the Canadian Cassie Awards annually showcase the best ads by Canadian advertisers and agencies). Promotion has the power not only to create sales but have an effect on the social consciousness as a whole.The Marketing Communication Strategy page discusses the basics of marketing communication planning to your best advantage as per your business needs. The real secret to marketing communication success lies in diligent research and an understanding of human nature and your particular target audience.The Marketing Communication PlanCreating a Marketing Communication Plan is necessary to create programs around and effectively utilize the various components of the marketing communication mix. As with most things, careful planning in this regard will pay far greater dividends than the relatively haphazard spontaneous approach of "let's do what feels right".Your Marketing Communication Plan may be relatively simple and consist of an ad in the Yellow Pages which works fine for your business. Well for one, it necessitates a coherent go-to-market strategy and message, one that is reflected at every customer contact point. It also means that the various sales and marketing tools, methodologies and approaches you use for creating customers are in sync and reflect the "total whole" of your business. Just like the various organs of your body work in sync, so should the various parts of your business - and in this case, your marketing communication mix - complement one another as well.The Integrated Marketing Communication page takes you through the basic fundamentals of IMC, as it is known, and shows you the thought process involved in aligning the various components of your marketing communication mix for sales and marketing success.

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