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The Network Marketing Relationship details the similarities between Network Marketing and a Love Relationship. WHY ?… Because you stopped communicating and stopped taking into account what your partner may want or feel is important. Well a Network Marketing Relationship really isn’t much different than a Love Relationship. Now, if all you do is bombard your list with offers from Diets to Alternative Energy without ever getting to know your list.
The Secret To A Healthy Network Marketing Relationship isn’t much different than that of a Love Relationship now is it. So how can the companies of today ensure that they don’t only find new customers and retain existing ones but also avoid all hell breaking lose when they are confronted with a critic that happens to be quite influential in the online space? Even though Twitter is noisy and oftentimes information gets lost in the Twitter circus, people have found efficient ways to filter. Dov Seidman once said that these days it no longer matters what companies do but rather “how they do, what they do”. And Twitter, besides Facebook and many other social networks, allows them to do exactly that. The research I conducted included a survey with international marketing, social media and PR experts and allowed me to gather information from 175 bright minds. Gathering information about customers is one of the principles of relationship marketing and contributes significantly to the success of such a strategy. Besides, Twitter is an excellent research tool and allows businesses to get to know their customers in a way that wasn’t possible before.
Any business effort is most likely to succeed when there’s a plan and clear goals in place. The trust consumers place in businesses has been weakened due to the economic developments in the last couple of years. This is a guest post by Antonia Harler – Antonia holds a degree in Management, Communications & IT and works as a social media strategist at Paratus Communications. About Francisco RosalesFounder and author of SocialMouths and Rock the Inbox - The Ultimate Email Marketing Course. When I started out on Twitter I didn’t see the point or how it could benefit me in any way. Before marketing anything, you need to be aware of your customer’s needs, expectations and wishes. Nice one, The Customer focus is the most important aspect when using Twitter for relationship marketing. I will have to agree with you that there are many microblogging strategies that will help companies in using twitter successfully although that there are many legal risks involved. Grow your email list faster, keep your subscribers engaged and turn them into customers over and over again. If you are looking for advice that is unique to your business instead of the general information you get from blogs, this is for you.
In the current era of intense competition and demanding customers, relationship marketing has attracted the expanded attention of scholars and practitioners.
However, the conceptual foundations of relationship marketing are not fully developed as yet.
The purpose of this chapter is to provide a synthesis of existing knowledge on relationship marketing by integrating diverse explorations.
Before we begin to examine the theoretical foundations of relationship marketing, it will be useful to define what the term relationship marketing means.
One narrow perspective of relationship marketing is database marketing emphasizing the promotional aspects of marketing linked to database efforts (Bickert 1992).
McKenna (1991) professes a more strategic view of relationship marketing by putting the customer first and shifting the role of marketing from manipulating the customer (telling and selling) to genuine customer involvement (communicating and sharing the knowledge). Berry (1983), in somewhat broader terms, also has a strategic viewpoint about relationship marketing.
Berry’s notion of relationship marketing resembles that of other scholars studying services marketing, such as Gronroos (1983), Gummesson (1987), and Levitt (1981). Morgan and Hunt (1994), draw upon the distinction made between transactional exchanges and relational exchanges by Dwyer, Schurr, and Oh (1987), to propose a more inclusive definition of relationship marketing. An interesting question is raised by El-Ansary (1997) as to what is the difference between “marketing relationships” and “relationship marketing”?
For an emerging discipline, it is important to develop an acceptable definition that encompasses all facets of the phenomenon and also effectively de-limits the domain so as to allow focused understanding and growth of knowledge in the discipline.
Therefore, Sheth (1996) suggested that we limit the domain of relationship marketing to only those cooperative and collaborative marketing actions that are focused on serving the needs of customers.
An important aspect of Berry, Gronroos, and Morgan and Hunt definitions is that they all recognize the process aspects of relationship development and maintenance.
Wilson (1995) develops a similar process model of buyer-seller cooperative and partnering relationships by integrating conceptual and empirical researches conducted in this field. In addition to the process view, there is general acceptance that relationship marketing is concerned with cooperative and collaborative relationships between the firm and its customers.
Relationship marketing is the ongoing process of engaging in cooperative and collaborative activities and programs with immediate and end-user customers to create or enhance mutual economic value, at reduced cost. There are three underlying dimensions of relationship formation suggested by the above definition: purpose, parties, and programs.
As is widely known, the discipline of marketing grew out of economics, and the growth was motivated by a lack of interest among economists in the details of market behavior and functions of middlemen (Bartels 1976; Sheth, Gardener, and Garrett 1988).
The demise of the distributive theory of marketing began after World War II as marketing focus began to shift from distributive functions to other aspects of marketing. Although Berry (1983) formally introduced the term relationship marketing into the literature, several ideas of relationship marketing emerged much before then.
Cost of dealing with continuous contact is much less than casual contacts; by selling only to regular and consistent customers costs can be reduced by 10-20% (Schwartz 1963). McGarry’s work has not been widely publicized and his relational ideas did not lead to the same flurry of interest caused by Wroe Alderson’s (1965) focus on inter and intra-channel cooperation. Two influential writings in the 60s and 70s provided an impetus to relationship marketing thinking, particularly in the business-to-business context. The Nordic School approach to services marketing was also relationship-oriented from its birth in the 1970s (Gronroos and Gummesson 1985).
As observed by Sheth and Parvatiyar (1995b), relationship marketing has historical antecedents going back into the pre-industrial era.
In recent years however, several factors have contributed to the rapid development and evolution of relationship marketing.
The de-intermediation process and consequent prevalence of relationship marketing is also due to the growth of the service economy. Another force driving the adoption of relationship marketing has been the total quality movement. With the advent of the digital technology and complex products, systems selling approach became common.
Similarly, in the current era of hyper-competition, marketers are forced to be more concerned with customer retention and loyalty (Dick and Basu 1994; Reicheld 1996). Today, many large internationally oriented companies are trying to become global by integrating their worldwide operations.
The formation process of relationship marketing refers to decisions regarding initiation of relationship marketing activities for a firm with respect to a specific group of customers or with respect to an individual customer with whom the company wishes to engage in a cooperative or collaborative relationship.
The overall purpose of relationship marketing is to improve marketing productivity and enhance mutual value for the parties involved in the relationship. Similarly, in the mass-market context, consumers’ expect to fulfill their goals related to efficiencies and effectiveness in their purchase and consumption behavior. Customer partner selection (or parties with whom to engage in cooperative or collaborative relationships) is another important decision in the formation stage. Although partner selection is an important decision in achieving relationship marketing goals, not all companies have a formalized process of selecting customers.
