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admin 15.04.2016

Equine herpesvirus-1 (EHV-1) causes many problems, including abortion, respiratory disease, neurologic disease, death in newborn foals, and a newly recognized syndrome described as peracute pulmonary vasculitis of adult horses (which strikes adult horses in their lungs and kills them almost overnight). EHV-1 has the potential to cause devastating outbreaks and shut down much of the industry, especially the racing industry.
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Seek the advice of a qualified veterinarian before proceeding with any diagnosis, treatment, or therapy. The neurological form of equine herpes virus-1 (EHV-1) is a worrying disease for horse owners on several levels. The death rate among infected horses is concerning enough, but the highly infectious nature of the virus and an apparent marked growth in the number of cases in recent years have scientists working overtime to find a vaccine and medications that will improve survival rates. On top of that, nearly a third of horses that contract the neurological form die or are euthanized. Scientists are piecing together the puzzle around a potentially fatal virus that is little different from the standard EHV-1 strain that usually causes little more than a cold.
Researchers at Cornell University in New York have found that a change in just one amino acid is the difference between the milder strain and the life-threatening neurological form, which is sometimes called the mutant or neuropathogenic strain.
Cornell microbiologists discovered that a single amino acid variation in an enzyme that is part of the DNA copying process of EHV-1 creates a different type of EHV-1, which causes the neurological disorders in horses.
Although the mutant strain of EHV-1 is most frequently associated with neurological disease, the more common strain, sometimes referred to as the wild-type, has also been known to be associated with such cases.
The researchers postulate that herpes viruses tend to evolve toward strains that produce less disease, so they think that the more virulent neurological strain of EHV-1 is older than the milder type.
Three of these — EHV-1, EHV-3, and EHV-4 — pose the most serious health risks for domesticated horses and can have significant economic impacts on the equine industry. EHV-1 can cause four manifestations of disease in horses, including a neurological form, respiratory disease, abortion, and neonatal death.
EHV-3 causes a venereal disease called equine coital exanthema that affects the external genitalia.
EHV-4 causes a non-fatal upper respiratory tract disease in foals and is uncommonly associated with abortion and rarely with neurologic disease. The neurologic form of EHV-1 causes what veterinarians call Equine Herpes Virus Myeloencephalopathy (EHM). Neurological signs appear as a result of damage to blood vessels in the brain and spinal cord associated with EHV infection.
Initial exposure generally occurs in foals from contact with their mothers, usually by respiratory shedding. It can also be spread indirectly through contact with physical objects contaminated with the virus, such as tack, rugs, water containers, feed buckets, people’s hands and clothing. The incubation period for the disease may be as little as 24 hours, but is typically 4-6 days. Respiratory disease caused by EHV-1 is most common in weaned foals and yearlings, often in autumn and winter.
Normally, EHV-1 infection takes hold in the upper respiratory tract, causing a mild respiratory disorder. Cases of abortion triggered by the disease usually occur without warning, typically late in pregnancy – after eight months. As indicated, the neuropathogenic, or mutant, strain is associated with most of the neurologic cases identified. The mutation appears to result in more rapid reproduction of the virus, resulting in higher levels of circulating virus in the bloodstream, causing more severe symptoms and leading to abortion and neurological disease. Scientists have shown through testing that this mutation has been present in outbreaks throughout the world for at least 30 years. Shedding of both forms of the EHV-1 virus by the respiratory route typically lasts for 7-10 days, but can persist much longer, possibly for three weeks or more. After infection with EHV-1, the virus eventually becomes inactive in the horse’s body, setting up a carrier state that is life-long.
It is this ability to reside as a silent and persistent infection in horses which provides a reservoir of virus for continual transmission.
Authorities acknowledge the growing prevalence of EHV-1, saying it appears to meet the criteria of an emerging disease, in that the neurological form appears to be growing in severity. The Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (Aphis) of the US Department of Agriculture points out it is possible that the reporting of EHV-1 cases has increased, rather than an actual increase in the number and severity of cases.
Symptoms from the neurological form include a fever, usually before the neurological signs.
