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Shiatsu is a form of complementary and alternative medicine CAM which primarily developed in Japan . This guide focuses on Palmer Library's books, videos, eBooks, databases and journals pertaining to alternative & complementary therapies.
The purpose of this guide is to provide key resources for the subject of alternative and complementary medicine. While chiropractic is considered a part of CAM, resources in this guide will be focusing on other aspects of alternative medicine. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the developing world consists of “those countries of the world which are poor and not fully industrialized, but are seeking to become more economically and technologically advanced” (1). In 2011, the developing world published over 830,000 scholarly papers, representing just under 40% of the world’s scholarly output. Looking at a historical overview of the developing world’s scholarly publications by region reveals that most of the growth is concentrated in Asia (see Figure 2).
And the developing world’s scholarly output has not only been growing in quantity, but in citability as well, as demonstrated by a historical overview of its five year field weighted relative impact, a measure of citation impact relative to global citation impact.
Figure 3 - Historical overview of developing world five year field weighted relative impact. Looking at a historical overview of the developing world’s five year field weighted relative impact by region reveals that growth in impact is not tied to growth in output (see Figure 4). Figure 4 - Historical overview of developing world five year field weighted relative impact by region. The scholarly output of the developing world has been quite stable in its composition of various subject areas over time (see Figure 5). A comparison of developed versus developing world scholarly output by main field reveals some interesting patterns. Figure 5 - Historical overview of the distribution of the developed and developing worlds’ scholarly output by main field.
Given the vast differences in number of papers published by different regions, the developing world aggregate is skewed by the dominating output from Asia.
Figure 6 - Distribution of developing world 2011 scholarly papers by region and main field. This distribution of 2011 scholarly publications by main field for developed countries in each region again shows similar but more balanced patterns (see Figure 7). In bibliometric terms, the developing world has indeed seen some development over the past few years, both in absolute and relative terms. The developing world appears to be a combination of varied entities with different specifications when it comes to scholarly output, and its recent growth trends for both quantity and impact bode well for its future, although the distribution of future successes may be unequal between different developing countries.
Scientific networks, collaboration and exchange have been discussed in Research Trends before (1, 2, 3). This article describes the co-authorship networks and researchers’ migration trends for three scientifically developing countries. We collected the research output of 17 countries among which 10 are considered “growing” or “developing” countries (noted in italic) and 7 are considered as “established” from different regions in the world (see Table 1). Over 15,000 documents were analyzed in order to track the patterns of co-authorship between Mexico and the 17 selected countries. The collaborative scientific output between Mexico, Brazil, Pakistan and the Unites States focuses on the areas of Agriculture, Biology, Medicine and Social Sciences. The migration of researchers from Mexico to the 17 destination countries studied shows a somewhat different pattern compared to co-authorship (see Figure 2). India’s co-authorship network, as can be seen in Figure 3, is led by Malaysia, Pakistan and Iran followed by Thailand, the United States and Japan. The migration patterns (see Figure 4) from India show Pakistan and Malaysia as leading destinations followed by the United States, which is somewhat different from the co-authorship patterns of India. Turkey’s co-authorship network shows strong ties to Pakistan, Iran and Romania and is in areas of Physics, Chemistry and Engineering. However, the migration from Turkey as depicted in Figure 6 shows a somewhat different pattern. Co-authorship and migration patterns can differ, although both are stimulated by economic and diplomatic factors. There is no doubt that economic growth across sub-Saharan Africa has been stellar in recent years, illustrated by GDP growth expected to be 5.3 per cent in 2014 (1).
One of the most positive signs for Africa has been the recent increase in scientific research being conducted by local African scientists.
Looking at Africa’s outputs overall and as a share of total articles globally, we see clearly that the continent is starting to emerge scientifically onto the world stage. Group A (free access) and B (low cost access) Research4Life-eligible African countries show increasing outputs since about 2002, which coincides with the early rollout of the HINARI program.
One key contributor to increased research access is Research4Life, a public-private, UN-publisher partnership that provides scientists in developing countries with free or low-cost access to articles from leading scientific journals. However, as Richard Gedye, Director of Outreach Programs for the International Association of Scientific, Technical & Medical Publishers (STM), who serves as Research4Life’s key publisher representative, recently pointed out, demonstrating real research output impact is not a straightforward undertaking (4).
The rapid growth of open access also represents a significant contributor to African research output.