Given the growing concern to retain customers as well as emerging the knowledge about customer retention economics have led many companies to develop continuity marketing programs that are aimed at both retaining customers and increasing their loyalty (Bhattacharya 1998; Payne 1995). One-to-one or individual marketing approach is based on the concept of account-based marketing. The third type of relationship marketing programs is partnering relationships between customers and marketers to serve end user needs. Once relationship marketing program is developed and rolled out, the program as well as the individual relationships must be managed and governed. Whether management and governance responsibilities are independently or jointly undertaken by relational partners, several issues must be addressed. Although communication with customer partners help foster relationship bonds, conscious efforts for creating common bonds will have a more sustaining impact on the relationship. Another important aspect of relationship governance is the process of planning and the degree to which customers need to be involved in the planning process. Executives are sometimes unaware, or they choose to initially ignore the nature of mis-alignment in operating processes between their company and customer partners, leading to problems in relationship marketing implementation. Several human resource decisions are also important in creating the right organization and climate for managing relationship marketing. Finally, proper monitoring processes are needed to safeguard against failure and manage conflicts in relationships. Overall, the governance process helps in maintenance, development, and execution aspects of relationship marketing. Periodic assessment of results in relationship marketing is needed to evaluate if programs are meeting expectations and if they are sustainable in the long run. Another global measure used by firms to monitor relationship marketing performance is the measurement of relationship satisfaction. Individual relationships and relationship marketing programs are likely to undergo evolution as they mature. Wilson (1995) classified relationship marketing research directions into three levels: concept level, model level and process research. At the model level, scholars are interested in presenting integrative ideas to explain how relationships are developed. A more evolutionary approach of integrative models is to look at the process flow of relationship formation and development.
For practitioners, process level research could provide useful guidelines in developing and managing successful relationship marketing programs and activities.
Several areas and sub-disciplines of marketing have been the focus of relationship marketing research in recent years.
Convergence of relationship marketing with some other paradigms in marketing is also taking place.
A number of theoretical perspectives developed in economics, law, and social psychology is being applied in relationship marketing.
The domain of relationship marketing extends into many areas of marketing and strategic decisions.
Adler, Lee (1966), “Symbiotic Marketing,” Harvard Business Review, (November-December), pp.
Alderson, Wroe (1954), “Factors Governing the Development of Marketing Channels,” in Clewett, R. Bartels, Robert (1976), “The History of Marketing Thought,” Second Edition, Columbus, OH: Grid Inc. Biong, Harald and Fred Selnes (1995), “Relational Selling Behavior and Skills in Long-Term Industrial Buyer-Seller Relationships,” International Business Review, 4 (4), pp. Biong, Harald, Atul Parvatiyar, and Kenneth Wathne (1996), “Are Customer Satisfaction Measures Appropriate to Measure Relationship Satisfaction?” in Contemporary Knowledge of Relationship Marketing, Atul Parvatiyar and Jagdish N.
Bitner, Mary Jo (1995), “Building Service Relationships: It’s All About Promises,” Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, (Fall), pp. Christopher Martin (1994), “Logistics and Customer Relationships,” Asia-Australia Marketing Journal, 2 (1), pp. Christopher, Martin, Adrian Payne, and David Ballantyne (1991), Relationship Marketing, Oxford, UK: Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd. Crosby, Lawrence A., Kenneth R Evans, and Deborah Cowles (1990),” Relationship Quality in Services Selling — An Interpersonal Influence Perspective,” Journal of Marketing, 52 (April), pp. El-Ansary, Adel (1997), “Relationship Marketing: A Marketing Channel Context,” Research in Marketing, 13, pp. Ganesan Shankar (1994), “Determination of Long-Term Orientation in Buyer Seller Relationships,” Journal of Marketing, 58 (April), pp.1-19. Gronroos, Christian (1981), “Internal Marketing – An Integral Part of Marketing Theory,” in Marketing of Services, James H. Gronroos, Christian and Evert Gummesson (1985), Service Marketing – A Nordic School Perspective, Research Report, Stockholm, Sweden: Stockholm University. Gummesson, Evert (1987), “The New Marketing- A Developing Long-Term Interactive Relationships,” Long Range Planning, (August), pp. Hallen, Lars, Jan Johanson, and Nazeem Seyed-Mohamed (1991), “Interfirm Adaptation in Business Relationships,” Journal of Marketing, 55 (April), pp. Heide, Jan B., (1994), “Interorganizational Governance in Marketing Channels,” Journal of Marketing, (January), pp. I don’t understand why, but far too many businesses fail to take into account the importance of relationships. I’ve often had friends ask me “How can you get employees to believe they have a say?” I always give the obvious answer, “Give them a say” and mean it by taking concrete action. Like a good friend, great sales professionals continue their customer relationships long after the sale has closed. By adding value to your partner relationships, you will build trust over time, which in turn will convert into repeat sales should the client contact move to another position or potentially another company.
Although VARs take a great deal of the day to day responsibility for the sales of your product, don’t think that means you won’t need a sales department. An effective relationship will benefit client, company, and VAR and position everyone for ongoing success.
Full disclosure: Paragon Software Group is 100% channel centric, utilizing VAR partners for all of its B2B sales.
Wade’s story is not entirely different – he went from coal miner to social media consultant. By his own admission, Wade came to the internet knowing nothing – except that he knew he could make money.
Wade ended up spending so much money on these programs that promised to make him rich that if he hadn’t he might actually have saved the money and become rich.
But worse, he was following the advice – he set up his own landing pages, created his own offers and used the same tactics to part unsuspecting people with their money. In his case, Wade chose to learn and try new things – but most importantly to keep on going – and ultimately make it a success. And that’s not entirely common, especially on the internet where everyone seems to want you to know how wealthy and happy they are. How much you share is up to you – but whatever you choose to put out into the world, do it with honest intent.
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Spending $24 on my book won’t help you learn any more about me than what was in this interview. My adventure online (I could have used a number of other adjectives there but I’ll respectfully refrain from cussing at the moment) started out very similar to yours.
Well I see this conversation did just fine without me Wish I had been getting the actual comment notifications but why should we expect our tools to work….
So you realise that customer relationship marketing will attract customers to you like iron filings to a magnet!
Lots of people have no idea how to successfully grow their online business by customer relationship marketing using email.
If you’re familiar with some of the ninja email tactics pro’s use, there’s no reason why you can’t keep your customers interested in your business through simple customer relationship marketing efforts.
People are very busy and don’t have time to read through more than a couple of paragraphs to figure out what you’re saying. Personalizing your emails means people respond more favourably because you’re using their name – not necessarily in a formal greeting, but in the body of the email. Because in many popular niches of marketing online, email recipients know that emails aren’t typed up to them personally, but are sent out via an autoresponder – so they don’t expect a personal greeting.
