Average household energy consumption south africa,home remedies for cough in 3 month old,alternative medicine studies online free - For Begninners

admin 04.06.2014

The Government has an ambitious goal of reducing carbon dioxide emissions by 80% by 2050.This will be met in part by ‘decarbonising’ the electricity supply by minimising the use of fossil fuels and in part by ever-greater energy efficiency. We are conscious of, and support, efforts to reduce electricity consumption in our appliances.
Our members’ investment in research and development has greatly reduced appliances’ energy consumption in recent years. Cutting electricity consumption can make a dramatic difference to the cost of using the appliances, especially as the price of electricity has been rising. It is also worth noting that other energy sources are also used to power domestic appliances and the new EU Energy Labelling Regulations for tumble dryers and for ovens will cover gas-powered appliances as well. The Association of Manufacturers of Domestic Appliances - Rapier House, 40-46 Lambs Conduit Street, London WC1N 3NW, United Kingdom.
The graph characterizes the average consumption per households (at normal climate) in relation to the evolution of prices and incomes. Over the period 1990-2008, energy efficiency in the household sector increased by 19%, at an average rate of 1.1% per year (Figure 1). Between 1990 and 2008, the final household energy consumption increased by 13% in the EU-27, at an annual average growth rate of 0.7%.
The unit consumption in useful terms is calulated by multiplying the final consumption for each fuel by the heating efficiency for that fuel. The energy consumption of households is decomposed in different explanatory effects: change in average dwelling size, increasing number of appliances (more electrical appliances) and central heating diffusion, energy efficiency improvement (as measured from ODEX) and change in behaviour related to more confort. Based on the ratio: energy consumption by end uses divided by the number of permanently occupied dwelling. With the increase of the average income per household, the average size of dwellings is increasing. Space heating is the largest component of energy use in virtually all member states, accounting for around 70% of the total energy consumption of households (2008). Heating demand, even corrected for differences in climate and fuel mix, varies significantly among EU-27 countries (Figure 9). What are the main explanatory factors behind CO2 emissions trends in the household sector in Europe?
The graph compares by country the level of CO2 emissions for space heating per m2 for 2 years : 1990 and 2007 (direct and indirect emissions).
In 2007 direct CO2 emissions of the household sector were 17% below their 1990 level in the EU-27, despite an increase in the stock of dwellings and the number of appliances owned. The reliability of total household energy consumption and related CO2 emissions is reliable due to trustworthy statistics underlying it. Therefore, proper insulation and ventilation is the first and most important energy saving measure.
In hot regions, energy use for active cooling (air conditioning) can be minimised or even avoided if the construction is well-thought out. Try to minimise electricity use: its generation needs a lot of energy, mostly heat produced in coal, gas or nuclear plants. Fluorescent tubes are even more efficient than compact fluorescent lamps, and last even longer (10,000-20,000h).
Especially avoid halogen floor lamps, which typically have a power of 300W or more, produce lots of heat and are actually so hot (some 500° Celsius) that they can cause serious burns and start fires. They use two to 10 times less electricity for the same functionality, and are mostly higher quality products that last longer than the less efficient ones.
Remarkably, energy consumption by the most efficient refrigerator models is largely unrelated to their size. These efficient refrigerators are about 5-15 percent more expensive to buy, but will save you loads of money and energy in use. Avoid refrigerators with a built-in frozen food compartment, if you have a separate freezer.
Consider a 'hot fill' model which connects directly to your efficient gas-fired water heater.
If using a clothes dryer, make sure that your washing machine can spin at 1600 or even 1800 rpm. The most efficient washing machines save some 1,500 litres of water per year - a double gain! If line drying is not an option, first make sure that your washing machine can spin at 1600 or even 1800 rpm. There are two clothes-drying technologies that use far less energy: the gas-fired clothes dryer and the dryer with an electric heat pump. Consider a 'hot fill' model which connects directly to your efficientgas fired hot water heater. Enable the power management function on your computer, the screensaver does not save energy.
Use one large power strip for your computer, broadband modem, scanner, printer, monitor, and speakers. A power strip is also the most practical way to switch of VCR, TV and DVD-player stand-by losses (you can cut off all three devices at once). In the 15 countries of the EU in 2000, the total energy lost to standby in households was estimated at 94 billion kWh, or the equivalent of 12 large nuclear or coal power plants. A solar boiler can further halve that figure to1,900 kWh in a moderate climate zone (and even less in sunny regions) - for a total energy savings of about five times what the electric boiler uses. Hot water is the second most important area of energy use in a household, after space heating, and thus needs extra attention.
