Household energy consumption in australia 2013,symptome herpes genitalis frau ella,ayurvedic treatment for cancer hyderabad,lack of energy after menopause last - Downloads 2016

admin 27.07.2014

This is a great blog post I found on designbuildsource recently and thought it should be shared, check it out! With so much effort having gone into green building and construction throughout Australia, a recent report from the Australian Bureau of Statistics showing that overall household energy consumption was on the rise and that household energy consumption per capita had not improved over the past decade was truly sobering. A number of sustainability consultants and respected professionals on the topic from around the country have chimed in on the subject of why household energy consumption levels are not improving despite industry and government efforts in this area and what can governments, households themselves and the housing construction industry can do to address the situation.
One interesting issue revolves around a possible linkage between energy efficiency and overall consumer purchasing patterns. Nigel Howard, managing director of Sydney-based environmental research consultancy Edge Environment, talks of a ‘feedback loop’ where part of the money saved through energy efficiency is spent on the purchase of goods and appliances which consume energy. Matt Williams, a sustainability manager at Lend Lease in Sydney, agrees, saying that cheap manufacturing and labour out of China and elsewhere has enabled households to own more energy consuming appliances such as cheap air conditioning, cheap fridges and multiple  and bigger TVs.
While he applauds the ‘heroic’ efforts of the Building Code of Australia (BCA) to harmonise building requirements, Howard says regulations around the country tend to over-emphasise the role of insulation in mild climate zones and adopt a myopic approach with regard to insulation of fabric yet not sufficiently address ventilation losses and leakiness of homes. Steve Watson, a sustainable building consultant in Tasmania, agrees on the subject of hot water. Paul Wiszniak, an Adelaide-based specialist in sustainability and smart grid societal technologies at energy technologies firm Wattwatchers, a subsidiary of the Energy Savings Network Group, calls this a ‘silent scourge’, and says standby power takes up 200 to 300 watts per hour for 8,760 hours per year in most family sized homes. Howard agrees that serious problems exist in this area, adding that ‘the old beer fridge in the garage’ is also a nightmare. Watson says thermal performance standards in the BCA have gone almost as far as they can and that much more emphasis is now required on existing building stock. Wiszniak, who says Wattwatchers technology is aimed at addressing concerns in this area, says most home occupants throughout Australia do not have access to real-time energy use information or the tools engage with and understand their energy consumption.
Williams, who relates trying to save energy without such information to attempting to drive a car without a speedometer or fuel gauge, agrees this area is a problem and wants smart metering to be mandated across all states.
To demonstrate how such information could lead to better decision making, Williams uses his own household as an example. Finally, Watson raises broader questions about how much focus should be given to reducing overall energy consumption.
Rather than necessarily reducing energy use, for example, Watson says improvements in thermal performance might instead allow householders to heat more rooms in the house, resulting in greater comfort and beneficial health impacts (less mould growth, reduced asthma problems) for substantially the same overall amounts of energy used. He also says data relating to overall amounts of household energy consumption may not tell the full story since it does not account for changes in the source of that energy. Watson says there is no single answer or ultimate panacea in terms of ways to address household energy use challenges. Based on the ratio: energy consumption by end uses divided by the number of permanently occupied dwelling.
The energy consumption of households is decomposed in different explanatory effects: change in average dwelling size, increasing number of appliances (more electrical appliances) and central heating diffusion, energy efficiency improvement (as measured from ODEX) and change in behaviour related to more confort.
Over the period 1990-2009, energy efficiency in the household sector increased by 24%, at an average rate of 1.4% per year (Figure 1).
For the EU-27 as a whole, new dwellings built in 2009 consumed about 40% less energy than dwellings built in 1990, because of new building codes[3] (Figure 9). Over the period 2005-2009, the average energy efficiency improvement rate at EU level was 1.3% per year. Space heating represented 68% of total household consumption in 2009 compared to 74% in 1990. To avoid yearly fluctuations due to climatic variations from one year to the other and have consistent trends, the household energy consumption should be measured at normal climate (i.e. The observed progress in energy efficiency was due to better thermal performance of buildings, more efficient large electrical appliances (cold and washing appliances) and heating systems (condensing boilers and heat pumps). Energy consumption for water heating represented around 12% of the household consumption in 2009. Solar energy is promoted in many countries to substitute conventional energies presently used to produce hot water. In France there is an energy saving obligation for energy suppliers above a certain level of sales. Reducing the carbon footprint from your home’s power use is a theme we will post a lot on in the future.
