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WASHINGTON a€” For the fourth consecutive summer, teen employment has stayed anchored around record lows, prompting experts to fear that a generation of youth is likely to be economically stunted with lower earnings and opportunities in years ahead.
The trend is all the more striking given that the overall unemployment rate has steadily dropped, to 7.4 percent in August. Summer is traditionally the peak period of employment for teens as they are off from school and get their first brush with employment and the responsibilities that come with it. The picture these teen employment statistics provide looks even worse when viewed through the complex prism of race. One of the more surprising findings of Suma€™s research is that teens whose parents were wealthy were more likely to have a job than those whose parents had less income. That finding is important because a plethora of research shows that teens who work do better in a wide range of social and economic indicators. The teen employment numbers are calculated from the Current Population Surveys, carried out by the Census Bureau for the Labor Departmenta€™s Bureau of Labor Statistics. Unemployment data is calculated in a different fashion, and while it tells a similar story of hardship for teens, it is not considered by researchers to be as accurate as the employment data because it underestimates the severity of the slow economy. The weak employment numbers sometimes prompt a mistaken narrative that younger workers are just staying in college longer rather than entering the workforce, or are going on to graduate school given the impaired jobs market.
Even before the economic crisis exploded in the summer of 2008, workers ages 16 to 19 made up a declining share of the overall workforce, in part because of a decades-long climb in college enrollment, and in part because universities now place less importance on work and more on life experiences and community service. But most of this decline in youth in the workforce is thought to be the result of the severe economic crisis and its aftermath, with older workers taking the jobs of teens.
It is pretty well established that a tax increase, especially an income tax increase, will have an immediate negative effect on the economy, with a multiplier of between 1 and 3 depending upon whose research you accept.
Last week, I noted at the beginning of the letter that an unintended consequence of Obamacare is a rather dramatic rise in the number of temporary versus full-time jobs.
Fewer than one in four Americans have enough money in their savings account to cover at least six months of expenses, enough to help cushion the blow of a job loss, medical emergency or some other unexpected event, according to the survey of 1,000 adults.
It wasna€™t so long ago that David Hutchinson spent a month sleeping under a bridge while his wife and young daughter spent their nights at a domestic violence shelter.
Based on the list below, we would describe the United States as a service based nation of aging, vain, obese, shallow, financially illiterate boobs with bad skin and muscle aches, who love sports and entertainment, but cana€™t understand each other, and are addicted to their oil based suburban sprawl debt financed lifestyles.
Many occupations with extreme job growth in the past few years owe at least part of their growth to the changing demographics of the United States. An aging population also has driven job growth in many occupations that are not directly related to retirement planning and care. The growing Hispanic population, in conjunction with expanding international trade, are also factors behind the rising number of interpreters and translators, according to the BLS and Kohli. Personal care aides are in extremely high demand as the baby boom generation ages and the number of elderly Americans rises.
The increased number of aging baby boomers approaching retirement and looking to manage their savings and assets has been one of the main drivers behind the growth in personal financial advisor jobs. The number of coaches and scouts rose from less than 100,000 in 2002 to more than 200,000 in 2012. The reason for the growth in massage therapists jobs has been a rise in the number of spas and massage clinics, according to the BLS. As international trade expands and globalization continues, the need for interpreters and translators should continue to rise, according to the BLS. Petroleum engineers are some of the highest paid workers in the nation, with a median wage that exceeded $130,000 in 2012. No occupation has grown faster than service unit operators working in natural resources extraction, where the number of workers jumped from just over 12,000 in 2002 to more than 57,000 in 2012. Fifty years later, in 1950, the leading ten cities had doubled in size, and Shanghai, Buenos Aires, and Calcutta had joined the list. The oldest surviving corporations, Stora Enso in Sweden and the Sumitomo Group in Japan, are about 700 and 400 years old, respectively.
I suspect that one cause of their durability is that cities are the most constantly changing of organizations. The reversal of opinion about fast-growing citiesa€”from bad news to good newsa€”began with The Challenge of Slums, a 2003 UN-HABITAT report.
In 2007 the United Nations Population Fund gave that yeara€™s report the upbeat title Unleashing the Potential of Urban Growth. If cities are concentrators of efficiency and innovation, an article about the scaling paper in Conservation magazine surmised, then, a€?the secret to creating a more environmentally sustainable society is making our cities bigger. In Peter Ackroyda€™s London: The Biography (2000), he quotes William Blakea€”a€?Without Contraries is no progressiona€?a€”and ventures that Blake came to that view from his immersion in London.
The common theory of the origin of cities states that they resulted from the invention of agriculture: Surplus food freed people to become specialists. Agriculture, it appears, was an early invention by the dwellers of walled towns to allow their settlements to keep growing, as in Geoffrey Westa€™s formulation. A study in Panama showed what happened when people abandoned slash-and-burn agriculture to move to town: a€?With people gone, secondary forest has regenerated. Though the squatters join forces for what the UN researchers describe as a€?cultural movements and levels of solidarity unknown in leafy suburbs,a€? they are seldom politically active beyond defending their own community interests.
A depiction of contemporary slum reality even more vivid than Neuwirtha€™s is an autobiographical novel by an escaped Australian prisoner who went into hiding in Mumbaia€™s slums, joined its organized crime world, and fell in love with the city. Social cohesiveness is the crucial factor differentiating a€?slums of hopea€? from a€?slums of despair.a€? This is where CBOs (community-based organizations) and the NGOs (national and global nongovernmental organizations) shine.
For the first time in her life she had got rid of her husband, her in-laws, her village and their burdens.
Shimu prefers living in Dhaka because a€?it is safer, and here I can earn a living, live and think my own way,a€? she says. The magic ingredient of squatter cities is that they are improved steadily and gradually, increment by increment, by the people living there.