Care for a horse extends to minimising the effects of the illness, in the hope that the horse will remain well enough to survive the infection. Antiviral drugs have been used to treat some cases, but research is not entirely clear on their effectiveness, or what constitutes the ideal time to give them to an infected horse. In the absence of a vaccine labelled as being able to prevent the neurological form, horse owners must minimise risk by adopting prudent biosecurity measures. These include rigid quarantining of the sick animal until the risk of transmitting the infection has passed. Any horse that has aborted or shown signs of fever, respiratory disease, or neurologic disease should be separated from healthy horses.
Ideally, sick horses should be moved into a separate building or paddock on the premises, or be taken to a veterinary hospital with an isolation facility. Do not share equipment among horses on the property, given that the virus can be spread through contaminated objects such as water and feed buckets, even bridles. Horses carrying EHV may appear to be perfectly healthy yet spread the virus via the secretions from their nostrils. Wearing gloves and using disinfectant to sanitize footwear can also help minimize the risk of people spreading the virus between animals. Evidence indicates that the virus will typically remain capable of infecting a horse for probably less than seven days in most practical field situations, but in ideal conditions may persist for up to 35 days. Vaccines exist to control the respiratory and abortion manifestations of EHV-1, but are not proven against the neurological form.

Aphis acknowledges that the increase in EHV-1 outbreaks is worrying, because they likely fit the criteria of a disease that is evolving and changing in virulence and behavior.
In the United States, reports of neurologic EHV-1 outbreaks were sporadic before 2003, with typically none or few outbreaks identified annually. The number of reported outbreaks in the US has increased, and the numbers infected in an outbreak appear to be much higher than what was seen before 2001.
It is also unclear what role the poor immune response to the mutated strain is playing in the outbreaks of recent years. The factors involved in this emergence are not clear as yet, but several have been suggested. An Aphis paper entitled Equine Herpesvirus Myeloencephalopathy: Mitigation Experiences, Lessons Learned, and Future Needs, noted that EHV was a focus of presentations at multiple equine industry and veterinary meetings in 2007, illustrating concern within the equine industry related to the disease.
Much remains to be learned about the disease, but clinicians largely agree there is ongoing need for critical evaluation of available literature, vaccine development and further research into the potential effectiveness of exisiting vaccines, and a faster test for detecting the disease that distinguishes between the neurological strain and the non-neurological strain.
They have also identified the need for more information on individual animal risk factors, transmission characteristics, latency studies, and prevention options. A 2009 consensus statement from a panel of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine, published in the Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine in 2009, laid out the challenges ahead.
Past exposure produces a limited period of protection from re-infection, of as little as 3 to 6 months, but there are no reports of horses repeatedly affected by EHM, although the rarity of the disease may be a contributing factor. Pregnancy: Abortion can occur in mares of any age, although it is largely restricted to the last trimester of pregnancy. Rectal temperature: Horses with high fever and high fevers occurring several days after the initial onset of fever, are more likely to develop EHM. Introduction of horses to a herd is commonly reported before the development of EHV-1 outbreaks, and specifically before EHM outbreaks.
Breed and sex were identified as risk factors for EHM in 1 epidemiological survey, with ponies and smaller breeds less commonly affected, and females more commonly affected. Stress factors: Outbreaks of EHV-1 disease are anecdotally associated with stress factors, including weaning, commingling, transportation, and concurrent infections. Immunological status has been proposed to have an association with the development of EHM, specifically as a result of vaccination.
Professor Peter Timoney, of the Gluck Equine Research Center at the University of Kentucky and chairman of the Infectious Diseases of Horses Committee of the United States Animal Health Association, notes that the mutant strain that causes neurological disease has been identified among isolates of EHV-1 made before 2000. Based substantially on materials from the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service of the US Department of Agriculture, and the consensus statement from a panel of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine published in the Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine. Fran Jurga keeps you up-to-date in this blog on news about horse health, care, equine science and research that affects horses.
USDA Files Proposed Soring Rule Change for White House Approval: Will pad stacks be banned? THE BHA have warned trainers to be vigilant for signs of disease after it was announced that Victor Dartnall's Devon yard had been temporarily closed due to the discovery of an outbreak of what is believed to be equine neurological herpes.
Professor Tim Morris, director of equine science and welfare at the BHA, said that horses may have been infectious before disease was diagnosed, although he said the risk of contagion was small. He said: "We have been working with the trainer and his veterinary surgeon to ensure that the correct, robust security measures have been put in place.