Using data from the World Energy Council we can compare how much electricity the average electrified household uses in different countries. There are numerous things that drive these differences, including wealth, physical house size, appliance standards, electricity prices and access to alternative cooking, heating and cooling fuels. By taking residential electricity use and dividing it by population we can look at how much electricity the average person uses at home in each country. Our household electricity use has been 2,000 kWh each of the last few years, which means it is about 700 kWh per person. The heated surface area of the house is 185 m2 and includes a couple of rooms in the cellar. We hope to reduce electric use by 50% in the coming years with a new heat pump (COP for heat of 3.8), solar thermal hot water and radiators, heat pump clothes dryer, more LED lights, and maybe a wood burning insert for non used fireplace. We heat our home with natural gas…but people forget about the power consumption of the fan to distribute the heat throughout the house. I don’t believe in global warming, If it was true then South India is on the brink of maximum heat, We would have fled to the mountains when the volcano in iceland puked next 100 years of man made green house gasses. When developed countries have everything that they need their politicians talk about non existing problems and act as if they are resolving it. Though we Indians are amongst the minimum users of electricity, Government still insists on saving electricity. In the UK we might not use as much electricity as say America, but we do seem to use alot of gas for heating during the winter months.
So I don’t think Brits can really pat them self on the back, its just fortunate our climate is more mild. Carbon foot print as it pertains to global warming is a tax scam to squeeze every bit of life out of its people. We are 2 living in a 2400 sq ft bungalo (includes exposed basement in sq footage) in northern Ontario, Canada. My home is less than 100 square meters and I ALWAYS turn off what I don’t use at the moment.
The graph characterizes the average consumption per households (at normal climate) in relation to the evolution of prices and incomes. A homeowner's guide to saving energy, increasing comfort, and protecting the environment. The new building of the WWF headquarters in the Netherlands use a sophisticated system of heat exchangers, IIRC, using water containers buried beneath the ground. The average household in the Netherlands spends about 2000 euro per year on direct energy costs. According to some figures I found, it appears that by using existing isolation and saving techniques, you can decrease your direct energy consumption to about one third of the average.
On the other hand much of the technology that makes reproductive choices more pallatable is comparatively new. Reduce, recyce, reuse were such common things that didn't necesssarily need special names for them.
I think there is not such a clear break between the past and the present, although I am having difficulty obtaining a clear picture. The consistency of our culture's most deeply held beliefs can for instance be seen in field of agriculture.
Daniel Quinn has an interesting take on the origin of the stories of Adam and Eve, and Cain and Abel, in Genesis of the bible, that he relates to a rising conflict between settled agriculturalists (represented by Cain), and pasturalists (represented by Abel). It is a popular belief held today that the competition we see today in our marketplaces, is no different from the competition that we see in nature.
In nature, one species will not try to hunt down its competitors, or destroy their food, or deny them access to food. It is clear that the agriculture of our culture is engrossed in warfare in addition to competition.
The underlying theme that unites both our agricultural and present day economical and imperialistical practices and theories, is the relationship we conceive ourselves of having with nature. The point is that the native Americans *would not let their population size boom to insustainable proportions* as we have. That the western world has functioned for thousands of years without running into real limits, is merely due to the fact that quite simply, the limits were not in sight yet.

Before settled agriculture came into view, every culture, wether hunters gatherers or pasturalists, were limited in size because the land they were living on could only sustain a certain amount of people. Sanitation, disease control and efforts to improve nutrition have resulted in the current population increase.
I do not subscribe to the idea that population increases is merely the result of technological and environmental characteristics. Of course, it is interesting to know exactly what is the relationship between food supply and population size.
I consider it a fatalistic position to say that man has no choice but to keep growing beyond carrying capacity and self destruct in the end.
Nobody knows how, but apparently the evidence still points that way, according to what I've read of Thom Hartmann. In the end, saying that everything is just the result of environmental factors and we got here by external factors, is to me a denial of responsibility. I know my argument is still lacking in solidity, partly because there are too many unknowns. Meanwhile, he says, hot water – a key component of household energy use – is virtually ignored. As a first step toward mandatory performance levels at the point of sale or lease with penalties for non-compliance, Watson wants a mandatory disclosure scheme regarding building energy performance in residential buildings similar to that currently in place for the commercial sector.