According to urban researchers, squatters are now the predominant builders of cities in the world. A reporter from the Economist who visited Mumbai wrote that a€?Dharavi, which is allegedly Asiaa€™s biggest slum, is vibrantly and triumphantly alive. The screen-printer who provides laundry bags to hotels, the charcoal burner who wheels his cycle up to the copper smelter and delivers sacks of charcoala€¦ , the home-based crA?che to which the managing director delivers her child each morning, the informal builder who adds a security wall around the home of the government minister, all indicate the complex networks of linkages between informal and formal. In many cities, the roughest slums are pressed right up against the most affluent neighborhoods. This book was finished before the full effects of the world financial crisis of 2009 could be studied.
Corporations are right to pay attention to what is now referred to as the BOPa€”bottom of the pyramid. It doesna€™t matter whether you give people title deeds or secure tenure, people simply need to know they wona€™t be evicted.
For the first time in her life she had got rid of her husband, her in-laws, her village and their burdens.A  A few months after she arrived, Shimu, now able to support her children, mustered the courage to return to her town and file for divorce. That bond back to the village appears to be universal.A  The Challenge of Slums observes that a€?Kenyan urban folk who have lived in downtown Nairobi all of their lives, if asked where they come from, will say from Nyeri or Kiambu or Eldoret, even if they have never been to these places.
Connect with God (Divine Intelligence) - You may have heard the statement a€?Let go and let Goda€? but that ita€™s not easy unless you know God and have faith that it is safe to let go and allow the energy of the Universe to guide you. Most commonly known as freeze-drying, lyophilization is a dehydration process used to preserve a perishable or biological material. The lyophilization process is slow and can take days depending upon the samples and the freeze-drying conditions. The most common accessories that provide heat to samples when freeze-drying are heated product shelves. Many end users do not realize that when freeze-drying with flasks and manifolds, heat still enters the samples.
The longest freeze dry runs will occur when the sample is placed on unheated product shelves within a chamber or placed inside the freeze dryer’s condenser.
During the primary drying phase (first phase) of freezing-drying heat can be added to your sample to sublimate the water out of the sample. If you do not know the eutectic temperature, it is best to add heat slowly and observe the sample as you gradually add more heat to each subsequent run until you determine the maximum amount of heat that can be added safely to the sample. It is difficult to control the heat that is transferred to the sample when lyophilizing in flasks on a manifold. Putting a flask inside another larger flask with an air gap in between the two flasks is another way to provide insulation to limit the amount of heat that is transferred to the sample.
How a sample is frozen will not only affect the quality of the final freeze dried sample, it will also affect the length of the lyophilization process. Spreading the sample out to increase the surface area as well as forming a thin layer of ice will speed the sublimation process.
If a shell freezer is not available, it is recommended to slant freeze samples in flasks to increase surface area as much as possible. At vacuum levels lower than .200 mbar, there are not enough molecules present in the system for good heat transfer.
After all of the free water molecules are sublimated in primary drying, secondary drying begins.
New end point detection accessories are available on some models of freeze dryers to determine the end of the sublimation process for samples in flasks. By better understanding the lyophilization process and employing these suggestions, hours or even days can be saved when freeze-drying.
It’s true that the SteamScrubber and FlaskScrubber are each loaded with great features and high quality construction. The SteamScrubber operates much like a home dishwasher – water is pumped through a spray arm on the bottom of each rack and from a third spray arm mounted to the top of the washer. Thus, the SteamScrubber is best suited to wash standard laboratory equipment such as beakers, utensils, pans and other normal-shaped items found in the laboratory. The FlaskScrubber moves water through individual spindles, allowing for water to spray directly into narrow neck glassware. Additionally, the FlaskScrubber also utilizes the rack mounted and roof mounted spray arms found in the SteamScrubber washer.
You can take advantage of the FlaskScrubber’s injection cleaning while simultaneously washing regular glassware items. Please log on to our NEW Glassware Washer Configurator Tool to design your own SteamScrubber or FlaskScrubber for your laboratory.
During the development of the Protector Echo Filtered Fume Hood, the design engineers decided to challenge the Echo with not one, but four different third-party containment tests. Why? It’s simple, really - to ensure containment was going to live up to the Labconco standard.
Instead, it is a filtering fume hood that will filter out the contaminated air and exhaust the clean air into the laboratory, making it very energy efficient. It was designed with superior containment in mind, using all of Labconco’s highly engineered high performance fume hood features.
All of the features that make Labconco’s ducted fume hoods effective provide the same protection on the Protector Echo.
During independent testing*, the Protector Echo Hood was challenged well beyond the SEFA-1† standards. The Echo was subjected to both the standard ASHRAE 110 test using Sulfur Hexafluoride (SF6) tracer gas test while attached to a canopy, as well as the modified ASHRAE 110 test with no canopy connection, using Isopropyl Alcohol (IPA) to replace the SF6.
And to go above and beyond, the NIH protocol was used – which means that during the test with a canopy, the SF6 release rate was increased to six liters versus four liters per minute in the standard ASHRAE 110 test, the hood was filled with paint cans and boxes and rapid walk-bys were incorporated. In all scenarios, the Protector Echo allowed 0.00 ppm average level of tracer gas outside the fume hood. This allows us to conclude that for those customers who cannot duct out of their building, or for those who want to save on energy costs and use filtered fume hoods in lieu of or alongside ducted fume hoods, this enclosure will present a safe alternative. A new 2-step method for extracting lipstick gives investigators and scientists an easier and more efficient way to process samples using gas chromatography (GC). They began with an established method of lipstick sample extraction, but then eliminated unnecessary steps and improved upon the rest. By narrowing the results by type and manufacturer, criminals can be linked to a crime scene by the simple presence of the cosmetic.