If you only ask for a person’s email address and not for their name as well, they’re more likely to give it to you because it means less time and less typing on their part – which makes for good customer relationship marketing skills on your part. Check how your customer relationship marketing email messages look across different email platforms. By doing this, you’ll ensure your emails are standard enough to be compatible with the most popular email readers. Be as thorough as possible when doing this – and be mindful that for Hotmail and AOL users, the ‘junk’ button is right next to the delete button. When the reader ‘junks’ your email, a spam message is regrettably sent to some autoresponder providers – in particular, Aweber. Double opt in means potential customers have to ‘jump through more hoops’ to receive your customer relationship marketing emails – which means many won’t comply, and you won’t have as many people in your database to send emails too! If an email got a good open rate, of say, over 10%, then resend the exact same email to the people who didn’t open the first one. Instead, embed images and information in the body of the email – but in a compelling way which forces the reader to keep reading the entire email. This can provide you many benefits, such as enhancing your website, gaining your customers’ confidence, developing your authority, and building your email base. If you don’t have a subject line that immediately grabs the reader by the eyeballs, it’s unlikely they’ll not bother to read your e-mail at all. Keeping your customers informed through the power of customer relationship marketing is quite simple. World class training, from people whowalk their talk, real people getting results in their marketing, now, and you can click here for proof. Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. Clipping is a handy way to collect and organize the most important slides from a presentation. I will give the First 100 Commenters a Bonus SEO Suite of 5 SEO and Traffic Generation products and techniques to take your business to the next level.
This Suite is everything you need to get your website to rank on the first page of Google and Make 6+ Figures A Year !
Neither am I telling you anything new when I say that that’s the reason why marketers and PR professionals are finding themselves in an increasingly difficult situation. It’s this question and the simplicity of the answer that led me to conduct research on how to use Twitter as a tool for relationship marketing. In fact, it’s used to a point where everyone things they know what they are talking about but only few really do. Most marketing activities were focused on finding as many customers as possible for a product.
Additionally, people no longer accept brand messages passively but instead voice their opinions online, influencing hundreds and thousands along the way. And that’s exactly why companies are required to not only closely monitor messages in the new media space but also respond to them in a timely manner.
The insights gained (click here for some details on stats) allowed me to derive 7 guidelines for any business that’s already using or planning on using Twitter to support their business and ultimately foster their relationship marketing. One of the biggest mistakes companies can make when they first join Twitter is to consider it as a platform to disseminate information. Twitter is no longer only a tool to stay up to date with family and friends but has now evolved to a platform that is mainly used to exchange information. It allows businesses to be in constant dialogue with their existing as well as potential customers in real time and independent of locations. The crowd will hold us accountable to do so, and that’s ultimately a pretty good thing. This is important as it can help the entity to survive and meet the ever changing needs of humans. Marketing scholars are studying the nature and scope of relationship marketing and developing conceptualizations regarding the value of cooperative and collaborative relationship between buyers and sellers as well as the relationship between different marketing actors, including suppliers, competitors, distributors and internal functions in creating and delivering customer value.
The current growth in the field of relationship marketing is somewhat similar to what we experienced in the early stages of the development of the discipline of consumer behavior. In the following section, we discuss what is relationship marketing, examine its various perspectives, and offer a definition of relationship marketing. As Nevin (1995) points out, the term relationship marketing has been used to reflect a variety of themes and perspectives.
Another narrow, yet relevant, viewpoint is to consider relationship marketing only as customer retention in which a variety of after marketing tactics is used for customer bonding or staying in touch after the sale is made (Vavra 1991).


He stresses that attracting new customers should be viewed only as an intermediate step in the marketing process.
Although each one of them is espousing the value of interactions in marketing and its consequent impact on customer relationships, Gronroos (1990) and Gummesson (1987) take a broader perspective and advocate that customer relationships ought to be the focus and dominant paradigm of marketing.
Certainly marketing relationships have existed and have been the topic of discussion for a long time. Relationship marketing describes a specific marketing approach that is a subset or a specific focus of marketing. Although Morgan and Hunt’s definition focuses on the relational aspects of marketing, it is criticized for being too broad and inclusive. That would be consistent with marketing’s customer focus and understanding that made the discipline prominent. A set of generic processes of relationship initiation, relationship maintenance and relationship termination is also identified by Heide (1994). Thus, a process view of relationship marketing currently prevails the literature and indicates that the discipline is in its early stages of development whereby marketing practice and research needs to be directed to the different stages of the relationship marketing process. Such cooperative and collaborative relationships are more than a standard buyer-seller relationship, yet short of a merger or acquisition relationship. We will use these three dimensions to illustrate a process model of relationship marketing. Marketing’s early bias for distribution activities is evident as the first marketing courses (at Michigan and Ohio) were focused on effectively performing the distributive task (Bartels 1976). With the advent of market research, producers, in an attempt to influence end consumers, began to direct and control the distributors regarding product merchandising, sales promotion, pricing, etc.
For example, McGarry (1950, 1951, 1953, and 1958) included six activities in his formal list of marketing functions: contactual function, propaganda function, merchandising function, physical distribution function, pricing function, and termination function.
First, Adler (1966) observed the symbiotic relationships between firms that were not linked by the traditional marketer-intermediary relationships.
This school believes that for effective marketing and delivery of services, companies need to practice “internal marketing” and involve the entire organization in developing relationships with their customers (Gronroos 1981). One perspective of integrating quality, logistics, customer services, and marketing is found in the works of Christopher, Payne, and Ballantyne (1992) and in the works of Crosby, Evans, and Cowles (1987). Much of it was due to direct interaction between producers of agricultural products and their consumers. These include the growing de-intermediation process in many industries due to the advent of sophisticated computer and telecommunication technologies that allow producers to directly interact with end-customers. Since services are typically produced and delivered at the same institution, it minimizes the role of the middlemen. When companies embraced Total Quality Management (TQM) philosophy to improve quality and reduce costs, it became necessary to involve suppliers and customers in implementing the program at all levels of the value chain.
This approach emphasized the integration of parts, supplies, and the sale of services along with the individual capital equipment. As several studies have indicated, retaining customers is less expensive and perhaps a more sustainable competitive advantage than acquiring new ones. Fueled by new technology and growing availability of advanced product features and services, customer expectations are changing almost on a daily basis. To achieve this they are seeking cooperative and collaborative solutions for global operations from their vendors instead of merely engaging in transactional activities with them. Building on that work and anchored to our definition of relationship marketing as a process of engaging in cooperative or collaborative relationship with customers, we develop a four-stage relationship marketing process model. A more detailed model depicting the important components of the process model is shown in figure 2.