In a statement Dartnall, who trains at Brayford in North Devon, said: "Over the last few days we have suffered an outbreak of a neurological disease in some horses. The outbreak was discovered on Wednesday when temperatures spiked in some of Dartnall's horses. Eastern equine encephalitis, The incidence of encephalitis is 1 case per 200,000 population in the united states, with herpes simplex antigen assay for eastern equine encephalitis and western equine encephalitis viruses. Vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis and bcg-osis in an immigrant child with severe combined immunodeficiency syndrome — texas, 2013, The stool culture was subsequently identified as ivdpv type 1 (ivdpv1). Fatal case of deer tick virus encephalitis, In certain locations of the northeastern and north central united states, the prevalence of and pcr analyses for herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 and jc–bk virus were negative in cerebrospinal fluid. Surveillance of equine respiratory viruses in ontario - Sera were paired and tested for antibody to equine influenza 1 (ae1-h7n7), equine influenza 2 (ae2-h3n8), equine herpesvirus 1 and 4 (ehv1 the prevalence of clinical signs, results from serology tests, antigen-detection elisa, rt-pcr, and virus isolation.. Eastern equine encephalitis - The incidence of encephalitis is 1 case per 200,000 population in the united states, with herpes simplex antigen assay for eastern equine encephalitis and western equine encephalitis viruses. Vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis and bcg-osis in an immigrant child with severe combined immunodeficiency syndrome — texas, 2013 - The stool culture was subsequently identified as ivdpv type 1 (ivdpv1). Fatal case of deer tick virus encephalitis - In certain locations of the northeastern and north central united states, the prevalence of and pcr analyses for herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 and jc–bk virus were negative in cerebrospinal fluid. Upi horse racing roundup - Collected won for the fourth time in six starts with the victories including the grade iii sham at santa anita and the sunland park festival of racing -- an event which replaced the sunland derby, canceled because of an outbreak of equine herpes virus at. Equine herpes virus-1 – the essential guide - The neurological form of equine herpes 4 causes a non-fatal upper respiratory tract disease in foals and is uncommonly associated with abortion and rarely with neurologic disease. Wildfire expert Jim Paxon discusses the skills and heroism of the Granite Mountain Hotshots team, who died fighting the Yarnell Hill Fire. The firefighters died fighting the Yarnell Hill Fire near the town of Yarnell, about 80 miles northwest of Phoenix. SubscribeEnter your email address below to receive updates each time we publish new content. USDAILY – A man was arrested on Saturday for trespassing at the White House, one day after an intruder from Texas scaled a fence and made it inside the doors of the executive mansion while President Barack Obama was away, the Secret Service said. We may only be 15 days into February, but the count of states reporting cases of the neurological form of equine herpes virus (EHV-1), also known as equine herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy (EHM) is up to three. Oklahoma State University Veterinary Medical Hospital issued a statement saying that a hospitalized patient there has been confirmed with the neuropathogenic form of equine herpesvirus (EHV-1).
This case in Minnesota is handled under state's new "EHM Control Plan", which uses set definitions of terms for use in describing and reporting on EHM in that state. The horse was stabled at Dark Horse Farm, 4300 182nd Street East, Prior Lake, MN 55312. However, in recent years there has been an increase in the number of EHV-1 neurologic cases worldwide.
Continuing research offers hope that soon we'll understand how the terrifying neurologic EHV-1 disease occurs, and what to do to prevent it.

Quarantines and tracing efforts funded by authorities to prevent its spread amount to millions of dollars annually in the United States.
Scientists are not entirely sure over what distance the virus can spread in this manner under typical horse management and environmental conditions.
Older horses are more likely than younger ones to transmit the virus without showing signs of infection. It can, however, infect deeper respiratory tissues and get into the blood stream, giving it a route to the uterus and nervous system, where abortion or neurological disease can result.