While African authors have nearly doubled their article share over the past decade, the returns could be many times greater over the next decade if awareness, usage and research capacity are tackled in a collaborative and integrated manner by African institutions, access programs and publishers.
One of the interesting contributions to science made by countries in regions that are considered “developing”, is what is labeled as “Alternative” or “Complementary” medicine (CAM) which stems from practices carried through thousands of years into modern times.
In this article, we sought to find out the extent to which CAM has penetrated modern practices by means of a bibliometric study that looks at journals, articles and citations of alternative medicine in mainstream medical research.
The diversity and sheer number of journals dedicated to Alternative or Complimentary Medicine (CAM) and the countries from which they originate is an interesting phenomenon. The number of new CAM journals launched in the past few decades tells a lot about the increasing scientific interest in Alternative Medicine. The growth of scientific journals focusing on CAM can be attributed to the direct funding of CAM research received in the 1990s. Based on Ulrich’s Global Serial Directory, English is the leading publication language in CAM journals publications as can be seen in Figure 3. In addition to the trends in growth of journals published in this area, we also examined the citations characteristics of this topic and especially the growth of cited references to CAM journals, the top cited CAM journals and the top citing journals from disciplines other than CAM. In the first step in our analysis we conducted a Scopus search of all CAM journals indexed by Ulrich’s Global Serial Directory. As can be seen in Figure 4, there is an evident and significant growth in the number of cited references to CAM journals and articles through the years.
Finally we examined the top 50 most cited articles in CAM journals and looked at the top journals that cite them. According to the 2009 “National Health Statistics Report” published by the the US Department of Health and Human Services, the American public spent over 33 billion dollars on CAM practitioners and purchases of CAM products, classes, and materials (2).
Figure 1 – A Word map based on the titles and abstracts of 73 selected articles and reviews. Figure 1 shows a Wordle (1) word map generated based on the titles and abstracts of all the articles and reviews in the list.
A review of multilingual scholars’ participation in global academic communities revealed a number of problems that researchers face when trying to publish their work in international, English language journals (2). Other potential obstacles include a lack of connections to key members of the disciplinary community, potential bias towards manuscript submission by non-English speaking authors (see also 5), scarcity of funding to conduct research, and a general focus on ‘local’ research and collaboration with neighboring countries rather than on wider international collaboration (2).
Another study focusing specifically on challenges related to scholarly publishing in sub-Saharan Africa revealed that: “Scholarly publishing in sub-Saharan Africa faces numerous challenges, including technological, socio-political, and economic challenges as well as an environment that does not favor scholarly publishing” (6). The Chinese Herbal Medicine Tien-Hsien Liquid Inhibits Cell Growth and Induces Apoptosis in a Wide Variety of Human Cancer Cells.
In summary, our present study demonstrates that THL can induce apoptosis in a variety of human cancer cell lines but not in normal cells. International Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medicine is an interdisciplinary peer-reviewed Open Access journal, considers articles on interventions and resources that complement or replace conventional therapies. This journal aims to publish hypothesis-driven and evidence-based articles and is committed to publishing scholarly research articles, review articles, mini-review, short communications, case studies, editorial commentary and opinions, book reviews in area the of the Complementary and Alternative Medicine as a whole and encourages rigorous research. The National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) relies on evidence-based reviews to help identify areas for clinical investigation. Standard care is what medical doctors, doctors of osteopathy, and allied health professionals, such as nurses and physical therapists, practice'. For example, has research output from developing countries changed in different subject fields in recent years? There is some controversy around the use of the term (2), as it may be perceived to imply inferiority of a “developing” versus a “developed” country, and also because it assumes a trend towards development along the traditional Western model that may not occur by choice or circumstance. These countries have indeed been developing in both absolute and relative terms, as demonstrated by their increasing share of global scholarly papers (see Figure 1).
For 2011, this is calculated as a ratio of 2007-2011 citations to 2007-2011 scholarly papers, divided by number of 2007-2011 scholarly papers, then normalized to expected impact worldwide, accounting for different citation patterns in different fields. Over half (53.7%) of the papers published in 2011 by authors from developing countries are in the Physical Sciences. Overall, the developed world’s output follows a similar distribution pattern as the developing world, but appears less unequally distributed across main fields. Looking at the distribution of 2011 scholarly publications by main field for developing countries in each region reveals a more diverse picture (see Figure 6).