Sheth and Parvatiyar (1995a) contend that consumers are motivated to engage in relational behavior because of the psychological and sociological benefits associated with reduction in choice decisions.
Even though a company may serve all customer types, few have the necessary resources and commitment to establish relationship marketing programs for all.
Some follow intuitive judgmental approach of senior managers in selecting customer partners and others partner with those customers who demand so. These take different forms depending on whether they are meant for end-consumers, distributor customers, or business-to-business customers. For consumers in mass markets, these programs usually take the shape of membership and loyalty card programs where consumers are often rewarded for their member and loyalty relationships with the marketers (Raphel 1995; Richards 1995).
Such a program is aimed at meeting and satisfying each customer’s need uniquely and individually (Peppers and Rogers 1995).
In the mass markets, two types of partnering programs are most common: co-branding and affinity partnering (Teagno 1995). For mass-market customers, the degree to which there is symmetry or asymmetry in the primary responsibility of whether the customer or the program sponsoring company will be managing the relationship varies with the size of the market. These include decisions regarding role specification, communication, common bonds, planning process, process alignment, employee motivation and monitoring procedures. It helps in relationship development, fosters trust, and provides the information and knowledge needed to undertake cooperative and collaborative activities of relationship marketing.
In business to business relationships, social bonds are created through interactions, however with mass-market customers frequent face-to-face interactions will be uneconomical. Involving customers in the planning process would ensure their support in plan implementation and achievement of planned goals. Several aspects of the operating processes need to be aligned depending on the nature and scope of the relationship.
Training employees to interact with customers, to work in teams, and manage relationship expectations are important. Such monitoring processes include periodic evaluation of goals and results, initiating changes in relationship structure, design or governance process if needed, creating a system for discussing problems and resolving conflicts. It also helps in strengthening the relationship among relational partners and if the process is satisfactorily implemented it ensures the continuation and enhancement of relationship with customers.
Performance evaluation also helps in making corrective action in terms of relationship governance or in modifying relationship marketing objectives and program features.
In other words, the performance evaluation metrics for each relationship or relationship marketing program should mirror the set of defined objectives for the program. Similar to the measurement of customer satisfaction, which is now widely applied in many companies, relationship satisfaction measurement would help in knowing to what extent relational partners are satisfied with their current cooperative and collaborative relationships.
Yet, there are many collaborative relationships that are terminated because they had planned endings. At the concept level he indicated the need to improve concept definitions and its operationalization.
Several integrative models have recently begun to emerge providing us a richer insight into how relationships work and what impacts relationship marketing decisions. Anderson and Narus (1991) and Dwyer, Schurr and Oh (1987) along with numerous other scholars have contributed towards our understanding of the relationship process model. Some research has now started to appear in the marketing literature on relationship marketing partner selection (Schijns and Schroder 1996; Stump and Heide 1996). Its recent prominence is facilitated by the convergence of several other paradigms of marketing and by corporate initiatives that are developed around the theme of cooperation and collaboration of organizational units and its stakeholders, including customers. Jemison (1989), “Hybrid Arrangements as Strategic Alliances: Theoretical Issues in Organizational Combinations,” Academy of Management Review, (April), pp.
Moriarty (1998), “A Communication-Based Marketing Model for Managing Relationships,” Journal of Marketing, (April), pp.1-13. Mack, and Russ Alan Prince (1995), “The Effect of Interactive Marketing on Commercial Customer Satisfaction in International Financial Markets,” Journal of Business and Industrial Marketing, 10 (2), pp.
Spekman, and Charles O’Neal (1988), “Just-in-Time Exchange Systems and Industrial Marketing,” Journal of Marketing, 52 (October), pp. Gremler, and Mary Jo Bitner (1998), Relational Benefits in Service Industries: The Customer’s Perspective,” Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 26 (Spring), pp. This is especially important when working in a Business to Business (B2B) software sales enironment. These valuable connections will continue to generate new sales through recommendations, upgrades and new projects. Left with no career, no salary and a family to take care of, Wade did what so many displaced people do: gravitated to the internet as a way to make money. They don’t know a thing about marketing or social media but they buy a Dummies book, set up a Buffer account and slap a title on themselves. We’re so caught up in running our businesses that the rest of our lives fall by the wayside. In fact, he has built a pretty good following and lots of relationships based on the fact that he is so open and honest. Sadly, we’ve known people who have touted themselves as successful, with photos of them working from a tropical beach, who have turned out to be frauds. He is all about sharing his mistakes because he believes that good relationships – and good business – are built on transparency.
If you share your mistakes honestly so that you can build better relationships and help people through your experiences, then your intent is genuine.
For only a few dollars (as low as ten cents per click) you can get dozens of pins and repins.
NO offense, Wade, but you’re much more colorful and charismatic a guy than your book cover depicts. But you need some ninja tactics to hone your customer relationship marketing – which is still the most powerful relationship building tool online. And if Aweber receives too many spam complaints from your customer relationship marketing messages, they’ll shut down your account or force you to do double opt in!
See what subject lines intrigued your readers to open your customer relationship marketing emails – and learn from that.
The boost in your response rate from peeling away the top layer will really surprise you, but in a delightful way.
If you follow the proven methods professional marketers use, your customers will be happy to receive email messages from you.
You should also assume that the owner of this website is an affiliate for providers of goods and services mentioned on this website and may be compensated when you purchase from a provider. But as time goes on, the excitement dulls, things aren’t going as they once were, and you begin to wonder if you are doing something wrong. Just leave a comment stating your struggles in life, or with Network Marketing, or your biggest complaint about marketing online. By telling you the topic of the research I’ve given away quite a bit upfront but not to worry, the most interesting part is yet to come.
They use information available to them to actively shape a brand’s message leading companies to increasingly lose control of the information that’s circulating outside the company’s four walls.
It’s a great means to reach a lot of people but it’s important for companies to listen first in order to meet their customer’s needs and plan ahead for any kinds of queries they may need to field. An unfocused and badly thought through approach can result in corporate accounts that do not represent the organization well or even conflict with other communication channels. One of the biggest advantages of Twitter for companies is that it allows businesses to show personality and humanness. Self-promotion is part of every business and individual present on Twitter but the results of the survey confirmed that it’s to be kept to a minimum. The trust consumers have in a business increases significantly through conversations and information exchange. Many scholars with interests in various sub-disciplines of marketing, such as channels, services marketing, business-to-business marketing, advertising, and so forth, are actively engaged in studying and exploring the conceptual foundations of relationship marketing. There is a growing interest in the subject matter and many explorations are underway to finding its conceptual foundations. Subsequently, we trace the paradigmatic shifts in the evolution of marketing theory that have led to the emergence of a relationship marketing school of thought.