Using a water-saving shower head, combined with a solar boiler reduces energy needs to some 950 kWh heat (gas or oil), or almost 10 times less than when an electric boiler is used with a traditional shower head! Reducing the carbon footprint from your home’s power use is a theme we will post a lot on in the future.
Using data from the World Energy Council we can compare how much electricity the average electrified household uses in different countries.
There are numerous things that drive these differences, including wealth, physical house size, appliance standards, electricity prices and access to alternative cooking, heating and cooling fuels. By taking residential electricity use and dividing it by population we can look at how much electricity the average person uses at home in each country. Our household electricity use has been 2,000 kWh each of the last few years, which means it is about 700 kWh per person. The heated surface area of the house is 185 m2 and includes a couple of rooms in the cellar. We hope to reduce electric use by 50% in the coming years with a new heat pump (COP for heat of 3.8), solar thermal hot water and radiators, heat pump clothes dryer, more LED lights, and maybe a wood burning insert for non used fireplace.
We heat our home with natural gas…but people forget about the power consumption of the fan to distribute the heat throughout the house. I don’t believe in global warming, If it was true then South India is on the brink of maximum heat, We would have fled to the mountains when the volcano in iceland puked next 100 years of man made green house gasses.


When developed countries have everything that they need their politicians talk about non existing problems and act as if they are resolving it. Though we Indians are amongst the minimum users of electricity, Government still insists on saving electricity. In the UK we might not use as much electricity as say America, but we do seem to use alot of gas for heating during the winter months. So I don’t think Brits can really pat them self on the back, its just fortunate our climate is more mild.
Carbon foot print as it pertains to global warming is a tax scam to squeeze every bit of life out of its people.
We are 2 living in a 2400 sq ft bungalo (includes exposed basement in sq footage) in northern Ontario, Canada. My home is less than 100 square meters and I ALWAYS turn off what I don’t use at the moment.
As such, they are clean and usually very quiet in use – but electricity generation itself is far less clean, producing various pollutants and greenhouse gases especially from the burning of coal, and, to a lesser extent, gas in power stations across the country. After space and water heating, these account for approximately half of the electricity used in UK households. The most dramatic drops have been in the ‘cold appliances’ such as fridges, freezers and fridge-freezers that have fallen by over half in the last 20 years. The Time to Change website demonstrates the savings that can be achieved by replacing an old and inefficient appliance with a new one – so cutting costs and cutting greenhouse gas emissions go hand in hand. The income per households for EU-27 as a whole is the sum of the 27 EU countries based on national Odyssee data. The floor area per dwelling for EU27 is extrapolated from the weighted average floor area of dwellings of 19 countries (9 EU-15 countries and 10 new members) which represent around 85% of the total EU stock of dwellings; the weighting factor is the stock of dwellings. Reduce the amount of energy you useTo reduce energy use, you need to know where it is used in the home.
Part of these improvements occurred in the area of space heating due to better thermal performance of buildings encouraged by mandatory efficiency standards for new buildings, and a larger penetration of high efficiency boilers (e.g.
Over the same period, final household electricity consumption increased faster, at an annual growth rate of 1.9%.
This phenomenon is even more rapid in new member countries where the average dwelling size remains lower than in EU-15 countries (71 m2 on average in EU-12 compared to 92 m2 for EU-15 countries in 2008[1]). The recent penetration of central heating (in the southern European countries and in Ireland)[2] has also contributed to increase the energy consumption in the household sector.
Increased energy efficiency can lead to significant reductions in energy consumption provided that measures are in place to discourage the occurrence of rebound effects. Energy efficiency is the most cost-effective way of reducing energy consumption while maintaining an equivalent level of economic activity.
The evaluation of energy savings in household is carried out at the level of three end uses (heating, water heating and cooking) and five large appliances (refrigerators, freezers, washing machines, dishwashers and TVs).
It should, however, be noted that in moderate and cold climate zones, space heating takes up at least half of the overall energy use.