This funding will largely be focused through the coffers of the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta. Research on new vaccines and novel approaches to solving this hazard through elimination of disease vectors and disease mechanisms are already underway at the CDC. Researchers fear Zika causes microcephaly, a serious birth defect in which a baby's head is too small, as well as other threats to the children of pregnant women infected with it. President Barack Obama has asked for about $1.9 billion in emergency money to fight Zika but the request has stalled in the GOP-controlled Congress. Safety in the workplace is important regardless where you clock in every day, but it's especially important to master when your professional environment regularly contains hazardous particulates, harmful chemical vapors or radionuclides. Even basic microbiological work has some associated risks, as oftentimes it is not only necessary to protect the person sitting at the face of the cabinet but the science taking place inside on the work surface.
That just scratches the surface, so we decided to dig a little deeper and get the input of an outside industry expert to talk about the true meaning of creating a culture of safety for biosafety in laboratories and how that relates to leadership.
He has testified in front of Congress about infectious diseases and, in 2014, prepared the clinical staff at Emory Healthcare to respond to the first cases of Ebola on American soil. What type of connection does your science require—are we talking recirculated A2 or thimble connected A2?
From a big picture perspective, we look to make sure the cabinet is certified, it is functioning properly and it passes a smoke test. The risk assessment list goes on and on, but having effective, tested and validated SOPs is critical throughout the life of the cabinet.
These technicians are dealing with long hours at the bench, and you have to consider posture, arm position and a number of other behaviors that can affect how safe the work actually is. Adequate preparedness is critical in the workforce, and that's a leadership responsibility. Q: Can you explain in greater depth the role of ideal leadership in the laboratory and how that relates to safety? Guidelines and policies bring us together, but being together and doing together are very different things. Sean Kaufman spoke before Congress on safety in the laboratory as it pertains to the anthrax incident of June 2014 at the Center for Disease Control. For more of what Sean has to say about the importance of biosafety cabinet ergonomics, energy savings and efficiency access his latest webinar. And though we've known this for years, it's still hard to understand that the Universe is still expanding! When it comes to selecting a vacuum pump there are a number of options for choosing the best pump for your application.
There are four main types commonly used in laboratories for freeze drying (lyophilization), evaporation and concentration. Traditional Rotary Vane (RV) Vacuum Pumps are often used because they can have a lower up-front cost, are smaller than other types, and can be used with multiple applications. Any solvents that are not trapped or recovered before they enter the RV vacuum pump can condense in the pump oil and damage the inside of the pump. Rotary Vane vacuum pumps reach deep ultimate vacuum levels and have high displacement capacity. Diaphragm Vacuum Pumps are dry pumps that operate using a pulsing motion that opens and closes valves to move air. While they can have a higher up-front cost, they do not use any oil so operation and maintenance costs are significantly lower than pumps that require oil.
Ultimate vacuum levels of these pumps are not extremely deep and displacement capacities are much lower than other types of vacuum pumps. Combination Vacuum Pumps, also known as Hybrid Vacuum Pumps, have both a Rotary Vane and Diaphragm pump together in the same vacuum pump.
So while there may be a higher up-front cost than an RV pump, the operation costs are lowered as less replacement oil is needed and less time is lost changing the oil. Combination pumps are recommended for freeze drying corrosive or volatile samples as they can be used with acidic samples and those containing harsh chemicals such as TFA, acetonitrile, HBe and Nitric acid. Scroll Vacuum Pumps are dry pumps that use two spiral scrolls to compress air and vapors and move them toward the exhaust.
Because the scrolls are made of metal, even on chemical- or corrosion-resistant models, only samples with acids below 20% are recommended.
Scroll pumps are recommended for freeze drying as they can be used with aqueous and solvent samples including acetonitrile. No matter what type of pump you’re using, one of the most important things to remember about vacuum pumps is that whatever goes in the pump will come out! Labconco offers multiple vacuum pump options and many vacuum pump accessories including the new Scroll Pumps.
A Type B2 BSC experiencing a remote exhaust failure can pressurize the work zone, pushing contaminated air into the laboratory. An A2 can be ducted to handle odors and non-hazardous chemistry and it is easily adapted to exhaust systems. Type A and Type B BSCs cannot be retrofitted, altered or otherwise made into the other type of cabinet. This information is provided to educate and inform life science and biosafety laboratories about their new options in selecting Class II BSCs for varying applications and operations. The Active Protection Protocol engages only in emergency building exhaust system failures and provides safety to the BSC operator while they complete their emergency shut down procedures. During a remote exhaust failure, Type B BSC must detect an exhaust remote failure within 15 seconds. During a remote exhaust failure the Axiom can protect an operator for up to 5 minutes while they complete shutdown procedures and secure their laboratory assets. MISINFORMATION: In regard to ventilation, laboratory building requirements today cannot be easily altered. TRUTH: Scientific laboratories and their mechanical systems are specifically designed to handle changes in laboratory airflow volumes and pressures. FABRICATION: In laboratory design, the ventilation requirements for both supply and exhaust are calculated for pressure, air change rates and removal of heat load.
TRUTH: The balance of a scientific laboratory is based on pressure, air change rates and removal of heat load in accordance with ASHRAE requirements. Even simple VAV systems can automatically adjust for this change based on programmable pressures, and even simpler versions are controlled using a PC interface program.
Moreover, it allows facility and laboratory management to maximize the usefulness of their existing laboratory space, eliminating the need to operate both Type A and B BSCs for varying or alternating uses. The Axiom can be tied into almost any existing appropriate building exhaust system (with sufficient CFM reserve).


MYTH: The inlet relief valve opens in the event that the building exhaust system pulls too much air through the BSC. Air is not pulled through a Type C1 by the exhaust system, conversely the exhaust system on a Type B BSC is required to pull air through the BSC. BENEFITS: Acting like a shock absorber, the inlet relief valve is an adaptive technology that balances and maintains negative pressure by allowing a small volume of room air to bleed into the transition plenum. The inlet relief valve is part of the system that allows the Axiom to operate in either an A-mode or B-mode and makes it flexible enough to work on most building exhaust systems with sufficient CFM capacity in reserve.