They are capable of shedding virus, with or without clinical disease, particularly at times of stress, for the rest of their lives. However, most researchers appear to agree there has been an increase in the number of cases involving neurological disease triggered by the mutant strain. An affected horse is likely to show poor coordination, urine dribbling, loss of tail tone, hind limb weakness, and may lean against a wall to help maintain balance. Researchers are studying several existing vaccines to determine if they may offer some degree of protection against the neurological form, and new vaccines are also being assessed. The economic impact is substantial, not only through horses lost to the disease, but the many costs associated with treatment, quarantines, cancelled events, and the inability of horses to compete. EHM can occur in horses of all ages, and has been reported in weanlings, both naturally occurring and experimentally induced. However, the association between increased use of vaccines and development of EHM described in that study was completely confounded by the fact that vaccination frequency was greatest in older horses, and EHM was strongly associated with greater age. We have therefore contacted racecourses to alert them to possible exposure but stress that the actual risk of transmission of this virus in a controlled raceday environment is relatively small. Steve Skurja, a spokesman for the Yavapai County Sheriff’s Office, said there were “several fires still active” in the Yarnell area. On Friday, Virginia announced the discovery of a second confirmed case and the quarantine of its stable. It also calls for public reporting of the cases and the state's intention to reveal the specific location where a quarantine is in place. These horses will not be allowed to leave the stable for at least 21 days and will be monitored closely for fever or symptom of illness consistent with EHV-1. Reproduction in whole or in part in any form or medium without written permission of The Horse Media Group LLC is prohibited. Events are canceled to reduce the risk of spread and dozens of competition horses end up confined to their stalls or properties. Antibiotics may be used to treat a secondary bacterial infection if one develops, but they will have no effect on the herpes infection itself.
Movement could result in introduction of the virus to a new population; it is also possible that transport stress plays a role in allowing the disease to express itself or re-emerge from the latent stage. However, in a large epidemiological study conducted in The Netherlands, EHM was largely restricted to horses over 3 years of age, and age 4 to 5 years was similarly associated with an increased risk of EHM in a recent large North American outbreak. For example, the authors found only one published report of this condition in Australia or New Zealand and, anecdotally, there have been only a very small number of cases recorded in those countries. The association of increased age with EHM risk is reported in populations of horses in which vaccination is not practiced.
In most cases, EHV 1 is spread via respiratory transmission so wherever horses are brought together from different yards there is the possibility for the disease to spread if one of the horses present is affected.
It was then moved to Cleary Lake Veterinary Clinic in Prior Lake where it was held in isolation for treatment until test results were completed.
And where are my gloves?While most barns are very responsible about scheduling fall shots and checking into winter nutritional programs for horses coming off grass, there's a little something to keep in the back of your mind.
Infection with equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) was subsequently confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests performed at Cornell University. Something that has no vaccine but is a real risk to your horse.This is the time of the year when horses are in heavy transit. There's the mass migration to Florida (those lucky people and horses) and there are hundreds or even thousands of horses on the roads to and from Oklahoma for the year-end shows.The most telltale sign of herpes virus is thick, yellow mucus. Affected horses will tend to be disinterested and off their food, as well as showing typical respiratory disease signs such as coughing and a nasal discharge. Do you have a plan to be able to isolate a sick horse from the other animals who share his stable or pasture?
And one that a vaccination won't cover is the neurological form of Equine Herpes, which is now known as Equine herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy (EHM). There are actually nine forms of Equine Herpes, but people are usually concerned with three forms. Robert Ehlenfeldt, has issued a special warning to horse owners in that northern state, but it makes plenty of sense, so I thought I would pass some of his points on to you so you could do what you can to protect your horse.Equine herpes virus type 1, or EHV-1, usually causes a respiratory infection called rhino-pneumonitis.
But it also has a more serious, often fatal, neurologic form that strikes the horse's central nervous system.A recent study by researchers at the University of Kentucky found that the neurologic form is increasingly prevalent. Historically, they found that only about three percent of EHV-1 cases were neurologic in the 1960s. The neurologic strain may cause horses to be uncoordinated, unable to stand, and unable to eliminate urine and manure.
EHV-1 vaccines are not effective against the neurologic form.Some horses do stand with crossed legs while on cross-tied, but it is not normal for most horses in general stance. Click here to begin the download.I thought this brochure was really helpful, and up to date.
I hope you never need it, but if you have a horse on your property with any suspicious symptoms, this brochure will be very useful to have.

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  • GameOver, 15.04.2016 at 17:26:18
    (HSV) affects roughly one in five (or 50-million) system of pure medicine history of recurrent.
  • BaKiLi_QaQaS, 15.04.2016 at 13:56:21
    Still institutionalized stigma attached also be helpful if taken as soon as prodromal (warning) signs indicating impacts the pores.