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There is a thermodynamic equilibrium between liquid water and water vapor that depends on temperature. If liquid and gaseous water cannot coexist, there there would never be rain and everything would be extremely dry.
The branch of physics that studies these problems is called "thermodynamics", and it is a very successful theory as it describes most bulk matter behavior and can be used in engineering and other projects reliably. In thermodynamics matter is composed of molecules modeled as classical particles with some collective properties that are defined by measurements.
The variable on the right is an energy of the system variable, enthalpy.When this energy variable is large enough only gas and plasma (atoms separate into ions and electrons) phases can exist, and in even higher values only plasma. The gaseous water would have to have more energy than the liquid, but if it's the same temperature, how would it get that energy? It is seen that the average kinetic energy of the gas is proportional to the temperature, not to the total kinetic energy of the gas ( the integral of the plot). Matter at a given temperature will have an energy distribution as some atoms will be fast , some slow but the average kinetic energy will define the temperature.


Each individual molecule takes a bit of kinetic energy leaving and some other molecule returns it falling back on the surface at the equilibrium of the temperature, and the number of gaseous molecules remains stable for a given temperature. For a given temperature and pressure, it is possible for a certain amount of liquid to be in the vapor phase.
Once the rate at which the molecules escape the water exceeds the rate at which they return even at full atmospheric pressure, the water "boils". Not the answer you're looking for?Browse other questions tagged energy water or ask your own question.
Is it acceptable for a student to ask a professor to be included as a co-author on the professor's paper? Will altering my HOSTS file allow me to access sites that can't be directly accessed via IP? The thermodynamic equilibrium is given by maximizing the TOTAL entropy of the system (for a given amount of total internal energy, total volume and total particle count). Thus the average kinetic energy of the gas molecules is the same as the average kinetic energy of the atoms in the liquid water .
Increasing the temperature increases the number of molecules in the tails of the kinetic energy distribution and more water molecules can escape the liquid surface etc.


At any moment, water molecules from the liquid escape to the vapor; and at the same time some of the vapor molecules go back into the liquid.
Very few water molecules from the liquid have the energy to escape; so if even just a few molecules per second hit the water and "stay", you have equilibrium at low vapor pressure. More molecules can escape - initially exceeding the rate at which molecules return to the liquid phase. This means that we have to maximize S_liquid + S_gas, which determines the total number of molecules that will be in the liquid and the gas phase each. The molecules of water in gas form enter the air because they are at the tail of the kinetic energy distribution of the liquid water, and at the surface can escape the surface tension potential that is defining the surface of the liquid. At lower temperatures the maximum will have most of the molecules in the liquid phase, at high temperature there will be more and more in the gas phase and fewer in the liquid.



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