North America displays the fewest divergences between developing and developed countries amongst regions with enough data for robust results.
Although the developing world is still heavily dominated by the BRIC countries in terms of quantity of scholarly papers published, it achieves higher impact with research published from Africa and the Americas. Gali Halevi Migration and co-authorship networks in Mexico, Turkey and IndiaIn this article, Dr.
The main reason for the continuing interest in these topics has been the premise that these types of exchanges benefit scientific progress in that they foster innovation, and enhance and enable the flow of ideas between scientists in different institutions. Figure 1 shows the countries Mexico collaborates with as well as the strength of the co-authorship network. Brazil, the United States and Portugal are the leading destination countries of Mexican researchers. Collaborative research between India, Malaysia and Iran coincides with the close economic relationships between these countries, especially relating to Oil trade. Both geographic proximity and close economic ties seem to be the drivers of co-authorships and migration.
The strong ties between Turkey and Pakistan could be the result of the diplomatic efforts to strengthen the economic, educational and technological relationships between the two countries through the High Level Strategic Cooperation Council (HLSCC). The leading destination country is the United States, followed by the Netherlands and Iran. Grants, fellowships and joint technological projects on national levels drive scientific collaborations, which in turn result in co-authored papers. Coverage of Africa has increasingly focused on this growth, seeing the encouraging future prospects for many countries and the improved life chances for the younger generation as a result.
From 1996 to 2012, the number of research papers published in scientific journals with at least one African author more than quadrupled (from about 12,500 to over 52,000). Admittedly starting from a relatively low base, this still reflects more than 52,000 research outputs in 2012 featuring at least one African author. They are many: increased funding, significant policy changes within countries, improved research infrastructure, both human and physical, ICT resources, open, free and low cost access to peer reviewed literature, and research capacity building training have all contributed to the positive, upward trend in African research output.
Altogether, more than 35,000 peer-reviewed resources are available to researchers in the developing world and 6,000 institutions from more than 100 developing countries have signed up to use Research4Life programs.
In the November 2010 report on "Growing knowledge: Access to research in east and southern African universities" from the Association of Commonwealth Universities, Jonathan Harle, now INASP’s Senior Programme Manager, Research Access and Availability, clarifies that increased access and bandwidth won’t solve the problem (6). David Tempest, Director of Access Relations at Elsevier, hosted an “Open Access in Africa” workshop in Kenya in April 2013 in cooperation with the African Academy of Sciences to explore the African access experience and how publishers can assist in the process of enhancing access to African research. Since 2001, the four programs — Access to Research in Health (HINARI), Access to Global Online Research in Agriculture (AGORA), Online Access to Research in the Environment (OARE) and Access to Research for Development and Innovation (ARDI) — have grown and developed to the point where they now give researchers at more than 6,000 institutions in over 100 developing-world countries and territories free or low-cost online access to over 35,000 peer-reviewed international scientific journals, books and databases provided by leading scientific publishers. She manages the Elsevier Foundation’s Innovative Libraries in Developing Countries Program which provides additional infrastructure-building, medical library needs assessments, preservation of unique research, and training to boost information literacy and research skills to enable the optimum use of Research4Life. Methods of healing using local herbs and plants or physical and spiritual elements penetrated Western medicine through the years, becoming an integral part of medical procedures in many countries around the world.
The largest growth in the number of journals published on the topic is seen from the 1960s to the 1980s and from the 1990s to the 2000s (see Figure 2). In 1998, for example, the United States congress established the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) at the National Institutes of Health. As such, CAM can be seen as a part of the global scientific discourse, as English is no doubt the most common language published in science.
The purpose of this analysis was to try and establish how this topic evolved in terms of its scientific activity and the manner of exchange between CAM research and other disciplines.
This could indicate a growing research agenda and scientific network around topics and issues related to CAM. Figure 5 shows the top 10 most cited journals in this area which include Evidence Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine and the American Journal of Chinese Medicine as leading journals.
As awareness of nutrition and general well-being as well as a holistic approach to health is gaining more momentum, more and more people seek self-care CAM therapies such as homeopathic products, yoga, and natural products. Daphne van Weijen How to overcome common obstacles to publishing in EnglishFor this issue on Research in Developing countries, Dr. After de-duplication of the output of multiple searches this resulted in a list of 139 articles and reviews.