TRUTH: During building exhaust failures, both Class II Type A and Type C BSCs positively pressurize ductwork.
A Type C BSC, such as the Axiom, prevents this positive pressurization from lasting longer than 300 seconds (or 5 minutes); limiting exposure to hazardous chemical vapors. BENEFITS: Existing Standards and equipment manufacturers all agree, positively pressurizing chemically contaminated ductwork under normal operation is not recommended. The Active Protection Protocol that positively pressurizes duct work is an emergency response mode – not an operational mode. If a facility wishes to not have their ductwork positively pressurized, then the program can be set to operate for zero seconds. MYTH: Cleanability at the grille, work surface and sump under the work surface is negatively impacted with the additional plenum in comparison to traditional BSCs with one large work surface and no obstacles underneath. BENEFITS: The plenum under the Chem-Zone can easily be removed for cleaning by using the lift knob.
Yes, the Axiom uses paired internal exhaust and supply blowers to provide proper inflow, down flow and positively pressurized exhaust that is similar to a Class II Type A2; therefore, it can be used as a room recirculating BSC. FABRICATION: Since the Axiom has an internal exhaust motor blower, there is risk of fire or explosion when using vapor forming volatile chemistry inside the BSC. The Type B cabinets that are suggested to be safer for use with volatile chemical vapors have electrical outlets on the BSC interior, at the source of evaporation, where air is moving at a much slower rate.
During a remote exhaust failure, Type B BSCs must detect an exhaust remote failure within 15 seconds. TRUTH: With all applications handling hazardous materials a risk assessment must be completed. BENEFITS: Before the Axiom, selecting Biosafety Cabinets followed this risk assessment process of determining the difference between hazardous chemicals and hazardous chemistry. If a laboratory is using chemistry of any reasonable level with its microbiology now or in the future, the C1 should be selected. FABRICATION: The unique recessed area in the center may restrict the use of equipment and other procedures commonly done in a BSC that require a flat work surface. BENEFITS: Besides simply containing spills, the Chem-Zone, as demonstrated by Biological Safety Officers at ABSA, provides visual cues for organizing and maintaining the interior work zone of a Class II BSC. Additionally, following the practices of human factors design (ergonomics), the Chem-Zone is optimally calculated to provide sufficient working space, keeping non-essential equipment out of the way. Tuberculosis (TB) is a highly contagious respiratory infection disease caused by the bacterial complex tubercle bacilli. New therapies and diagnostics will go a long way to reduce the number of TB related deaths by 95% and new TB cases by 90% – all by the year 2035. What makes these therapies unique and important is that after 60 years of targeting the bacteria that kills TB, these treatments open a new door in the fight against infection. Labs, too, can do their part by ensuring the containment and safety of professionals handling TB. Thus far, the main tools for treating cancer have been relatively crude: chemotherapy, radiation and surgery. One organization has recently introduced immunotherapy, which is over 90% effective and uses the patient’s own immune system to target and eliminate cancer. After many years of research, the greatest discovery offers hope for saving more lives struck by the disease. Read the entire article, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center is the launchpad of new cures by Gary Gilliland - and watch the video below for a clearer picture of the process. US EPA Method 550.1 requires an evaporation or concentration step when extracting polyaromatic hydrocarbons from liquid.
GreenFumeHood Technology is unique because it adds elements of safety, energy savings and versatility to lab environments. The fact that the resulting fume hoods are far and away superior to other kinds of chemical fume filtering systems raises many questions. A: Carbon has been used for personal protection over 100 years now (think gas masks in WWI).
All of us enjoy the individual and environmental benefits of carbon-based filtration every day, in the form of drinking water treatment, wastewater treatment, air purification and chemical purification.
A: Instead of getting our carbon ready for a specific molecule like other manufacturers, Erlab decided to flip the equation and get the various molecules ready for our carbon.
A: The entire filtration technology package including the breakthrough detection and communication systems and, of course, the fume hood structure underneath it all. The detectors do not provide a ppm or ppb reading to the user and they do not require frequent recalibration or replacement.
If chemicals do break through the primary filter, an identical secondary Neutrodine filter captures them. Think of it this way: similar to electrical current, air will flow along the path of least resistance. For comparison, consider if you were to stack two (or even 15) inferior carbon filters on top of each other and that each filter has preferential passages for the air to flow without chemical removal, then the user would not be safe for long, if at all, because the chemicals would quickly break through all of the filters. A: Carbon Shifting (or settling) occurs when the filter frame is not properly designed or sufficiently filled.
Carbon channeling is similar, as it, too, allows a preferential path for air to flow untreated.
As you can likely imagine, there will be many areas where there is very little carbon for the air to flow through and other areas with lots of carbon. The carbon we use, its activation, the multiple layers of transformative technology and the filter frame design allow the most efficient and complete use of the carbon’s capacity. Compare that to a filtered fume hood, where the cost of replacing the four primary filters in a 6-foot hood is roughly $4,000 to the owner, including labor. Get more information on the Protector Echo or Protector Airo Filtered Fume Hoods with GFH technology. A new report from the United Nations states that pollinators worldwide are nearing extinction, which doesn’t bode well for our food supply.
For many laboratories, managing air quality through engineered controls is essential for worker safety and comfort.
And employers in recent months have been collectively adding almost 200,000 new jobs a month. Falling teen employment, however, is just as striking in the 12-month numbers over the past decade. Sum and colleagues did just that, comparing June and July 2000 and the same two months of 2013.
The plunging teen employment rate is likely to mean trouble for this generation of young workers of all races.
This survey of households is used in determining estimates for the size of the civilian workforce, the number of employed nationally and the unemployment rate.
Labor force participation is as low as ita€™s ever been,a€? said Keith Hall, who served as commissioner of the Bureau of Labor Statistics from 2008 to 2012. Because of the so-called Great Recession and the sluggish growth thata€™s followed, middle-age and older workers are not moving up the career ladder. As far as I am aware, no peer-reviewed study exists that concludes there will be no negative effects.