He often leaves using the dishwasher until night (he was automatically switched on to time use tariffs upon installing a solar system) to minimise peak energy load, but his wife likes to run the dryer when she wants to (though he acknowledges her efforts at keeping the household going).
Indeed, the ABS estimates that more than 600,000 households now have solar power, up from virtually zero only a few years ago. The data extracted from the ODYSSEE database and used in the graphs are: the energy consumption by end uses, stock of dwellings, the average floor area, the number of large electrical appliances, the share of central heating.
Unit consumption per dwelling for space heating with climatic corrections, Unit consumption of hot water per dwelling, Unit consumption per dwelling for cooking, Unit consumption per m2 for space heating with climatic corrections, Stock of dwellings (permanently occupied). Part of these improvements occurred in the area of space heating due to better thermal performance of buildings encouraged by mandatory efficiency standards for new buildings, and a larger penetration of high efficiency boilers (e.g. For large appliances, the improvement in energy efficiency results from technical improvement driven by EU mandatory Directives on labelling and voluntary agreements with equipment manufacturers.
This approach overestimates theA  impact of building regulations as it is well known, but not well quantified , that the actual unit of new dwellings is higher than this consume more than this theoretical consumption, because of non compliance and rebound effects (the fact that in well insulated dwellings occupants tend to have a higher indoor temperature than in less insulated dwellings). Over the same period, final household electricity consumption increased faster, at an annual growth rate of 1.7%.
The share of electricity for lighting and appliances increased from 10% to 15% in 2009 compared to 1990.
However, part of this improvement was offset by increased number of electrical A appliances, larger homes and the diffusion of central heating[7] . Central heating (around 85% of EU dwellings in 2009) , which includes district heating, block heating, individual boiler heating and electric heating, implies that all the rooms are well heated, as opposed to room heating, where generally a stove provides heat to the main room only. Solar water heaters can represent a good economical and environmental solution mainly for southern countries which benefit from a good solar irradiation.
But I guess we used ~1000KWh more than normal due to moving in January, having the doors open for workmen on frequent occasions and a few small teething problems with the heat pumps – both for warm air heating and for the warm water boiler. But there may be little room to do this, short of either installing a wood burning stove (which never pays itself back, even with heat recovery from the heating system) or installing solar thermal water heating (which again, will never pay itself back). That also means we only have about 8 hours of daylight in the winter (it doesn’t balance out in the summer by having longer evenings).
We use Air conditioner only for Bed room 2 to 3 hours at night on Summer months followed by a fan. If children can be trained to live without Air-conditioners and Washing machines (I never saw them till I got a job at age 24), they will be healthier and pay less for energy throughout their life.
It’s just me, so I did an experiment to see how much money I could save on electricity. The income per households for EU-27 as a whole is the sum of the 27 EU countries based on national Odyssee data. The floor area per dwelling for EU27 is extrapolated from the weighted average floor area of dwellings of 19 countries (9 EU-15 countries and 10 new members) which represent around 85% of the total EU stock of dwellings; the weighting factor is the stock of dwellings. Unfortunately, it is said that the weight needed for such a thing would be immense, given current LED technology. If we were a culture that would respect environmental limits imposed on the size of human population and economy (which would for instance be reflected in the goal of striving to attain a steady state economy), if such an awareness of optimal size relative to the size of the ecology would be common (it is completely absent from contemporary mainstream economic thought), then I think it would follow automatically that we would easily attain a population size that would allow us to live off of the annual solar energy yield. Expansionism has been a dominant force of white culture for centuries, as seen in the conquest of for instance the America's and most other parts of the world. The Indians never sought to convert Christians, and respected their religion, but the reverse was far from true. He distuingishes between Giver cultures and Taker cultures, and describes Taker cultures as cultures that consistent violate what he calls the law of competition. After all, in both arena's, individuals seek to obtain valuables in direct competition with other individuals. It states that: You may compete to the full extent of your capabilities, but you may not hunt down your competitors or destroy their food or deny them access to food.
The ones you are talking about may very well have turned into Taker culture themselves, due to the influence and interference of white men. Inability to control population size is an aspect of a culture that does not believe in environmental limits to population, and that does not believe that other life also has the right to live on the earth. They were sure to limit their population size, because to not do so would endanger their comfort of living. Not all 'indigenous' cultures have been Giver cultures, true, for instance, the Inca's certainly were not.