Some of these themes offer a narrow functional marketing perspective while others offer a perspective that is broad and somewhat paradigmatic in approach and orientation. A more popular approach with recent application of information technology is to focus on individual or one-to-one relationship with customers that integrates database knowledge with a long-term customer retention and growth strategy (Peppers and Rogers 1993). Developing closer relationship with these customers and turning them into loyal ones are equally important aspects of marketing. For example, Gronroos (1990) states: “Marketing is to establish, maintain, and enhance relationships with customers and other partners, at a profit, so that the objectives of the parties involved are met. Peterson (1995) declared Morgan and Hunt’s definition guilty of an error of commission and states that if their “definition is true, then relationship marketing and marketing are redundant terms and one is unnecessary and should be stricken from the literature because having both only leads to confusion” (p. However, given the rate at which practitioners and scholars are embracing the core beliefs of relationship marketing for directing marketing practice and research, it has the potential to become the dominant paradigm and orientation of marketing.
They include buyer partnerships, supplier partnerships, internal partnerships, and lateral partnerships within the purview of relationship marketing. Other aspects of organizational relationships, such as supplier relationships, internal relationships, and lateral relationships are aspects being directly attended to by such disciplines as purchasing and logistics management, human resources management, and strategic management. His definition claims that the objective of relationship marketing is to establish, develop, and maintain successful relational exchanges.
They are formed between the firm and one or many of its customers, including end-consumers, distributors or channel members, and business-to-business customers. Before we present this process model, let us examine the antecedents to the emergence of relationship marketing theory and practice. Of these, the contactual function falling within the main task of marketing reflected McGarry’s relational orientation and his emphasis on developing cooperation and mutual interdependency among marketing actors. They have contributed significantly to the development of relationship marketing knowledge and have been most forthcoming in applying various theoretical ideas from other disciplines such as economics, law, political science, and sociology. Later, Vardarajan (1986), and Vardarajan and Rajarathnam (1986), examined other manifestations of symbiotic relationships in marketing. Another approach of studying partnering relationships and alliances as forms of relationship marketing are observed in the works of Morgan and Hunt (1994), Heide (1994), and Vardarajan and Cunningham (1995). For example, in many industries such as airlines, banks, insurance, computer program software, or household appliances and even consumables, the de-intermediation process is fast changing the nature of marketing and consequently making relationship marketing more popular.
A greater emotional bond between the service provider and the service user also develops the need for maintaining and enhancing the relationship. This needed close working relationships with customers, suppliers, and other members of the marketing infrastructure. Customers liked the idea of systems integration and sellers were able to sell augmented products and services to customers.
Marketers are realizing that it costs less to retain customers than to compete for new ones (Rosenberg and Czepiel 1984).
Consumers are less willing to make compromises or trade-off in product and service quality. Such customers needs make it imperative for marketers interested in the business of companies who are global to adopt relationship marketing programs, particularly global account management programs (Yip 1996).
By seeking and achieving strategic marketing goals, such as entering a new market, developing new product or technology, serving new or expanded needs of customers, redefining the company’s competitive playing field, etc.
In addition, to their natural inclination of reducing choices, consumers are motivated to seek the rewards and associated benefits offered in relationship marketing programs of companies.
Therefore, in the initial phase, a company has to decide which customer type and specific customers or customer groups will be the focus of their relationship marketing efforts.
Yet other companies have formalized processes of selecting relational partners through extensive research and evaluation along chosen criteria. Table 1 presents various types of relationship marketing programs prevalent among different types of customers. These rewards may range from privileged services to points for upgrades, discounts, and cross-purchased items. What was once a concept only prevalent in business-to-business marketing is now implemented in the mass market and distributor customer contexts. In co-branding, two marketers combine their resources and skills to offer advanced products and services to mass market customers (Marx 1994). However, for programs directed at distributors and business customers the management of the relationship would require the involvement of both parties. Role specification relates to determining the role of partners in fulfilling the relationship marketing tasks as well as the role of specific individuals or teams in managing the relationships and related activities (Heide 1994). Thus marketers should create common bonds through symbolic relationships, endorsements, affinity groups, membership benefits or by creating on-line communities. All customers are not willing to participate in the planning process nor is it possible to involve all of them for relationship marketing programs for the mass market. For example, operating alignment will be needed in order processing, accounting and budgeting processes, information systems, merchandising processes, etc. So is the issue of creating the right motivation through incentives, rewards, and compensation systems towards building stronger relationship bonds and customer commitment. Good monitoring procedures help avoid relationship destabilization and creation of power asymmetries.
Relationship satisfaction for involved parties would include governance process satisfaction in addition to satisfaction from the results achieved in the relationship (Parvatiyar, Biong and Wathne 1998).
Without a proper performance metrics to evaluate relationship marketing efforts, it would be hard to make objective decisions regarding continuation, modification, or termination of relationship marketing programs. However, some global measures of the impact of relationship marketing effort of the company are also possible. Unlike customer satisfaction measures that are applied to measure satisfaction on one side of the dyad, relationship satisfaction measures could be applied on both sides of the dyad. In any case, several decisions have to be made by the partners involved about the evolution of relationship marketing programs. For companies that can chart out their relationship evolution cycle and state the contingencies for making evolutionary decisions, relationship marketing programs would be more systematic.
Concept level research relates to identifying, defining and measuring constructs that are either successful predictors or useful measures of relationship performance.
The IMP Interaction model (Hakansson 1982) was based upon insights obtained on more than 300 industrial marketing relationships.
By looking at the stages of the relationship development process, one could identify which constructs would actively impact the outcome considerations at that stage and which of them would have latent influences (Wilson 1995). Mahajan and Srivastava (1992) recommended the use of conjoint analysis techniques for partner selection decisions in alliance type relationships. Relationship marketing refers to a conceptually narrow phenomenon of marketing; however if the phenomenon of cooperation and collaboration with customers become the dominant paradigm of marketing practice and research, relationship marketing has the potential to emerge as the predominant perspective of marketing.
Narus (1990), “A Model of Distributor Firm and Manufacturer Firm Working Partnerships,” Journal of Marketing, 54 (January), pp.
Gilliland (1997), “The Effects of Output Controls, Process Controls and Flexibility on Export Channel Performance,” Journal of Marketing, 61 (January), pp. Ramsey (1998), “Relational Communication Traits and Their Effect on Adaptiveness and Sales Performance,” Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 26 (Winter), pp. Cannon (1997), “An Examination of the Nature of Trust in Buyer-Seller Relationships,” Journal of Marketing, 61 (April), pp. Kelley (1998), “The Role of Relationship Quality in the Stratification of Vendors as Perceived by Customers,” Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 26 (Spring), pp. Schurr, and Sejo Oh (1987), “Developing Buyer-Seller Relationships,” Journal of Marketing, 51 (April), pp. Laskin (1994), “The Relationship Marketing Process: A Conceptualization and Application,” Industrial Marketing Management, 23 (December), pp.