This trend results from employers having to pay for the health insurance of employees who work more than 29 hours a week.
The survey includes part-time workers who want full-time work but can't get it, as well as those who want to work but have stopped looking. Charles Gave wrote a withering indictment of quantitative easing this week (which we will look at in a few pages) and included the following chart, which caught my eye. There are no decent jobs for young workers, more children are living in poverty, and more workers are living paycheck to paycheck. Increasingly disconnected from institutions of work, family and community, they grow up by learning that counting on others will only hurt them in the end. Meanwhile, 50% of those surveyed have less than a three-month cushion and 27% had no savings at all. But despite past decadea€™s painful recession and the slow job growth that has followed, several occupations have more than doubled the number of workers employed. According to BLS Chief Regional Economist Martin Kohli, a€?The aging of the population is one of the factors that is driving the demand for massage therapists.a€? An aging population a€?is also a factor in the demand for coaches,a€? Kohli said.
For both petroleum engineers and service unit operators in the resource industry, the nationa€™s two fastest-growing jobs, growth likely is due largely to changes in the energy sector. But while the total number of such aides doubled between 2002 and 2012, with nearly a million working in the field as of 2012, it remains a high turnover job because of the typically low pay and the high emotional toll.
Another key driver has been the rise in private sector retirement planning as a result of pension shortfalls. Several factors have driven job growth of coaches and scouts, and the same factors are expected to continue to drive further growth. The number of workers employed as human resources specialist rose by more than 225,000 between 2002 and 2012. The Bureau also cites an increase in the nationa€™s elderly population as contributing to demand for massage therapists.
Already, the number of employed translators has jumped from less than 20,000 in 2002 to more than 50,000 in 2012.
Their work typically involves assessing and planning drilling operations, as well as determining the equipment and methods necessary to extract oil and natural gas in the most efficient way possible. Workers in these fields typically are responsible for overseeing and maintaining wells and other technology used in extracting natural resources. Countries that are highly urbanized have higher incomes, more stable economies, stronger institutions. Here are some tools you can use to shift your energy and bring about the changes you desire. Picture This - Get a picture of yourself as a young child and place it where you see it every day. Love Yourself and Leave the Past Behind a€“ Take a moment to make a list of the things that you regret from the past. Create Your Dreams While You Sleep - Did you know that every night when you are falling to sleep you are programming your life? The product shelves of most Tray Dryers are microprocessor controlled, and the shelf temperatures are automatically changed according to a program that has been set and stored. It is very difficult to transfer heat through an air gap and even more difficult when the air gap is under vacuum.
The eutectic temperature (triple point) is the temperature at which your sample only exists in the solid phase.
If the eutectic temperature is unknown, developing the optimal method will require many trial and error runs until the critical temperature is determined. At vacuum levels above .200 mbar, there are too many molecules present and this will slow down the sublimation rate.
Set the vacuum level in the freeze dry system at .200 mbar to maximize the sublimation rate. Because ending a run too early can cause a sample to melt back or result in a collapsed cake, the tendency is to error on the side of caution and extend the lyophilization run further than necessary. Because of evaporative cooling, the sample temperature will be lower than the shelf temperature.
The multi-directional spraying arms move as much as 112 gallons per minute throughout the washer chamber, ensuring powerful scrubbing of water to the entire chamber. Once wash and rinse cycles are complete, items are dried by air forced through the wash arms and a floor-mounted blower. After wash and rinse cycles, air is forced through each spindle, in addition to the spray arms, for fast drying of tough-to-dry glassware. These tests ranged from the standard ASHRAE 110 containment test, to a challenging modified containment test with adverse conditions to truly test its limits. The team found that GC provides the best results out of all other chromatography methods for analyzing the type and manufacturer of lipstick.
Now that the Ebola virus has largely subsided in Africa and the Zika outbreak is spreading rapidly in South America, approximately $600 Million in leftover funds will be shifted to fight Zika.
Many representatives in Congress threaten to fight this shift in funds; however, others support the new focus on this hazardous virus as it threatens to spread across US borders.
It's with this eye toward protection that laboratories have rightfully turned to employing the use of biosafety cabinets, allowing their technicians to properly and safely handle biosafety agents requiring BSL 1-3 containment. Sean's approach to the biosafety industry is truly safety-centric, and his knowledge has been called upon in various high profile circumstances including the 2001 Anthrax attacks and SARS outbreak. He then traveled to Nigeria and Liberia to prepare healthcare workers there to do the same.
When you look at a biosafety cabinet, the first and most basic thing you have to do is determine what you're going to be using it for. If all those are in check and you've chosen the appropriate equipment, the biosafety engineering aspect has been done for you.
Leaders need to train them how to choose appropriate personal protective equipment and develop standard operating procedures (SOPs) that answer real questions. In my opinion, by the way, the cabinet should be broken down and cleaned at the end of each night.
When there are standard, easy to follow checklists in place for routine operations, some of those processes can be streamlined and the risks minimized. However, the minute they come in contact with a human exhibiting human behaviors, that person better be trained or the cabinet could risk losing its protectiveness. Even if they were to follow all of them, leadership still has a responsibility to the workforce. Everyone has to be on-board with safety in order for it to work, and that starts at the top. The size of the Universe cannot be overstated, which reiterates everyone's ultimate insignificance within the grand scheme of things.
Vacuum pumps are available in different types that offer varying displacement capacities and ultimate vacuum levels. RV pumps use oil to ensure a tight seal, lubricate the working parts and remove heat to cool the rotors. It’s necessary when using an RV pump to collect the evaporated vapors upstream of the pump. It is recommended that the oil in these pumps be checked regularly and changed approximately every 3,000 hours of use. While there are systems that automate oil changing, time is still lost while the pump is out of use for the maintenance. Diaphragm pumps can handle highly viscous liquids and be used with a wide range of samples but the applications are limited to those requiring higher ultimate vacuum levels. Therefore, almost any type of sample, even those containing a combination of solvents and acids can be used with these pumps, making them a good choice for both evaporation and concentration. In a combination pump the diaphragm pump keeps the oil of the RV pump under negative pressure to reduce or eliminate vapors going through it and condensing in the oil.