The larger the font size of the word, the more frequently it occurs in the articles included in this literature review. Specific obstacles raised in this study include the lack of participation in scholarly conferences, brain drain and technological challenges.
If your paper is rejected, use the Editors’ and reviewers’ comments and feedback to further improve the quality of your paper. THL treatment of H1299 cancer cells resulted in activation of caspase-8, -9 and -3, suggesting that THL may induce various apoptotic signals. It primarily collects research papers on integrated medicine, natural medicine, any measure beneficial to treatment interest in order to assess and provide diverse fields of medical research compatible with or different from the analysis. All the privilege of intellectual property is owned by The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine.
No part of this content may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means as per the standard guidelines of fair use. Nevertheless, the term is broadly accepted, and in this article used only to define those countries that may perhaps have historically had fewer resources to devote to research and scholarly communications than others. The output of the developing world grew at 15% Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) from 2002 to 2011, compared to 6% CAGR globally.
The only other developing country with more than 4% of the developing world’s 2011 output is Iran at 4.2%, with a tremendous 33% 2002-2011 CAGR. However the trends for developing countries in these two regions differ: Asia has shown faster growth, so that while Asia’s field weighted relative impact was notably inferior to Europe in 2000, it caught up with Europe in 2010 and outpaced it in 2011. Even if for both worlds, Physical Sciences is the most prolific area, it represents less than half (43.9%) of the developed world’s output.
Developing countries in Europe and Asia show a similar pattern to the aggregate, which they influence heavily due to the large number of papers they publish relative to total developing world scholarly output.
A third of the scholarly output of developed countries in North America is in the Physical Sciences (-5 percentile points compared to developing countries), a quarter in the Life Sciences (-4 percentile points compared to developing countries), 28% in the Health Sciences (+3 percentile points compared to developing countries), and 14% in the Social Sciences (+6 percentile points compared to developing countries). Regional differences also occur in terms of the distribution of content published by main field, with Europe and Asia showing a marked prominence in the Physical Sciences.
Gali Halevi describes the co-authorship networks and researchers’ migration trends for three scientifically developing countries: Mexico, India and Turkey. In addition to the ability to track and sketch scientific collaborations between institutions, the availability of author profiles and their affiliation information in Scopus has also made possible the tracking of scientific migration from country to country. It analyzes scientific migration from each of these three source countries to a set of 17 destination countries from all over the world, including both scientifically developing and big, developed countries, including the USA, China, the UK, Japan and Germany.
In order to trace the movement of researchers from one country to another we used the unique Author ID offered by Scopus as a way to identify individual authors. The thickness of the lines and the numbers indicated on the map demonstrate the most frequently co-authored countries, which are Brazil in the first place, Pakistan in the second place and the USA in the third place. High co-authorship and migration exchange between Mexico and Brazil could be attributed to the fact that both countries are not only the most populated nations in Latin America but also have the largest global emerging economies and are considered to have high regional powers.
The collaborative scientific output between these countries falls in the areas of Physics, Chemistry and Medicine as well as Materials Sciences. The migration to the USA might be the result of specialized programs and funding such as the Indo-US Joint Research Programs that received over 200 billion dollars in grants and fellowships in the past year (4). Among other topics promoted by the council is the “interaction between universities and academic institutions” (5). The high migration to the United States could be attributed to the relatively high number of US National Science Foundation (NSF) funded projects with Turkey. Migration can sometimes display similar patterns, but is also driven by personal factors such as career opportunities. However, to date, there has been little focus on the flourishing academic and scientific success on the continent as countries move beyond agriculture-dominated economies towards a research and knowledge-based future. Clearly, this also has important implications for the entire developing world, given the potential for “South-South” information transfer.
The output of the Research4Life-eligible countries has continued to increase at a greater rate since then (2).
A 2010 Research4life user experience review revealed that more respondents (24%) cite HINARI as a source for life-science and medical research than cite any other source, while more respondents (32%) cite HINARI as the source they use most frequently.
A strong bibliometric analysis, however, remains problematic due to a lack of basic information about registered institutions and other important viable, co-existing access programs such as the International Network for the Availability of Scientific Publications (INASP) and open access. Skills development and awareness of free and low cost access to peer reviewed research need to receive much more attention if research output is to grow substantially. In November 2012, Research4Life partners announced their commitment to the program through 2020. Ylann also chairs the Research4Life partnership’s Communications and Marketing working group.