I think you are incorrect in saying that all (indigenous) cultures had the same growth characteristics as we have. It bears strong resemblence to the materialistic determinism that says that life is a freak accident, man evolved by chance, and there is no meaning or purpose to our life or life in general. But I refuse to succumb to the fatalistic materialistic view that says that we have no choice, man is evil, and is destined to self destruct. This suggests that an increasing portion of energy being consumed throughout the country is coming from environmentally friendly sources.
As a result, the share of the most efficient appliances (A, A+, A++) has increased significantly: from 6% in 1997 to 94% in 2009 for refrigerators and from 3% to 95% for washing machines, for example[4]. There exist large discrepancies among countries: from few improvements for Hungary, Greece to great improvements for new members such as Slovenia, Poland and Romania with an annual average rate of energy efficiency improvement above 2% over the period 2000-2009 (Figure 7). The combined effect of these three factors was an increase in the average consumption per dwelling by around 0.4% a year each (Figure 6), offsetting 60% of the energy efficiency improvement achieved through technological innovation. It is estimated that the replacement of single room heating by central heating increases the energy required for space heating by about 25A % on average.
The energy suppliers falling under the regulation, have to prove a volume of savings proportional to their market share. IE: In Canada our power has to travel further and there is some loss as it travels, so more power needs to be produced to counteract this problem. We do not use Airconditioners or heaters as weather is moderate in our region and use natural gas geysers and gas stoves. With smart meters I can see hourly consumption and note that the basal level of energy useage at my house is 500 watts continuously.
I live in Republic of Panama and last month they claim I used 971kWh I find it hard to believe.
There is a large refrigerator in my apartment, but I don’t buy enough food at one time to fill it. I think potential energy systems powered by natural energy is really the most promising development in sustainable energy production.
I wonder what percentage of 'other' represents computer use, but I would guess that television takes a big bite out of it. It was in the 50's, if I am correct, that consumption as a major goal was formulated, along with the design principles of planned obsolesence and the like.
Today, we let nothing stop our economic imperialism, in the past, it was territorial and religious imperialism. Around the world, white men have sought to destroy the lives of indigeneous peoples, and force them into the white economy and the white way of life.
It is his job to eradicate all competitors for food, along the food chain of himself and his crops.

The chimpansee may attack and kill the cheeta if the cheeta provides a direct threat to the safety of the chimp.
Quinn argues that any species that does not abide by the law, will endanger its own survivability by harming the diversity and sustainability of the ecosystem. It is the vision of domination versus cooperation or sharing, of being 'above' versus being an integral part of, of using for our own good versus contributing to the greater good. It is true that given our population size, we have no choice but to engage in insustainable practices.
Yet there are fundamental differences between for instance the mindset of the Sioux, and that of our present worldwide culture. If we would keep our food supply constant by not clearing more forest for agriculture, and the like, then as night follows day, the world population would not increase either.
Not clear that willingness or unwillingness to let population size grow plays much of a role. If you can keep the same population size for thousands of years, as I think the kayapo did, that kinda proves that it is very well possible to constrain your population. I consider it a dirt poor philosophy, morally bankrupt, that has nothing to appeal to to get people to make different choices.
All EU countries have developed thermal regulations for new dwellings, some of them as far as the seventies[1]. Between 2008 and 2009, the household energy consumption has decreased by 0.7% due to the economic crisis.
Most of the savings in energy consumption in the household sector took place because of improvements in space heating technologies and tighter building codes (see also Figure 9 below).
For that purpose, they have to implement actions with their consumers to encourage energy savings investments and will receive in exchange certificates; they are also allowed to buy energy saving certificates from suppliers in excess of their obligation. Other countries might have poor infrastructure, or use poor conductors for their powerlines. On summers months March to October (its hot most of the time) temperature can range from 28 to 42 (max). There are new fridges which use a motor fan to remove frost, they consume 1 Kwh per day more. These Provincial governments have historically encouraged home heating and cooling with electricity.
It is winter, so I put the perishables on a ledge outside my window and didn’t run the frig for an entire month.
Since the year 2005 however, energy consumption per capita in the household sector decreased in almost all countries. Potential energy systems that get replenished by way of solar and wind power, and generate energy as needed. The concept, that other forms of life also have a fundamental right to live, a right to share in the living space and yield of the land, is completely absent from our farming practices.
