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The phrase “open architecture” probably elicits a beautiful picture of a roofless garden or a spacious home with many windows, few walls, and as little a barrier as possible between human and nature. In this way, open architecture proponents see it as a way to highlight home energy consumption and hopefully decrease it, making it more efficient, in the future.
In computer science, some researchers have proposed using open architecture to make homeowners aware of their energy consumption, causing them to do better from knowing better.
Another proposal, this time focusing on energy consumption in businesses, designed, “an open architecture for a system with the potential to encourage sustainable energy usage within residential environments.
In both scenarios, allowing users to easily access their energy consumption via open architecture-created data visualizations will spur homeowners to track what they’re consuming and calculating the costs of keeping up their habits as is or the potential savings from changing them. Within this curriculum, learning about databases, health informatics, and public policy, students can apply this knowledge to understanding and tracking the implications of mass energy consumption in an era where sustained renewable energy is becoming a real possibility and energy costs are constantly rising. The graph characterizes the average consumption per households (at normal climate) in relation to the evolution of prices and incomes.
The figure shows an estimate of the impact standards on new buildings had on the average unit consumption for space heating of the dwelling stock for the EU as a whole. The energy consumption of households is decomposed in different explanatory effects: change in average dwelling size, increasing number of appliances (more electrical appliances) and central heating diffusion, energy efficiency improvement (as measured from ODEX) and change in behaviour related to more confort. The right figure shows the reversed trends with an increasing electricity consumption of air conditioning. Over the period 1990-2010, energy efficiency in industry has improved in EU-27 countries by 29%, at an annual average rate of 1.7% per year (Figure 1). Over the period 1990-2010, energy efficiency in the household sector increased by 27%, at an average rate of 1.6% per year (Figure 1).
Energy efficiency improvements for space heating occurred as a result of better thermal performance of buildings encouraged by mandatory efficiency standards for new buildings, increase in the penetration of A condensing boilers and heat pumps and the thermal retrofitting of existing dwellings. Energy consumption for air conditioning per m2 for the stock average is increasing rapidly (Figure 6, graph 1). In the EU-27 countries, energy efficiency in the transport sector increased by 15% between 1990 and 2010, at an annual average rate of 0.8% due to increased efficiency particularly for passenger cars and airplanes. The ODEX indexA (Fig.1) measures the energy efficiency progress by main sector (industry, transport, households) and for the whole economy (all final consumers). The sub-sectoral indices are calculated from variations of unit energy consumption indicators, measured in physical units and selected so as to provide the best a€?proxya€? of energy efficiency progress, from a policy evaluation viewpoint.
The weight used to get the weighted aggregate is the share of each sub- sector in the total energy consumption of the sub a€“sectors considered in the calculation. The variation of the specific consumption of space heating per dwelling linked to building standards is modelled as the change brought about by the introduction of new dwellings with a better insulation than the whole stock since a base year (e.g.
The trend in final energy consumptionA provides a broad indication of progress in reducing final energy consumption and associated environmental impacts by the different end-use sectors (transport, industry, services and households). The Europe 2020 growth growth strategy aims to address shortcoming of the European economic model while creating coditions for smarter, more sustainable and inclusive growth.
On 15 December 2011, the European Commission adopted the Communication "Energy Roadmap 2050". On 10 November 2010, the European Commission has adopted the Communication "Energy 2020 - A strategy for competitive, sustainable and secure energy". Energy Efficiency Plan 2011, [COM(2011) 109 final] Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions.
With its "Roadmap for moving to a competitive low-carbon economy in 2050" the European Commission is looking beyond these 2020 objectives and setting out a plan to meet the long-term target of reducing domestic emissions by 80 to 95% by mid-century as agreed by European Heads of State and governments. The climate and energy package is a set of binding legislation which aims to ensure the European Union meets its ambitious climate and energy targets for 2020. Methodology of data manipulationThe trends observed for some sectors or end-uses, especially for space heating are very irregular, which results in strong fluctuations in the ODEX, that are difficult to understand as energy efficiency progress should normally change smoothly (incremental technical change). Some sub-sectors are not accounted for in ODEX, such as mining, construction, other manufacturing industries, small electrical appliances, lighting, services. The unit consumption is expressed in terms of energy used per ton produced for energy intensive products (steel, cement and paper) and in terms of energy used related to the production index for the other branches.