Gali Halevi investigates the extent to which “Complementary” or “Alternative” medicine (CAM) has penetrated modern practices by means of a bibliometric study that looks at journals, articles and citations of alternative medicine in mainstream medical research. The cited references analyzed here include all publications regardless of their coverage in Scopus.
Although these numbers do not differentiate between cited references appearing in articles in journals focusing on CAM to those appearing in other disciplines, the mere growth of cited references exchange points to the increased activity in this area of research.

However, it must be noted here that PLOS One is an exception as it publishes thousands of articles every year compared to other journals that have more moderate rates of publications. Moreover, Alternative Medicine and complimentary health services are becoming an integral part of mainstream medical practices and are in many countries sponsored by governments’ health systems. The abstracts of all articles in this list were then carefully reviewed, and those that were not deemed relevant for this piece were removed.
Words that stand out include: research, English, publication, journal(s), publishing and language. For example, writing in English is cognitively more demanding for non-native speakers than for native speakers, which can make the process of writing far more time consuming. For example, lack of Internet access makes it very difficult for scholars in the region to submit their work electronically, to access electronic journal content online, or to act as reviewers using electronic submission systems. These data together with our recent finding that THL has strong immunomodulatory effects (Sun el al., 2004) and other previous studies showing that constituent herbs of THL have antioxidant, immunomodulatory, antimutagenic, cytotoxic and cytostatic effects strongly suggest that THL is a promising cancer chemotherapeutic or chemopreventive agent.
Papers on clinical care, health policy formulation and coordination, and case reports favorable to overall medical science is also the focus of recent issues. For the purpose of this analysis, the list of countries used was derived from the International Monetary Fund World Economic Outlook April 2013 (3). To put it in a nutshell, the developing world has grown from about half as impactful as the global average, to more than two thirds as impactful as the global average.
Developing countries in Oceania have the highest field weighted relative impact and reach above world average at 1.01 in 2011, but their output is relatively small with only 334 scholarly papers published in 2011. By contrast, the developing world is not very prolific in the Social Sciences (5.3% of its 2011 scholarly papers). In these regions, the scholarly output of developing countries is heavily geared towards the Physical Sciences (~60%), followed by Life Sciences (~20%) and Health Sciences (16%), with a much lower share for Social Sciences (~5%).
While the output of developed countries in Asia is still predominantly in the Physical Sciences, this represents just under half of their scholarly output (-11 percentile points compared to developing countries). Research migration or mobility, although related to the formation of networks and collaboration, has unique characteristics and far reaching implications that go beyond the development of collaborative scientific activities.
The affiliations associated with an author ID as they appear on their publications are kept and become part of the unique author profile constructed within Scopus. Other countries Mexican researchers frequently collaborate with are India, Portugal and Egypt. In addition, both countries focus on common research issues, especially those related to climate change and the environment.
The purpose of these projects is “to promote inclusion of junior researchers in collaborations to stimulate long-term research partnerships.” (6). Although one can see these patterns through the scientific affiliations of published papers, explaining them can only be done by looking at special agreements and diplomatic developments between countries in the preceding years.
For agricultural research, AGORA similarly tops the list of resources used, with equivalent figures of 27% and 54% respectively (3). INASP is another critical contributor to African research output growth with a focus going far beyond access to support the full cycle of research capacity building across 22 countries.
This funding stimulated researchers to apply for grants and conduct research in this area, the results of which are published in an ever growing number of dedicated scientific journals. Since Scopus displays all references listed in each publication it indexes, whether their source is indexed in the database or not, it is possible to analyze them in a complete manner. Practices that could have been considered esoteric or exotic a couple of decades ago, are now to be found almost everywhere in the world.
In other words, it’s clear, and not surprising, that publishing is a strong theme in these articles. Second, the presence of linguistic errors in a manuscript, or the use of a rhetorical or regional style that does not match the style of the English language research community, can negatively influence the outcome of the peer review process (3), particularly if the research being described is of mediocre rather than outstanding quality. As a result of these, and other potential obstacles: “Very few articles published by scholars from sub-Saharan Africa may become citation classics or even find a place in the list of key papers on the emerging research fronts” (6).
This assertion was also supported by our animal experiments that showed that THL had antitumor activities in mice (data not shown). Whole counting of publications was used, so that each co-authorship equates to an article count.
This increase may be partly due to increased international collaboration between developing and developed countries over the years.
