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The molecular model uses this idea that all materials are made up of atoms that behave rather like tiny spheres.The molecular theory shows how individual particles interact with one another. In the applet below, you can change the temperature and volume with the sliders on the left side. Inside a liquid, the distribution of kinetic energy of the particles is random and some has higher and some lower kinetic energies. Factors affecting the rate of evaporationThe rate of evaporation increases if the temperature of the liquid is increased. The kinetic energy of a molecule in the gas is related to the temperature of the gas by the equation below. In solids, the particles comprising the solid are held together tightly, therefore their motion is limited to vibrating back and forth in their given positions. Instead of just looking at the sum of all the individual particlesa€™ kinetic energies, you could examine the average kinetic energy of the particles comprising the object, realizing that the actual kinetic energies of individual particles may vary significantly. The Kelvin scale is closely related to the Celsius temperature scale, but where the Celsius scale targets the freezing point of water as 0A° C, the Kelvin scale utilizes its zero at what is known as absolute zero (the point on a Volume vs. Question: What is the average kinetic energy of the molecules in a steak at a temperature of 345 Kelvins? Question:Which graph best represents the relationship between the average kinetic energy (Kavg) of the random motion of the molecules of an ideal gas and its absolute temperature (T)?


Question: While orbiting Earth, the space shuttle has recorded temperatures ranging from 398K to 118K. The Kinetic Theory of Gases relates the temperature of a gas and the average mechanical energies of its individual molecules. To derive this equation, we will be assuming that our container holds a statistically large sample of molecules of an ideal gas [remember NA= 6.02 x 1023] that are moving simultaneously in three dimensions. We can also assume that the majority of their velocities will have non-zero x-, y-, and z-components. But remember, that a particle's average velocity is the vector sum of its three components and that no velocity component is statistically more likely, or more prevalent, than another. It is also increased if:the surface area of the liquid is increasedair is moving over the surface of the liquid. Boyle’s Law states that if the temperature of an ideal gas is held constant, the pressure and volume of a given amount (mass or number of molecules) of an ideal gas are inversely proportional, as pressure increases, the volume occupied by the gas decreases.
Evidence for this comes from Brownian motion where large smoke particles seem to randomly move around, this is because they are being bombarded on all sides by air molecules.
In liquids, the particles can move back and forth across each other, but the object itself has no defined shape. Note that even though two objects can have the same temperature (and therefore the same average kinetic energy), they may have different internal energies.


Temperature graph for a gas where the extended curve would hypothetically reach zero volume), considered a theoretical minimum temperature. Note that the phrase "average" velocity has also been replaced with the expression "root mean square" or rms velocity, vrms. This finding gave rise to Charles’s Law which states that at a constant pressure the volume of a given amount (mass or number of molecules) of an ideal gas increases or decreases in direct proportion with its absolute (thermodynamic) temperature. In gases, the particles move throughout the volume available, interacting with each other and the walls of any container holding them. Since evaporation is a change of phase from liquid to gas, latent heat of vaporization is involved. In all cases, the total thermal energy of the object is the sum total of the kinetic energies of its constituent particles. To convert from Kelvins to degrees Celsius, just add 273.15 to your temperature reading in degrees Celsius.




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