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The following periodic table shows the known first ionization energy data for the elements. Size decreases irregularly as atomic number increases for any given period (more charge pulls electrons in to nucleus, but shielding reverses as subshells [s or p orbital sets] fill. Next we continue with the trend for first ionization energy (the energy needed to strip the outermost electron from a free atom) and electronegativity (an indication of how electrons are shared by atoms in bonded atoms). Ionization energy increases irregularly as atomic number increases for any given period (more charge pulls electrons in to nucleus, but shielding reverses as subshells [s or p orbital sets] fill. Group 1 elements have the least tendency to attract bonding electrons, while F has the greatest attraction for electrons in bonds. The second shell is larger (its out further from the nucleus) so holds 2 electrons in a 2s orbital, but there is now room for an additional three 2p orbitals. The third shell is larger yet (further from the nucleus), but still crowded, so initially it can only accommodate another eight electrons. Of course the electrons in the 3s orbitals are even farther out from the nucleus, so we would expect Na to be even more reactive than Li, and so on for K, Rb, etc. On the other hand Cl will also attract electrons less than F, so it will be less reactive etc. So we will expect the most reactive elements to be on the opposite corners of the table - lower left and upper right.
In this convention we indicate shells (main energy levels) by numbers, orbitals within these shells by letters (s, p, d, or f), and the number of electrons in each orbital type by superscript.


Note that when we get to the d electrons they are added to the next inner orbital - they are added inside the atom and are not outermost! Then draw diagonal arrows with the points on the upper left through the diagram parallel to the diagonal through 2p and 3s. In orbital filling diagrams we provide a little more information - noting that the electrons come in two different spins and that they fill into orbitals with their spins paired in opposite directions. Note that the same rules for pairing works for d and f orbital sets as well—all orbitals of a set must be helf-filled before any electrons in the set pair up. You can also use the Noble gas core convention with orbital filling diagrams, just like the spectroscopic notation, but using arrows etc. First Ionization Energy First ionization energy is the energy required to remove an electron Groups IIIA to VIIIA would have a similar ionization energy pattern.
The first ionization energy increases from H to He as expected, We can understand this pattern by considering the electron configurations for these three elements. Click on a column or row icon to see how the first ionization energy varies within that column or row.
But its out further than the electrons in the 1s shell were, so its not held as strong, so Li loses its outer electron more readily than H and is more reactive. Note also that you may write them in the order they show up on the Periodic Table, or, if you prefer, you may group them by shell. Note that if you use the Periodic chart you need to follow the atomic numbers beginning with Period 6 in order to fill the f's before the d's of a given Period.


I have no preference for the direction of unpaired arrows other than that they should be the same.
I know that it decreases as you go from top to bottom and it First ionization energy is the energy required to remove the highest energy electron from an atom.
The 1st ionisation energy pattern shows evidence (i) from the broad periodic patterns of 1st IE, electrons The first ionization energy is very low Ionization-Energy-of-Sodium – Why is the first ionization energy of potassium less than that of sodium? The first ionization energy IE 1 is the energy required to remove In the plot below it is apparent that there are periodic patterns to the first ionization Nitrogen also follows the pattern as it first ionisation energy is 1420 kJ mol-1. So we can save a lot of writing if we substitute its symbol for these inner electrons (note we are not really assuming an inner noble gas, we are just creating a type of short-hand). The ionization energy is the exact quantity of energy that to take something from the first energy the pattern you see there as being a The Lab Problem: Graph the first ionization energy for elements 1 through 18. On the other hand, as a crude thought model, we can consider that each electron is held by both charges in the He nucleus, so they are much more tightly held than the electron in H, so He won't give up an electron either - its inert. Its first ionization energy is significantly lower than that of the immediately preceding Note the Pattern.



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