The ultimate vacuum level and displacement capacity with combination pumps is similar to those of RV pumps. While they can have higher up-front costs, the lifetime operation costs are much lower because they don’t require oil and very little maintenance is needed.
By eliminating the oil, the hydrocarbon-free design means these pumps are environmentally friendly as well.
Compared to diaphragm pumps, scroll pumps can reach deeper ultimate vacuum levels and have higher displacement capacities. They may be used with concentration applications also, however the cost tradeoff may make another type of pump more attractive. Even with filters, you need to take other precautions when samples include potentially hazardous materials. If you’re unsure which vacuum pump is the best for your application, our Application Specialists are always here to help. Though similar in airflow to a B1, the Type C1 does not require special considerations when handling hazardous chemistry, nor does it require a dedicated exhaust system. The Type C1 adopts the strengths of the Type A and B BSCs while addressing their limitations and is cross functional.
It will be designated something other than a Type A or Type B, will be defined as such, and upon completion will be recognized by NIH, CDC, CFIA, and PHAC.
Type B2 cabinets are commonly selected out of an over-abundance of caution related to a microbiology lab’s use of chemicals considered to be hazardous, not out of risk assessment determining that the application is using hazardous chemistry. However, since the B2 must have a dedicated exhaust system, the cabinet is forever committed to its installation. This is possible because the cabinet does not exhaust 100% of its air and does not need a dedicated exhaust system. Though there are laboratory balance considerations, modern laboratories outfitted with VAV and lab balance mechanical systems can easily handle the volume of air this entails. If the Axiom’s installation is changed, all of these requirements would have to be recalculated and physically changed. This flexibility makes it possible for a laboratory to save over 50% of operational costs compared to Type B BSCs (over $50,000 compared to the life time operating costs of each Type B2 BSC).
One Axiom does the job of both Type A and B while costing the institution only the price of a single BSC. The inlet relief valve is used to ensure that the exhaust transition plenum is kept under negative pressure in B-mode – maintaining containment of hazardous chemistry in the duct. The inlet relief valve is open all the time when the Axiom is operating with proper building exhaust in B-mode. What’s more, positive relief valves shunt chemically contaminated air back into the laboratory.
ANSI Z9.5 for Laboratory Ventilation only briefly mentions Class II BSCs in the ventilation (section 5) and merely describes the types of connections and requirements for manifolding (ganging) BSCs with hoods and general exhaust. These large VAV mechanical systems are significant enough in volume to absorb the volume of air being moved by an Axiom with the Active Protection Protocol engaged. It is designed to bridge the gaps in safety, flexibility and engineering that exist among current BSC types.


For the A2, A2 with canopy, B2 and C1 – users simply work inside the dished work surface. When using chemicals, this is where the operator MUST work – an operational requirement sure to cause fatigue, mistakes and injuries. A back wall mounted latch can be used for hands-free assist by holding the Chem-Zone work surface out of the way during cleaning. However, the large volume of the air moving through the exhaust system keeps most chemical applications in a BSC well below ignition levels. For the purpose of selecting the correct BSC type, this risk assessment must determine one thing: is the chemistry being used hazardous or not?
Chemical and biological risks are addressed with the chemical containment of a type B, the flexibility of a type A and remote exhaust failure dynamic protection exclusive to the Axiom. This empowers the use of equipment and other procedures commonly done in a BSC in a safe, productive and efficient manner. Definitions including those for the different types of Class II Biosafety Cabinets (BSC) are to be reviewed, updated and added to. These treatments often make the patient even sicker in hopes of eventually making them better, but the results are mixed. New treatments are being developed to attack different forms of cancer from brain to skin and many cancers in between. Erlab debuted GFH Filtration Technology at Pittcon in 2008, offering manufacturers (like Labconco) access to an altogether new and sustainability-focused hood operating system. One of the key elements of your GFH Technology is the inclusion of Neutrodine filters, a new and significantly better-performing type of carbon filter.
It has evolved significantly over this time and most improvements focus on it being able to adsorb a broader range of chemicals and do so at a higher capacity. Our multi-layer design allows the filter to neutralize acid molecules before they reach the carbon, and the original molecule has been transformed. Neutrodine filters can adsorb acids, bases and solvents, simultaneously and in large capacity, making them ideal for applications that use a wide variety of chemicals, such as undergraduate chemistry teaching labs (general, organic, inorganic), QC test labs, cosmetics R&D labs, petrochemical companies and many other applications. From a detection and safety standpoint, users must be warned when filters are losing their efficiency and chemicals are breaking through. With this double filter arrangement, the user exposure is always less than 1% of Threshold Limit Value (TLV) as set by ACGIH or OSHA. Erlab has engineered the most optimal filter frame for molecular filtration, and we've spent over 47 years perfecting crucial components of our filters. If the inside perimeter of the filter frame allows preferential passages for the air to flow without chemical removal, the chemicals would break through very quickly. Erlab’s Neutrodine technology allows the use of a Primary and a Secondary filter, each with superior capacity and range of chemical adsorption.
Channeling specifically, though, is a result of improper filter frame design in the area where the carbon meets the frame, the perimeter and any interior frame supports.
The channels between the socks are where the air will mostly flow, allowing chemicals to break through the filter quickly. Of course, as a general rule, filter life is based upon the volume of vapors generated within the fume hood and thus is very application-dependent. Operating cost savings are achieved when the filter replacement costs are less than the energy that would have been consumed by an equivalent ducted hood.
Depending upon use, the operating cost of this ducted hood is somewhere around $3,000 to $4,500 per year—possibly more.