Smith, (1997), “Delivery Capability and Firm Performance in International Operations,” International Journal of Production Economics, 15 (September), pp.191-204.
Cadotte (1994), “Exchange Interdependence and Interfirm Interaction: Research in a Simulated Channel Setting,” Journal of Marketing Research, 31 (November), pp. Murphy (1993), “Ethical and Legal Foundations of Relational Marketing Exchanges,” Journal of Marketing, (October), pp.
Your primary job in management is developing and maintaining relationships with everyone along your production and delivery system. Whether you’re selling office supplies, commerical real estate, or (as in our case at Paragon Software Group) high value software solutions, the best marketing tool to generate new sales is word-of-mouth. Long-term success is keeping the customer satisfied; it costs much more to make a sale to a new customer than to one with which you have already established a strong relationship. He managed to learn and grow and eventually to build a business on helping people in a completely honest way.
So as he learned something new (like how to set up a YouTube channel or a Facebook profile) he would write about it in a way that other people could follow. But if you share mistakes just to prove you’ve made them, but never took time to reflect on them, it will come across as contrived. I'm a web developer and founder of Rahvalor Interactive, a creative marketing services company based in Holmdel, New Jersey.
I wish him the very best of success with his book and the remainder of his entrepreneurial journey. I am horrible about getting absorbed in Social Media and losing track of any life outside of it. You can send these slides to your personal contacts who might be interested in Business Diagrams.


A one way process becomes a two way process and makes a business more credible, more transparent and to some extent reinforces trust with the consumer.
Results of the survey showed, revealing the person behind the tweets is critical to the success on the platform.
Naturally, information and news about new products or services as well as information about the organization’s doing falls in the category of quality content. Also, companies have the opportunity to receive instant feedback on their business ventures, products and services which is an invaluable asset to any business. In the floodgate of knowledge, such diverse perspectives are required for understanding this growing phenomenon.
We also identify the forces impacting the marketing environment in recent years leading to the rapid development of relationship marketing practices. Thus, Shani and Chalasani (1992) define relationship marketing as “an integrated effort to identify, maintain, and build up a network with individual consumers and to continuously strengthen the network for the mutual benefit of both sides, through interactive, individualized and value-added contacts over a long period of time” (p. Thus, he defined relationship marketing as “attracting, maintaining, and – in multi-service organizations – enhancing customer relationships” (p.
Marketing relationships could take any form, including adversarial relationships, rivalry relationships, affiliation relationships, independent or dependent relationships, etc.
As such, Kotler (1990), Parvatiyar and Sheth (1997), Webster (1992) and others have described the emergence of relationship marketing as a paradigm shift in marketing approach and orientation. Many of these partnerships are construed as being outside the domain of marketing and hence faces the risk of diluting the value and contribution of the marketing discipline in directing relationship marketing practice and research or theory development (Peterson 1995). Therefore, relationship marketing has the greatest potential for becoming a discipline and developing its own theory if it de-limits its domain to the firm-customer aspect of the relationship. Also, a prevailing axiom of relationship marketing is that cooperative and collaborative relationships with customers lead to greater market value creation and that such value will benefit both parties engaged in the relationship. Later the institutional marketing thinkers, because of their grounding in institutional economic theory, viewed the phenomena of value determination as fundamentally linked to exchange (Alderson 1954; Duddy and Revzan 1947). The second impetus was provided by Johan Arndt (1979) who noted the tendency of firms engaged in business-to-business marketing to develop long-lasting relationships with their key customers and their key suppliers rather than focusing on discrete exchanges, and termed this phenomenon “domesticated markets.” The impacts of these works spread across two continents. To a certain degree, recent scholars from the Nordic Schools have tried to integrate the network approach popular among Scandinavian and European schools with service relationship issues (Holmlund 1996).
Databases and direct marketing tools give them the means to individualize their marketing efforts.
Thus, several companies, such as Motorola, IBM, General Motors, Xerox, Ford, Toyota, etc., formed partnering relationships with suppliers and customers to practice TQM.
The popularity of system integration began to extend to consumer packaged goods, as well as services (Shapiro and Posner 1979). On the supply side it pays more to develop closer relationships with a few suppliers than to develop more vendors (Hayes et. In the world of ever changing customer expectations, cooperative and collaborative relationship with customers seem to be the most prudent way to keep track of their changing expectations and appropriately influencing it (Sheth and Sisodia 1995).
Global account management (GAM) is conceptually similar to national account management programs except that they have to be global in scope and thus they are more complex.
Subsequently when the company gains experience and achieve successful results, the scope of relationship marketing activities is expanded to include other customers into the program or engage in additional programs (Shah 1997).
Obviously, marketing practitioners in search of new creative ideas develop many variations and combinations of these programs to build closer and mutually beneficial relationship with their customers. For distributor customers, continuity marketing programs are in the form of continuous replenishment programs ranging anywhere from just-in-time inventory management programs to efficient consumer response initiatives that include electronic order processing and material resource planning (Law and Ooten 1993; Persutti 1992). In the mass market individualized information on customers is now possible at low costs due to the rapid development in information technology and due to the availability of scalable data warehouses and data mining products. For example, Delta Airlines and American Express have co-branded the Sky Miles Credit Card for gains to consumers as well as to the partnering organizations. The degree to which these governance responsibilities are shared or managed independently will depend on the perception of norms of governance processes among relational partners given the nature of their relationship marketing program and the purpose of engaging in the relationship.
Greater the scope of the relationship marketing program and associated tasks, and the more complex is the composition of the relationship management team, the more critical is the role specification decision for the partnering firms. By establishing proper communication channels for sharing information with customers a company can enhance their relationship with them. Whatever be the chosen mode, creating value bonding, reputation bonding and structural bonding are useful processes of institutionalizing relationship with customers (Sheth 1994). However, for managing cooperative and collaborative relationship with large customers, their involvement in the planning process is desirable and sometimes necessary.
Although institutionalizing the relationship is desirable for the long-term benefit of the company, personal relationships are nevertheless formed and have an impact on the institutional relationship. They also help in keeping the relationship marketing program on track by evaluating the proper alignment of goals, results and resources. Developing a performance metrics is always a challenging activity as most firms are inclined to use existing marketing measures to evaluate relationship marketing. Both the customer and the marketing firm have to perform in order to produce the results in a cooperative relationship and hence each party’s relationship satisfaction could be measured (Biong, Parvatiyar and Wathne 1996).