But the chimp will never organize a hunt to kill the cheeta in order to reduce competition for their common food source.
At the same time, it is true that for instance the Kayapo were a large culture that practiced sustainable forest-dwelling agriculture for thousands of years, in a large area in the Amazon.
But disproportionately high population size is the *result* of an insustainable worldview to begin with, not the cause of the insustainable mindset that is needed to sustain this population. Only since the rise of settled agriculture, could we begin to increase our population beyond the normal carrying capacity of the earth. I also know that there are a few fundamental differences between one type of culture and another. Differences between countries can be explained by the high energy efficiency potentials available in these countries due to outdated infrastructures (e.g. With a top-down approach, the impact of solar heating on the household energy consumption will be measured based on the energy statistics. As a consequence, topics as limitation of growth of both population and economy are politically inconceivable. It is only technology that has made the consumption society possible, because now mass production is cheaper than repair, and the market has been increasingly rationalized. These practices (warfare on nature) would be insustainable even if there were only a thousand people alive on the earth, because in the end, they would lead to the same situation: overpopulation and environmental destruction.
The world population will rise to meet the available stock of food, and hunger will ensue anyway. According to Hartmann, there are many tribes that have sustained constant population sizes for thousands of years. However, the magnitude of this impact varies with the countries, depending on the number of standards upgrades, their severity and the number of new dwellings (i.e. Gas and electricity are the main energy source in the household energy consumption (39% and 25% respectively in 2009 compared to 29% and 19% in 1990). Unit consumption per dwelling has decreased in almost all EU countries from 1990 to 2009 except in 6 countries, mainly southern countries (Malta, Greece, Cyprus, Spain), Finland and Croatia (Figure 3). In this case, the savings come from the fact that one kWh of solar will replace more than one kWh of conventional energy (due to the convention applied in energy statistics to solar heating, namely that there are no losses in conversion). We have gas burners here and gas heating, so I ended up just paying for the electricity used by my computer, lights, and cell phone. Efficiency improvements in space heating and large electrical appliances reduces the consumption while increasing size of dwellings and increased use of electrical appliances and central heating contribute to increase the consumption and offset part of the energy efficiency benefits. Until such a shift in thought is made, any advances in technology will have to go against the tide of the times, fighting an uphill battle. Cheap production (in terms of labor costs) in a highly competitive market pretty much mandates that production takes precedence over repair and maintenance (which is labor intensive). If population size would have become a problem to them, then the sacredness of the woods and the living places of animals would have been central to their thinking.
It is popular to say that hunger is the result of the faulty distribution of food, and it is partially true, but as long as woman are giving birth to 6 children on average (as it is in some countries in Africa), no amount of distribution will stop hunger for long. It is ridicilous to say that this is because they didn't have the technology to grow beyond it. The level of energy saved will depend depending on the type of water heaters replaced (for instance their efficiency). CO2 emissions per dwelling were 24% below their 1990 level in 2008, mainly because of CO2 savings resulting from switches to fuel with a lower CO2 content. This has been a consistent aspect of our culture ever since the rise of settled agriculture. Figure 9 shows an estimate of the impact of building standards in the unit consumption of dwelling since 1990 for a selection of countries[2]. Heat, from district heating, and coal represent 7% and 3% of the household consumption in 2009 (compared to 10% and 12% in 1990). So looking at both energy consumption for water heating and water consumption trends in the households, one could draw some conclusions on the influence of solar heating penetration. The savings values have been agreed upon following a process involving various stakeholders on the basis of expert opinions and survey data. The people working at the beerdocks were so strong from lifting barrels of beer day in day out, you had better not pick a fight with them, for you were sure to lose. Infant mortality and the like was lower in many indigenous cultures, than it is today in many parts of our modern world. The introduction of new dwellings with better insulation since 1990 contributed to decrease the unit consumption per dwelling at different levels: 12% for Sweden, around 35% for France and Netherlands, 40% for Poland, 50% for Denmark and 70% for Germany. In a bottom-up approach used in national evaluations, solar water heaters are considered as an energy saving technology and thus the saving will be much larger[8]. The details of the calculations are not public but the value of the standardised savings by equipment and actions are published on the Ministry web site[9].
The other factors responsible for the decrease of the unit consumption should be the retrofitting of existing dwellings and the introduction of new more efficient heating appliances (namely, condensing boilers and heat pumps), as well as behavioral savings.

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