For the transport sector, the evaluation is carried out at the level of 8 modes or vehicle types: cars, trucks, light vehicles, motorcycles, buses, total air transport, rail, and water transport. For households, the evaluation is carried out at the level of 3 end-uses (heating, water heating, cooking) and 5 large appliances (refrigerators, freezers, washing machines, dishwashers and TVs). To calculate the ODEX (Fig.1),A data submitted to the ODYSSEE project by countries on voluntary basis is used. ODYSSEE MURE is a project coordinated by ADEME and supported under the Intelligent Energy Europe Programme of the European Commission. This briefing is part of the EEA's report The European Environment - State and Outlook 2015. We use cookies to record some preference settings and to analyse how visitors use our web site. The key when trying to save energy is to know which appliances are responsible for most energy use at your home. We will focus here mostly on the electricity part, as this is the major part of energy delivery to households in the UAE.
The following energy balance estimation for UAE residents is based on the AC part of electricity usage in the UAE and combining this with typical energy household usage information from the UK and the Netherlands. Fig: The data is based on the information from typical energy household balance information from the UK, USA and the Netherlands and an assessment of the average cooling contribution to household electricity use by DEWA.
For lighting it is recommended to install either CFL (Compact Fluorescent Lights) or LED (Light Emitting Diode) lights.
Because of the ongoing energy transition (see my other article) we have an increased need for smart appliances. In the future we might go to the situation where electricity prices might fluctuate during the day. All new homes in England will have to be carbon neutral by 2016, under proposals announced by Communities Secretary Ruth Kelly.
The scheme includes tightening building and planning rules, and a star rating system that reveals a property's energy efficiency to potential home buyers.
The government hopes that the measures will help it meet the target of cutting CO2 emissions by at least 60% by 2050.
A zero carbon house is defined as a property with "zero net emissions of carbon dioxide from all energy use in the home". This includes energy consumed by appliances such as TVs and cookers, not just other uses that are currently part of building regulations, including heating, hot water and ventilation. Mrs Kelly said that the decision to exempt carbon zero homes from stamp duty, announced by Gordon Brown in his Pre-Budget Report, would act as a financial incentive to developers.

The measures have been welcomed by conservation group WWF, which played host to the event where Mrs Kelly made the announcement.
Paul King, WWF's director of campaigns, said: "The code sends the right signal, loud and clear, for house builders to put zero carbon development at the top of their agenda. Earlier this year, the Sustainable Development Commission (SDC) published a report warning that key environmental targets were "undeliverable" unless households cut the amount of resources they consumed. The government's environmental watchdog warned that existing properties also needed to be made more energy efficient. At least 75% of properties are still expected to be in use in 2050, the year by which the government hopes to have cut carbon emissions by 60% from 1990 levels.
The SDC concluded that retrofitting current technologies, such as better insulation and more efficient heating systems, to the existing housing stock was the most cost-effective way to reduce households' environmental impact. Mrs Kelly acknowledged that more effort was needed to improve the energy efficiency of existing homes, and hoped the rating scheme, called Energy Performace Certificates, would encourage households to cut consumption. The communities secretary also used her speech to launch a consultation on whether to include water efficiency measures within building regulations. The larger sample size for the 2009 RECS allowed for the release of data and comparisons to be made for 16 individual states. RECS characteristics data, released in early 2011, showed an increasing number of televisions, computers, and other electronic devices that add to household plug loads as well as the greater use of energy-efficient appliances. Standby power consumption figures were taken from the 2005 Intrusive Residential Standby Service Report. But in reality, “open architecture” has to do with the unsexy steel of computers, the motherboards and software that gets run. The way that one team of researchers is proposing this is by having open architecture to create an interface that highlights the household’s energy consumption. It enables the collection and storage of energy consumption data from individual electrical appliances. With online degree programs, such as an Online Master of Science in Health Informatics from The University of Scranton, students can receive a comprehensive education to prepare them for the fields of information technology, business, and healthcare. Knowing how the data works as well as its implications makes open architecture not just an interesting strategy, but one that could prove to be extraordinarily cost-effective.