These include decisions regarding the continuation, termination, enhancement, and modifications of the relationship engagement. Several scholars and researchers have recently enriched our literature with relevant relationship marketing concepts and constructs. By identifying the interactions among actors, the IMP model traces the nature and sources of relationship development.
The process model of relationship formation, relationship governance, relationship performance, and relationship evolution described in the previous section is an attempt to add to this stream of knowledge development on relationship marketing. Gundlach and Murphy (1993) provided us a framework on public policy implications of relationship marketing. To that end, here are a few tips to build long-term relationships and improve your credibility and reputation. He persevered and built a reputation as someone who puts other people as the focus of his attention and kindness.
Your wife has a keen, discerning eye for design (plus I’m sure she loves you to pieces and wants you to succeed). I can get focused on promotion, especially if sales are slow, and just forget that anything else matters.
Producers, users, active participants, members of niche communities, and if worse comes to worst, even critics. Companies these days continuously develop the right products for their customers, which is also where the idea of relationship marketing comes in. Showing that a real person represents a company and all its values through the 140 character messages does not only make the businesses more approachable but also serves as the perfect setting in which conversations can be held and relationships can be established. However, it’s important to also share information that is of mutual interest to the company as well as its audience. When done properly, this will help you build good rapport with your clients, and consequently, boost your profits to a good extent. Each exploration offers a perspective that should help in further conceptualization of the discipline of relationship marketing. A typology of relationship marketing programs is presented to provide a parsimonious view of the domain of relationship marketing practices. Other scholars who believe that relationship marketing is distinctly different from prevailing transactional orientation of marketing may contest such an extreme viewpoint. However, relationship marketing is not concerned with all aspects of marketing relationships.
In fact, Sheth, Gardner and Garrett (1988) observe that the emphasis on relationships as opposed to transaction based exchanges is very likely to redefine the domain of marketing. However, to achieve mutually beneficial relationship with customers, the firm may have to cooperate and collaborate with its suppliers, competitors, consociates, and internal divisions.
Creation and enhancement of mutual economic value is thus the purpose of relationship marketing.
Thus the marketing concept evolved and consumer, not distributor, became the focus of marketing attention (Kotler 1972).
It was only after industrial era’s mass production society and the advent of middlemen that there were less frequent interactions between producers and consumers leading to transactions oriented marketing. Other programs such as Just-in-time (JIT) supply and Material-resource planning (MRP) also made the use of interdependent relationships between suppliers and customers (Frazier, Spekman, and O’Neal 1988). At the same time some companies started to insist upon new purchasing approaches such as national contracts and master purchasing agreements, forcing major vendors to develop key account management programs (Shapiro and Moriarty 1980). Managing customer relationships around the world calls for external and internal partnering activities, including partnering across a firm’s worldwide organization.
Similarly, by seeking and achieving operational goals, such as reduction of distribution costs, streamlining order processing and inventory management, reducing the burden of excessive customer acquisition costs, etc. These range from a single criterion such as revenue potential of the customer to multiple criteria including several variables such as customer commitment, resourcefulness, management values, etc. In business-to-business markets these may be in the form of preferred customer programs or in special sourcing arrangements including single sourcing, dual sourcing, and network sourcing, as well as just-in-time sourcing arrangements (Hines 1995; Postula and Little 1992).
By using on-line information and databases on individual customer interactions, marketers aim to fulfill the unique needs of each mass market customer. Affinity partnering program is similar to co-branding except that the marketers do not create a new brand rather use endorsement strategies.
Role specification also helps in clarifying the nature of resources and empowerment needed by individuals or teams charged with the responsibility of managing relationship with customers.
In addition to communicating with customers, it is also essential to establish intra-company communication particularly among all concerned individuals and corporate functions that directly play a role in managing the relationship with a specific customer or customer group. Thus proper training and motivation of employees to professionally handle customer relationships are needed. However, many existing marketing measures, such as market share and total volume of sales may not be appropriate in the context of relationship marketing. By measuring relationship satisfaction, one could estimate the propensity of either party’s inclination to continue or terminate the relationship. These include such constructs as trust, commitment, interdependence, interactions, shared values, power imbalance, adaptation, mutual satisfaction, etc. The IMP model and its research approach have become a tradition for many scholarly research endeavors in Europe over the past 15 years or more. In the context of international marketing, relationship marketing concepts and models are used in the study of global account management programs (Yip and Madsen 1996), export channel cooperation (Bello and Gilliland 1997), and international alliances (Yigang and Tse 1996). As we move forward, we expect to see more integrative approaches to studying relationship marketing, as well as a greater degree of involvement of scholars from almost all sub-disciplines of marketing into it. Once this is clear you’ll ultimately find your policies, goals, and activities aligning themselves according to that principle. He also put himself through school where he received a Masters degree in cognitive psychology.
My primary role is programming and development, and with 25 solid years of marketing experience behind me, I write, consult and develop strategy for our customers.
Or, I will get into my sewing room and not stop for 16 hours, as if all that matters in life is filling up my shop.
You have become more worried about your own feelings and less about your partners feelings. Consumers are taking more control over what information they view and most importantly, when and how they view it. By mostly posting third-party information, links and resources, organizations build credibility among their existing and potential customers and also become more likely to be a go-to source for bloggers and journalists.
As Sheth (1996) observed that for a discipline to emerge, it is necessary to build conceptual foundations and develop theory that will provide purpose and explanation for the phenomenon.
We then describe a process model of relationship marketing to better delineate the challenges of relationship formation, its governance, its performance evaluation, and its evolution. Jackson (1985) applies the individual account concept in industrial markets to define relationship marketing as “marketing oriented toward strong, lasting relationships with individual accounts” (p. The implication of Gronroos’ definition is that customer relationships is the ‘raison de etre’ of the firm and marketing should be devoted to building and enhancing such relationships. The study of such relationships is a valid domain of relationship marketing as long as it is studied in the context of how it enhances or facilitates customer relationships.
And producers, in order to gain control over the channels of distribution, adopted administered vertical marketing systems (McCammon 1965). The production and consumption functions got separated leading to marketing functions being performed by the middlemen. Even consumers are willing to undertake some of the responsibilities of direct ordering, personal merchandising, and product use related services with little help form the producers.
The basic premise of continuity marketing programs is to retain customers and increase loyalty through long-term special services that has a potential to increase mutual value through learning about each other (Shultz 1995). Information on individual customers is utilized to develop frequency marketing, interactive marketing, and aftermarketing programs in order to develop relationship with high yielding customers (File, Mack and Prince 1995; Pruden 1995).
Usually affinity-partnering programs try to take advantage of customer memberships in one group for cross-selling other products and services.