Compact fluorescents use four times less energy, and last eight times longer (8,000h instead of 1,000h) than incandescent light bulbs. Only use tubes with a modern ballast starter that avoids flickering and lights immediately - good ones add another 20 percent efficiency. Clever use of reflectors, and directional lamps to get the light where you need it can save you another 50 percent energy cost and improve your comfort! To some degree, this can be a positive effect, as it can increase comfort and your well-being.
In the EU, models are labelled A++ for the most efficient, then A+, A, B, C, D for subsequently less efficient models. In the paragraphs below, we provide some indication of the consumption of the most efficient appliances to use as a rough guide when shopping. In general, they are also high quality products that will last longer, will need less repairing and make less noise.
The gas-fired dryer is the best alternative, especially for more intensive use: it uses 60 percent less energy (including the gas) and dries 40 percent faster. That way, gas is used to heat the water instead of electricity, thereby reducing electricity consumption by 50 percent, or even up to 90 percent for the top models. Standby power consumption is mentioned in the product manual and can be checked before buying.
The fast growth of inefficient ICT and multimedia applications could nearly double this in 10 years.
But I guess we used ~1000KWh more than normal due to moving in January, having the doors open for workmen on frequent occasions and a few small teething problems with the heat pumps – both for warm air heating and for the warm water boiler. But there may be little room to do this, short of either installing a wood burning stove (which never pays itself back, even with heat recovery from the heating system) or installing solar thermal water heating (which again, will never pay itself back).
That also means we only have about 8 hours of daylight in the winter (it doesn’t balance out in the summer by having longer evenings). We use Air conditioner only for Bed room 2 to 3 hours at night on Summer months followed by a fan. If children can be trained to live without Air-conditioners and Washing machines (I never saw them till I got a job at age 24), they will be healthier and pay less for energy throughout their life.
It’s just me, so I did an experiment to see how much money I could save on electricity. Indeed the increasing size of dwellings and more electrical appliances (in particular large appliances but also small equipments) contributed to increase the average consumption per dwelling by 0.4% a year each. Central heating, which includes district heating, block heating, individual boiler heating and electric heating, implies that all the rooms are well heated, as opposed to room heating, where generally a stove provides heat to the main room only. It is difficult, for example, to distinguish between households where a central boiler provides both space and water heating or the dwelling uses electricity for heating. Over the period 1990 to 2007, direct CO2 emissions per dwelling in EU-27 decreased by 29% (Figure 11).
The energy consumption for all these countries is aggregated by fuel and end-uses and a share is applied to the total consumption by fuel from Eurostat. Remarkably, a properly insulated house, which only needs a third of the heat to keep you warm, will not be more expensive to build. A US household uses three times more electricity for lighting, and twice as much in refrigerators than in the EU.
For example, a typical 75W incandescent bulb will be replaced by an 18W compact fluorescent. But it can also lead to wasting light, such as leaving lamps on when there is no need to (e.g. Lists of brands and models and where to find them are country-specific and so cannot be listed here, but check the links on this page for more detailed information. Of course, you should always compare energy consumption ratings, pay attention to energy efficiency labels (see above), and look for Greenfreeze technology.


So don't buy a freezer that is larger than you need, especially if you live close to the store. IE: In Canada our power has to travel further and there is some loss as it travels, so more power needs to be produced to counteract this problem. We do not use Airconditioners or heaters as weather is moderate in our region and use natural gas geysers and gas stoves. With smart meters I can see hourly consumption and note that the basal level of energy useage at my house is 500 watts continuously.
I live in Republic of Panama and last month they claim I used 971kWh I find it hard to believe.
There is a large refrigerator in my apartment, but I don’t buy enough food at one time to fill it. Since the year 2005 however, energy consumption per capita in the household sector decreased in almost all countries. For the EU-27 as a whole, new buildings built in 2008 consumed about 40% less energy than buildings built in 1990, because of new building codes[1].
In southern countries, the progression was particularly rapid because of increasing comfort levels (more dwellings well heated in winter and diffusion of air conditioning). It is estimated that the replacement of single room heating by central heating increases the energy required for space heating by about 25 % on average.
The proportion used for space heating depends on factors such as climatic conditions, the level of thermal efficiency of buildings or the level of comfort.
Most other new member states also appear to perform better than the EU-27 for which the average energy efficiency improvement rate was 1% per year over the period.
