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Chlamydia, a general curable sexually transmitted infection (STI) caused by tiny bacteria called Chlamydia trachomatis.
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), it is a bacteria-related sexually transmitted disease, which can injure a woman’s reproductive organs. Today, still there arepeople at risk of this infection and really don’t know what it is even if they heard about it. As chlamydia is an asymptomatic infection, it often goes undiagnosed unless it directs to major complications and if it is not treated soon enough, then severe damages can takes place to the ovaries, Fallopian tubes, and uterus, causing infertility. For this, in the past, women were used to test by taking a swab from the cervix with an instrument called a speculum.
But now, with the development of newer tests, it has become easy for you as a woman to carry out a simple procedure at home, either by using a urine sample, or by taking a swab from the lower vagina.
Then, the sample will be placed into a container and sent to a laboratory for testing purpose.
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the recommended treatment for chlamydia is either a single dose of zithromax (azithromycin) 1 gm orally as or a week of doxycycline100 mg orally twice a day. You can also take a week of erythoromycin base 500 mg orally four times a day, or a week of erythoromycin ethylsuccinate 800 mg orally four times a day, or a week of ofloxacin 300 mg orally twice a day as alternative treatments. All the above antibiotics are effective in killing chlamydia and it is very important to be taken as prescribed in order to affect a cure from this disease. If you want to prevent chlamydia or avoid having to seek chlamydia treatment, then certainly the best way is to use a barrier device, such as a condom during your intercourse. So, safe sexual behavior and proper health care can help keep you away from becoming infected or re-infected with chlamydia and also from experiencing its complications. Pelvic inflammatory disease, or PID, is a general term for infection in the upper genital tract (uterus, fallopian tubes and ovaries). Endometritis implies involvement of the lining of the uterus, the endometrium and salpingitis refers to inflammation of the fallopian tubes. The prevalence of PID is underreported, though is estimated at 1 - 3% of sexually active women. The microorganisms invade the columnar cells of the crypts of the cervix and can spread via lymphatics, veins, or may even travel on spermatozoa. PID can be caused by genital mycoplasmas, endogenous vaginal flora, aerobic streptococci, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and STIs, typically Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Cervical swabs - a positive swab for chlamydia or gonorrhoea can support the diagnosis of PID, but negative swabs do not exclude it.
Ultrasound scanning (transvaginal) may show ovarian cysts, thickened, fluid filled fallopian tubes, free fluid in the pelvis. Laproscopy is the best diagnostic test, and is the 'gold standard' but is invasive and not always available. Outpatient regimen: 250mg ceftriaxone IM (one off dose), followed by doxycycline 100mg bd and metronidazole 400mg bd, 14 day course.


Fitz-Hugh-Curtis Syndrome: In 5-15% of women with salpingitis, the infection spreads from the pelvis to the liver capsule, causing perihepatitis. Pregnancy: PID is associated with increased risk of pre-term delivery and increased foetal and maternal morbidity. Tubo-ovarian abscesses - involves both the ovary and the fallopian tube in a chronic abscess.
Hydrosalpinx - results from pyogenic salpingitis and produces large amounts of clear exudate with or without adhesions. Chronic pelvic cellulitis -thickening and fibrosis of the connective tissues of the parametrium, distorting the position of the uterus, immobilising it and leading to deep pelvic ache, dyspareunia and backache. All material provided on this website is provided for informational or educational purposes only. The endometrium is first infected, and from here the infection may spread to the myometrium or to the fallopian tubes, causing acute or subacute salpingitis. Women with moderate or severe clinical findings should be reviewed after 2-3 days to ensure they are improving.
Tubal infertility occurs in 10-12% of women after 1 episode of PID, 20-30% after two episodes and 50-60% after three episodes.
This is thought to be related to the number of episodes and severity and the extent of pelvic adhesions. Asian countries,[18] United States (including Hawaii), Canada ,[19] and Scotland)[20] due to bacterial resistance. Speculum and vaginal examination are necessary to assess adnexal masses, vaginal discharge and tenderness. Women should be admitted if there is diagnostic uncertainty, severe symptoms or signs, or if they fail to respond to oral therapy.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.AbstractThe Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) classically involves a targetoid skin rash and the association of the oral mucosa, genitals, and conjunctivae. All sexual partners within the last 6 months, (or the most recent if more than 6 months ago) should be screened. Recently, there have been several documentations of an incomplete presentation of this syndrome, without the typical rash, usually associated with the mycoplasma pneumoniae infection. Dinulos, “Mycoplasma pneumoniae-induced cutaneous disease,” International Journal of Dermatology, vol.
Sexual partners should be treated for chlamydial infection even if not identified on testing, but treatment for gonorrhoeal infection need only be given if N.
Our case illustrates that this important clinical diagnosis should not be missed due to its atypical presentation.1.
IntroductionMycoplasma pneumoniae (MP) is a common cause of community-acquired pneumonia in young adults [1]. CaseA 29-year-old African American male, with no past medical history, was admitted to our institution with oral and genital ulcers for 3 days.


He admitted cocaine use.Physical examination showed markedly injected conjunctivae bilaterally, with swollen, crusted lips (Figure 1). Taïeb, “Diagnosis, classification, and management of erythema multiforme and Stevens-Johnson syndrome,” Archives of Disease in Childhood, vol. After an incubation period of 1 to 4 weeks, infection typically presents with cough, pharyngitis, and rhinorrhea.
Extrapulmonary manifestations of MP infection are unusual and include SJS, arthritis, hemolytic anemia, and encephalitis [2]. When available, the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a rapid and helpful test, especially when combined with serology [5].Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) is thought to fall within a spectrum of diseases that affect the skin and mucous membranes, including erythema multiforme minor, erythema multiforme major (or SJS), and toxic epidermal necrolysis [6].
Mucosal ulcerations typically occur at 2 or more sites such as oral, ocular, or genitourinary.
Medications are the leading trigger of SJS in adults, whereas infections are the most commonly identified cause in children [2]. Michaels, “Mycoplasma pneumoniae and atypical Stevens-Johnson syndrome: a case series,” Pediatrics, vol.
Multiple retrospective reports showed that MP infection may be the most common infectious agent associated with SJS [2, 7].MP-associated mucositis with the absence of skin lesions is extremely rare and has been reported in children. Many authors now agree that this is a separate entity from SJS, labelled as atypical SJS [3, 8].
As in SJS, the pathogenesis is unclear, although it has long been suggested that immunological mechanisms may play an important role [1]. Making the diagnosis of atypical SJS is clinically challenging, given that a number of other diseases including autoimmune diseases and infections can manifest with mucosal changes. Our case is unique as it occurs in an adult patient.The treatment of SJS is supportive with nutrition, fluids, pain management, and withdrawal of the offending agent when known. Hammerschlag, “Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections,” Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases, vol. Wadowksy, “Rhabdomyolysis associated with infection by Mycoplasma pneumoniae: a case report,” Pediatrics, vol. Foster, “Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis: a review of the literature,” Annals of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology, vol. De Brandt, “Stevens-Johnson syndrome: a diagnostic challenge in the absence of skin lesions,” Pediatric Dermatology, vol. Abele-Horn, “Stevens-Johnson syndrome without skin lesions,” Journal of Medical Microbiology, vol.



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