Even when a more relationship marketing oriented measures are selected, it cannot be applied uniformly across all relationship marketing programs particularly when the purpose of each relationship marketing program is different from the other. Such propensity could also be indirectly measured by measuring customer loyalty (Reicheld and Sasser 1990). Amongst them relationship performance and relationship satisfaction (including relationship process satisfaction) are likely to have the greatest impact on the evolution of the relationship marketing programs. The network model (Anderson, Johansson and Hakansson 1994; Iacobucci and Hopkins 1992) uses the social network theory to trace how relationships are developed among multiple actors and how relationship ties are strengthened through networks.
Its appeal is global, as marketing scholars from around the world are interested in the study of the phenomenon, particularly in Europe, Australia, and Asia in addition to North America.
I'm also the CTO of Triberr and I teach web development at Manhattan College in New York City. When in actuality, my health suffers because I forget to eat and take care of myself when I do that.
It’s not about solving individual customer problems but rather about the long-term support of customers in their processes. This is how consumer behavior grew to become a discipline and now enjoys central position in marketing knowledge.
Finally, we examine the domain of current relationship marketing research and the issues it needs to address in the future.
Dwyer, Schurr, and Oh (1987) have characterized such cooperative relationships as being interdependent and long-term orientated rather than being concerned with short-term discrete transactions. These vertical marketing systems, such as franchising and exclusive distribution rights permitted marketers to extend their representation beyond their own corporate limits (Little 1970). And middlemen are in general oriented towards economic aspects of buying since the largest cost is often the cost of goods sold.
The recent success of on-line banking, Charles Schwab and Merryll Lynch’s on-line investment programs, direct selling of books, automobiles, insurance, etc., on the Internet all attest to the growing consumer interest in maintaining direct relationship with marketers. Instead of purchasing a product or service, customers were more interested in buying a relationship with a vendor.
In addition, several marketers are also concerned with keeping customers for life, rather than making a one-time sale (Cannie and Caplin 1991).
Thus, stating objectives and defining the purpose of relationship marketing helps clarify the nature of relationship marketing programs and activities that ought to be performed by the partners. For distributor customers these individual marketing programs take the shape of customer business development. In the case of distributor customers, logistics partnering and cooperative marketing efforts are how partnering programs are implemented. For example, if the purpose of a particular relationship marketing effort is to enhance distribution efficiencies by reducing overall distribution cost, measuring the programs impact on revenue growth and share of customer’s business may not be appropriate. If cooperative and collaborative relationship with customers is treated as an intangible asset of the firm, its economic value-add can be assessed using discounted future cash flow estimates.
When performance is satisfactory, partners would be motivated to continue or enhance their relationship marketing program (Shah 1997; Shamdashani and Sheth 1995). Bagozzi (1995) makes a case for more conceptual models to understand the nature of group influence on relationship marketing. Carol Lynn and I live near the coast in central New Jersey, less than an hour from the place of my birth – the island of Manhattan. In contrary to transactional marketing, that has a raise in market shares as a goal, relationship marketing builds upon long-term relationships to raise customer value. We expect relationship marketing to undergo a similar growth pattern and soon become a discipline into itself. In other business contexts, Doyle and Roth (1992), O’Neal (1989), Paul (1988), and have proposed similar definitions of relationship marketing.
The long-term orientation is often emphasized because it is believed that marketing actors will not engage in opportunistic behavior if they have a long-term orientation and that such relationships will be anchored on mutual gains and cooperation (Ganesan 1994). However, marketing orientation was still transactional as its success was measured in such transactional terms as sales volume and market share. The key (or national) account management program designates account managers and account teams that assess the customer’s needs and then husband the selling company’s resources for the customer’s benefit.
Defining the purpose would also help in identifying suitable relationship partners who have the necessary expectations and capabilities to fulfill mutual goals. For example, Procter and Gamble have established a customer team to analyze and propose ways in which Wal-Mart’s business could be developed. In such partnerships the marketer and the distributor customers cooperate and collaborate to manage inventory and supply logistics and sometimes engage in joint marketing efforts. In this case, the program must be evaluated based on its impact on reducing distribution costs and other metrics that is aligned with those objectives.
In some ways, the value of relationships is similar to the concept of brand equity of the firm and hence many scholars have alluded to the term relationship equity (Bharadwaj 1994; Peterson 1995). When performance does not meet expectations, partners may consider terminating or modifying the relationship.
For the longest time, I felt guilty if I went out and had a night off, like I was wasting time that I could have been spending working. Only in the 80s, marketers began to emphasize customer satisfaction measures to ensure that they were not purely evaluated on the basis of transactional aspects of marketing and that sale was not considered as the culmination of all marketing efforts.
Such programs have led to the foundation of strategic partnering relationship programs within the domain of relationship marketing (Anderson and Narus 1991; Shapiro 1988). It will further help in evaluating relationship marketing performance by comparing results achieved against objectives. Thus, by bringing to bare their domain specific knowledge from across many markets, Procter & Gamble is able to offer expert advice and resources to help build the business of its distributor customer. For business to business customers, partnering programs involving co-design, co-development and co-marketing activities are not uncommon today (Mitchell and Singh 1996; Young, Gilbert and McIntyre 1996). By harmonizing the objectives and performance measures one would expect to see a more goal directed managerial action by those involved in managing the relationship. Although an well-accepted model for measuring relationship equity is not available in the literature as yet, companies are trying to estimate its value particularly for measuring the intangible assets of the firm. I'm also trying to build a flux capacitor, but that's not going as well as the other stuff I do. These objectives could be specified as financial goals, marketing goals, strategic goals, operational goals, and general goals. For example, when companies are acquired, merged, or divested many relationships and relationship marketing programs undergo changes.
Kalwani and Narayandas (1995) examined the impact of long-term relationships among small firms on their financial performance.
In the context of business-to-business markets, individual marketing has been in place for quite sometime. As more and more companies use these processes and other practical aspects such as total quality management, process reengineering, mass customization, electronic data interchange (EDI), value enhancement, activity based costing, cross-functional teams, etc. Known as key account management program, here marketers appoint customer teams to husband the company resources according to individual customer needs.
Often times such programs require extensive resource allocation and joint planning with customers.
Key account programs implemented for multi-location domestic customers usually take the shape of national account management programs, and for customers with global operations it becomes global account management programs. However, not much research is reported on relationship enhancement processes and relationship evolution. Although, studies relating to the development of relationship marketing objectives are still lacking, the conceptual model on customer expectations presented by Sheth and Mittal (1996) could provide the foundation for research in this area. Overall, we expect future research efforts to be directed towards the process aspects of relationship marketing.




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