If the filters last three years in the customer’s application, that is an annualized cost of only $1,350 versus a potential expenditure totaling $4,500 or more. From an overall filtered fume hood perspective, what are we looking at in terms of a lab's bottom line? Rather, they are stand-alone devices that do not require connection to anything other than an electrical outlet and, of course, any services the customer needs to work (like vacuum, gas or water as with a traditional ducted hood). Incineration does require energy, yes, and there is some remaining ash that must be stored long term.
Of the world’s food crops, a full 75-percent relies on pollination by insects and other animals.
Tens of thousands of species of pollinators play some part in the pollination ritual – and they need our help to survive. With nearly 16% of the global vertebrate pollinators facing extinction, we must act now to prevent a breakdown in our future food supply.
The US economy is soft; employment growth is weak a€“ and yet we are about to see a significant middle-class tax increase, albeit a stealth one, passed by the current administration. The June survey reported that in June full-time jobs declined by 240,000, while part-time jobs soared 360,000 and have now reached an all-time high of 28,059,000 a€“ three million more part-time positions than when the recession began at the end of 2007. Note that the relative increase in part-time jobs began prior to Obama's even assuming office.
Adulthood is not simply being delayed but dramatically reimagined along lines of trust, dignity and connection and obligation to others. There were just no shelters in Phoenix with room for another homeless family, and their top priority was finding a safe place for their daughter. Both the rise in oil prices, as well as the need to produce from unconventional sources, such as shale oil, have been beneficial to workers in these occupations.
Among the services they provide are skin cleanings, advice on proper skin care and removal of unwanted hair. Even the top 10% of home care workers earned just $27,580 last year, when the median wage for employees across all occupations was $34,750. The resulting cuts to retireesa€™ benefits mean ever more individuals turn to financial planners in order to better plan for later in life.
A growing number of retirees with time to participate in sports such as golf and tennis is a major source of demand for coaches. One major factor contributing to job growth a€“ and that is expected to continue to contribute a€” is the increase of firms in the employment services industry as companies outsource human resources tasks. The median salary for employed massage therapists was just under $36,000 last year, but the majority are self-employed and most work only part time. As the nationa€™s Hispanic population grows, interpreters and translators also will be needed. Another factor driving job growth for this occupation is the expected greater need for original music scores or transcriptions used in commercials and movies. Petroleum engineers are required to have a bachelora€™s degree in engineering and must pass a licensing exam and have four years of work experience to be licensed. Workers are most often employed in oil and gas producing states, such as Texas, Oklahoma, Louisiana and North Dakota. Prahalada€™s The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid: Eradicating Poverty Through Profits (2005).
This could be by the bathroom mirror, by your bedside, on your desk or computer or even on the dashboard of your car.
When we listen to music we often feel emotion and activate our bodies by dancing or moving to the beat. The question is, is your mind telling you the stories that you want creating your life or ones that depress, scare or otherwise cause you to feel badly about yourself or your life? Include the ways you have treated others and the ways you have been treated by others as well as past relationships, choices and actions that you still hold energy around and criticize yourself for. Why we should love and hate, why vegetarianism and why not drug, alcohol etc.     PEACEFUL LIVING PROGRAM - in pyramid cottage -    For mental, spiritual, internal peace and nature living in pyramid cottage with lush green peaceful atmosphere, unrestrained daily routine, voluntary yoga, pranayam, meditation, cleansing acts, spiritual class, personal chintan-sadhana etc. Increasing the amount of the sample that is in contact with the glass sides of the flask, will increase the heat transferred to the sample and will result in a faster lyophilization rate. If your frozen sample goes to a temperature higher than the eutectic temperature, it will begin to melt. The more heat you apply the faster the process, however your sample must remain below its eutectic point during primary drying. If a sample in a flask is melting back (getting too much heat) simply, insulate the flask with foam to slow the heat transfer down. As the front moves through the sample, the sublimating water vapor must pass through the dry cake that is formed behind the ice front, as it is being evacuated from the sample to the condenser. If there are no molecules present around a sample, it is difficult to effectively transfer heat. With sample temperature probes and heated shelf temperature probes, end point can be detected when the sample temperature becomes equal to the shelf temperature. Advances to lifting lipstick stains are helping forensic scientists identify and target criminals before they’re able to strike again. You can spend thousands and thousands of dollars on a cabinet, but all the control can be negated in an instant with inappropriate behavior. That's how we have instances of individuals coming out of biosafety cabinets and contaminating other areas of their laboratories. RV pumps work especially well for aqueous samples and solvents with high boiling points whose vapors can be easily trapped before they reach the pump.
The valves are often made of polytetrafluoroethylene making the pump resistant to corrosives and less susceptible to damage from vapors.
This design keeps the oil cleaner and allows for less frequent changing – oil lasts up to 10 times longer between changes compared to RV pumps. Because the diaphragm pump is incorporated into the design, these pumps are better at handling acids and solvents than RV pumps.
Scroll pumps handle water vapor better than most types of pumps and make significantly less noise during operation. A B1 BSC cannot operate without exhaust and therefore will always require the infrastructure and cost associated with moving expensive tempered air. Type B2 BSCs also heavily tax exhaust systems with large volumes that can exceed 1,200 CFM – this can cost over $100,000 per BSC to operate over its life. Meanwhile, the BSC continues to operate as well, allowing operators to continue their work without forcing a shutdown. During which the Type C1 Axiom provides an audible alarm, visual alarm – describing the alarm occurrence, and provides a countdown timer to BSC shutdown. This does not mean that hazardous chemicals are being used; rather that the chemicals being used are of a concentration and volume that would require a chemical fume hood. In August, 2015 that Task Group determined that the Purifier Axiom will be designated something other than a Type A or B, and defined as such.
GFH technology includes a suite of detectors (solvent and acid) that will alarm when the primary filter is approaching saturation.