And while Social Sciences (13.6%) is still the least prolific area, it represents more than double the proportion of scholarly output for the developed world than for the developing world. Developing countries in other regions show a more balanced distribution: although Physical Sciences is still the most prolific field for developing countries in North America, Africa, and South America, these papers represent 32-38% of each region’s output, leaving larger shares to Life Sciences (~30%) and Health Sciences (25-29%).
The share of Life Sciences and Social Sciences scholarly papers in this region is similar to those in developing countries at respectively 22% and 6% (2 percentile points higher than developed countries each). In a migration scenario, collaboration is achieved through the physical move of a scientist from one country to another.
In addition, it looks at co-authorship patterns between Mexico, India and Turkey and the 17 selected countries and describes the similarities and differences between these two phenomena. This allows for an analysis of migration as one can identify from which institution and country an author published research articles in the course of his or her scientific career. Turkish migration to the Netherlands has historical roots which date back to 1964 when the Dutch government initiated a “recruitment agreement” with Turkey for the purpose of attracting Turkish workers, mainly low skilled laborers, to migrate to the Netherlands. Language similarity and geographic vicinity are probably some of the factors affecting co-authorships and migration, and though we might not be able to show that through publications since most are published in English, the co-authorship networks could imply that. They provide a range of services including developing deeply discounted consortial arrangements, training librarians in managing digital resources, mentoring researchers in academic literacy and authorship skills and supporting the process of local online journal development and hosting.
As a follow on, Elsevier is supporting the National Research Foundation’s National Postdoctoral Forum, which will take place in Cape Town in early December 2013. Many popular alternative medicine methods originated from China and carried through thousands of years making their way into Western medicine and culture. There is similar funding in Europe, where research funded nationally and by the European Commission is conducted by over 50 different foundations, universities and research centers (1). It is important to note here that this analysis depends on database coverage and might result in different numbers of references if a different database is used. The inclusion of PLOS One in our analysis stems from the fact that it is a mainstream Medical journal and thus fits the criteria of our analysis. These originated from regions and countries that are or were considered ‘developing’ and managed to penetrate and influence science, medicine and human well-being for years to come.
Furthermore, non-native speakers can have difficulties paraphrasing the work of others, which means they run the risk of unintentionally plagiarizing the work of others (4). Developing countries in these regions also show a higher proportion of Social Sciences papers (~8%). However, developed countries in Asia publish proportionally more in the Health Sciences (23%) than developing countries (16%). In addition to its impact on immigration rates, economy and culture, scientific migration has professional implications as well.
The result is an examination of the unique patterns that both these lines of investigation offer and the ways in which each can be used to shed some light on the development of scientific excellence in different areas of the world. Moreover, the fact that the affiliation is tracked per author allows for a comparison between international migration and co-authorship and enables the distinction between the two as separate indicators of mobility and collaboration, respectively.
This agreement lasted for 10 years and created a peak in migration from Turkey to the Netherlands in that period. For migration, however, economic stimuli and opportunities could also be a driving cause, as researchers look to further develop their careers.
The availability of monetary means to support such research has a direct impact on publication growth.
CAM articles cited in PLOS One were mainly in the areas of Agricultural and Biological Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology and general Medicine. Finally, non-native speakers are sometimes less familiar with rhetorical styles favored by the English language research community. The differences are even more blatant for Europe: Physical Sciences account for 38% of scholarly papers (21 fewer percentile points than in developing countries in this region), allowing for higher shares in Life Sciences (24% (+5 percentile points compared to developing countries)), Health Sciences (27% (+11 percentile points compared to developing countries)), and Social Sciences (11% (+5 percentile points compared to developing countries)). Potential outcomes of research migration include: enhanced scientific contributions to the receiving country, the enrichment of its scientific strength, the flow of new ideas and perspectives in different areas of research as well as its potential to develop new products and technologies.
It is interesting, though, to see leading Western countries such as the United States and Canada in North America and the United Kingdom, Germany, and France in Europe taking a leading role in the publication of CAM journals. Other journals citing CAM articles include journals focusing on Chemistry and Pharmacology such as the Journal of Ethnopharmacology and the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry.
This could be interpreted as an indicator of the high penetration rate of alternative medicine in the Western world. In addition, journals focusing on internal medicine, pain management and cardiology are also seen to be citing CAM articles.

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