CO2 emissions for residential and CO2 emissions of public electricity and heat production based on the Annual European Community Greenhouse gas inventory 1990-2007 and inventory report 2009. Electricity related emissions per dwelling (indirect CO2 emissions) corresponding to the emissions in the power sector associated with the electricity consumed in the household sector also decreased but at a slower pace (-17% over the period).
The Plan lists a range of cost-effective measures, proposing priority actions to be initiated immediately, and others to be initiated gradually over the Plan's six-year period. The average energy consumption per m2 per dwelling equivalent to central heating is used to leave out the impact of the diffusion of central heating. For instance, the space heating consumption of gas is calculated as the total consumption of gas as published by Eurostat for the EU-27 multiplied by the share of space heating in the gas consumption in the sample of 16 countries. The extra investments in insulation, ventilation and high-efficiency glazing, can be offset by a smaller and cheaper heating system.
Another 10 percent is lost in electricity lines and transformers before theelectricity even reaches your home. Other countries might have poor infrastructure, or use poor conductors for their powerlines. On summers months March to October (its hot most of the time) temperature can range from 28 to 42 (max). There are new fridges which use a motor fan to remove frost, they consume 1 Kwh per day more. These Provincial governments have historically encouraged home heating and cooling with electricity.
It is winter, so I put the perishables on a ledge outside my window and didn’t run the frig for an entire month.
For large appliances, the improvement in energy efficiency results from technical improvement driven by EU mandatory Directives on labelling and voluntary agreements with equipment manufacturers. This can be explained by the high energy efficiency potentials available in these countries due to outdated infrastructures (e.g.
As a result total CO2 emissions per dwelling (direct + indirect emissions) decreased by 24% in the EU-27 over the period 1990-2007. The effect of (heating) behaviour was estimated by assuming that technical progress cannot be reversed. The space heating consumption for the EU-27 is then calculated as the sum of the consumption for space heating for each fuel. An efficient house will also be healthier and more comfortable to live in - it avoids 'cold radiation' (as from windows), the differences of temperature between heated and non-heated rooms is less, and it can be more efficiently ventilated. As we will explain, there are high efficiency appliances that consume two to 10 times less electricity for an equal functionality, and that are most often also of higher quality. Keep in mind that the cost of wasted standby energy over a model's lifetime can be higher than the cost of buying it! Efficiency improvements in space heating and large electrical appliances reduces the consumption while increasing size of dwellings and increased use of electrical appliances and central heating contribute to increase the consumption and offset part of the energy efficiency benefits. As a result, the share of the most efficient appliances (A, A+) has increased significantly: from 6% in 1997 to 92% in 2008 for refrigerators and from 3% to 95% for washing machine, for example[2].
The share of the electricity consumption for lighting and appliances in the total household consumption has increased by 4 points, from 10% to 14% since 1990, which tends to affect the rise in the overall energy consumption per dwelling[3]. The EU is increasingly dependent on energy imported from Non-EU Member Countries, creating economic, social, political and other risks for the Union.The EU therefore wishes to reduce its dependence and improve its security of supply by promoting other energy sources and cutting demand for energy.
We have gas burners here and gas heating, so I ended up just paying for the electricity used by my computer, lights, and cell phone. CO2 emissions per dwelling were 24% below their 1990 level in 2008, mainly because of CO2 savings resulting from switches to fuel with a lower CO2 content. But the decrease of direct CO2 emissions per dwelling by 28% driven by fuel switch to cleaner fuels (e.g. Consequently, it is putting the accent, above all, on improving energy efficiency and promoting renewable energy sources. Open doors and windows to encourage cross-ventilation.Use fans instead of air conditioners. Differences in direct CO2 emissions for space heating per m2 between countries broadly reflect the level of energy consumption per m2 (see Figure 9) and to a lesser extent differences in the fuel mix for heating. Use energy at off-peak timesEnergy costs less per unit if you use it outside periods of peak demand.
Differences in the carbon intensity of the electricity system explain the differences observed for the indirect emissions. Until 2000, the average energy consumption per dwelling (at normal climate) in the EU-27 was almost stable despite increasing household income and decreasing energy prices (Figure 4).
If they are scaled to the average EU climate, Finland, Latvia and Norway have total emissions per m2 that were more than five times lower than countries such as Greece. Use more energy-efficient appliancesYou may want to consider upgrading to more energy-efficient appliances by purchasing appliances with a high energy rating.



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