This proprietary design prevents channeling and shifting of the carbon during transport and use. Additionally, the entire surface area of the filter frame presents consistent air pressure drop (friction to air flow, if you will) so that there is even airflow throughout the entire carbon bed. Carbon filters must be designed properly to prevent this occurrence or they won't function properly. Also, note that the annual cost of maintenance of a ducted hood versus a filtered hood can be substantially more given the additional equipment required to make it work properly (like airflow control valves, exhaust fans, etc.). In addition, these arrangements greatly reduce the HVAC demand and allow both laboratory supply and exhaust air to be controlled with devices that are smaller, cost less and are easier to use.
Once incinerators are brought up to temperature, the combustion process is nearly self-sustaining—a catalytic effect.
Hauville, founder of Erlab, was awarded the first patent on the ductless hood back in 1970. And the motivation is there, I hope, since the pollinators’ survival has such a direct correlation to our own.
Sustainable agriculture, diversifying crops and eco-friendly food production should go a long way to restoring the balance to our delicate food system. I will acknowledge that dealing a blow to the economy was not the actual plan, but that is what is happening in the real world where you and I live. Casey Foundation shows the number of children living in poverty increased to 23 percent in 2011, after the recession. The nationa€™s aging population and changing energy needs played major roles in driving disproportionate job growth for many of the occupations listed. The program is intended to be a sample of the overall workforce, and estimates are subject to sampling error. Vocational schools usually offer cosmetology programs, which skin care specialists typically complete. But schools and universities are actually the largest source of jobs for coaches, according to the BLS. Most human resources roles require a bachelora€™s degree, and interpersonal skills are also very valuable. In addition to musical talent and mastery of a variety of instruments, those in this occupation, especially the ones writing and conducting classical music, usually have a bachelora€™s degree. Oil prices play a major role in determining job outlook for petroleum engineers, partially because higher prices improve incentives to explore and produce oil from newer, more challenging sources. There are several potential reasons for the professiona€™s explosive job growth, including rising energy prices and the increased extraction of non-conventional fuel sources.
Notice how your body feels when it is in that happy state - filled with energy, then think of someone or something that drains your energy and notice how that feels.
These things add power to the words which we may find ourselves repeating and singing out loud or in our minds over and over again.
Did you know that you can change your life simply by changing the stories you tell yourself every day? Imagine how wonderful it is to have your subconscious mind working for you all night while you enjoy deep, rejuvenating sleep.
As you take a deep breath in, imagine the love and light of God filling you and as you take a deep breath out, imagine releasing all your fears and doubts. Room temperature variances will certainly affect the required length of time to freeze dry. Knowing the temperature your sample cannot go above enables the greatest amount of heat to be added to the sample without experiencing melt back. By increasing the surface area, more sample is in contact with the flask resulting in better heat transfer to the sample.
The less cake the water vapor must pass through, the faster the molecules will sublimate, resulting in a faster run. Because the majority of the water in the sample has already been sublimated, the sample temperature can rise above the eutectic point without melting back. Just be advised that the drying time may be a little slower as the SteamScrubber does not support forced air-drying through spindles. Furthermore it localizes it to the area of the cabinet that is directly exhausting any evaporated hazards due to a spill or normal work. These improvements allow the vast majority of the carbon to be utilized before any chemical breakthrough occurs.
Far better than exhausting pollutants into the atmosphere, used Neutrodine filters must be incinerated. Since that time, Erlab has continued to further develop, innovate and invent chemical filtration solutions addressing today’s needs. This week we will briefly look at why weak consumer spending is going to become an even greater problem in the coming years, and we will continue to look at some disturbing trends in employment.
We look around and see that we value fancy new leased or financed cars, financed McMansions, fastfood, and lots of shopping outlets. Job growth in college sports, especially womena€™s sports, is expected to be a key driver of employment growth in the field going forward. The top-paid 10% of translators earned more than $91,800 annually last year, while the bottom 10% earned less than $23,570. About 10% of music directors and composers earned less than $21,450 annually, while the top 10% made more than $86,110, a high annual income compared with the same top 10% of other occupations on this list. In the past decade, oil prices have risen dramatically, possibly accounting for much of the professiona€™s estimated 227% job growth.
Know that whenever you choose to be around people who fill you with energy you expand and vibrate at a higher frequency and when you choose to be around people and things that drain your energy, your vibrational energy decreases. Listen to the words of your favorite music, if they are not giving you messages that you desire in your life ita€™s time to get new music. In this moment of focusing on your breath and stilling your mind you can feel the inner peace that allows the mind to still and know God.
Pay for many financial planners is quite high, with the top 25% of professionals taking home at least $111,450. Remember that EVERY thought you think is what you are saying to that little child and that child believes everything you tell him or her.
However you want to feel, spend more time with people and doing the things that help you feel that way and less with those that dona€™t. Choose music with a beat and lyrics that trigger happy, empowered, peaceful, grateful, or other good feelings within you. Doing this simple exercise a few times each day will help you to ground and center yourself, to release stress and allow the Higher Intelligence that some call God to speak to you. Voluntary fast, meditation in pyramid cottage with swar vigyan practices unrestrained daily routine. The goal of pre- freezing is to form large crystals with a slower freezing rate while making sure the sample does not separate in the longer pre-freeze process.
Only occupations that existed in both 2002 and 2012 were considered, and any occupations split-up or consolidated between these periods were excluded.
Comfortable stay, satvik naturopathy food-drinks and minutes of the day will be followed as desired by the participants.
Further information on each occupation came from the BLSa€™s Occupational Outlook Handbook. The less you judge and criticize and the more you accept, support and encourage, the better your life will become! Nature cures for physical fitness, body tone up, memory improvement, mind development and mental peace. Nature cures herbal retreat. USEFUL IN - Stress, depression, hopelessness, sadness, sleeping disorder, anxiety, insomnia, mania, fear, suicide tendency, physiological disorder, hypertension, general weakness.
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