The income per households for EU-27 as a whole is the sum of the 27 EU countries based on national Odyssee data.
The floor area per dwelling for EU27 is extrapolated from the weighted average floor area of dwellings of 19 countries (9 EU-15 countries and 10 new members) which represent around 85% of the total EU stock of dwellings; the weighting factor is the stock of dwellings. All EU countries have developed thermal regulations for new dwellings, some of them being introduced as far back as during the seventies[1].
The reduction was quite significant in The Netherlands[5], Ireland and France since 1990, as well as in some new member countries since 2000 (e.g.
This approach overestimates the impact of building regulations as it is well known, but not well quantified, that the actual unit of new dwellings is higher than this consume more than this theoretical consumption, because of non compliance and rebound effects (the fact that in well insulated dwellings occupants tend to have a higher indoor temperature than in less insulated dwellings). For each sector, the index is calculated as a weighted average of sub-sectoral indices of energy efficiency progress; sub-sectors being industrial or service sector branches or end-uses for households or transport modes.
1990), assuming that the unit consumption of new dwellings is equal to the theoretical value implied by thermal regulations (Fig.2).
The improvements of the energy performance of buildings as a result of tightening building codes are represented also in percentage change compared to 1990 levels (Fig.2). Increased energy efficiency can lead to significant reductions in energy consumption provided that measures are in place to discourage the occurrence of rebound effects. GHG emissions, air pollution, etc) depends both on the sources of energy as well as on the total amount of energy consumed. One of the headline targets include the objective of increasing the share of renewable energy in final energy consumption to 20% by 2020. Presents a roadmap for action in line with a 80-95% greenhouse gas emissions reduction by 2050. The EU is committed to reducing greenhouse gas emissions to 80-95% below 1990 levels by 2050 in the context of necessary reductions by developed countries as a group. The CommunicationA defines the energy priorities for the next ten years and sets the actions to be taken in order to tackle the challenges of saving energy, achieving a market with competitive prizes and secure supplies, boosting technological leadership, and effectively negotiate with our international partners.
It shows how the sectors responsible for Europe's emissions - power generation, industry, transport, buildings and construction, as well as agriculture - can make the transition to a low-carbon economy over the coming decades. Such fluctuations can be linked to various factors: imperfect climatic corrections, especially with warm winters, behavioural factors, influence of business cycles, imperfection of statistics, especially for the last year.
The reason is that energy efficiency progress is difficult to capture with the existing indicators (e.g.
Unit energy consumption captures the energy efficiency development better than traditional energy intensities (per unit of value added). The overall energy efficiency index aggregates the trends for each transport mode in a single indicator for the whole sector. This project gathers representatives such as energy Agencies from the 28 EU Member States plus Norway and it aims at monitoring energy efficiency trends and policy measures in Europe.
The EEA is an official agency of the EU, tasked with providing information on Europea€™s environment. Energy professionals call this the energy balance: How much energy goes in (by which sources?) and for what is this energy used? According to this article, DEWA (Dubai Electricity and Water Authority) estimates this to be an average of 20,000 kilowatt-hours per person annually. The better your home is isolated, the longer it stays at the right temperature without turning the AC on all the time.
In case for example you forgot to turn off the light, you can see at your work by an app that some lights are still on and turn them off from remote at your work. It can be more economical to use electricity during a sunny, windy day than during a cloudy, still day. Use the AC as much during off-peak hours, and make use of additional support of air sealing, fans and regularly clean the filters. For example, the average energy expenditure for a New Jersey household was $3,065, more than twice as much as the $1,423 for the average California household.
The first set of consumption and expenditures data tables, released this week, shows total and average energy consumption and expenditures by regional, structural, and demographic characteristics. Open architecture is akin to open-source code in that anybody can access, upgrade, and design products and add-ons for the code in question.
In this architecture, even the homeowners themselves can tweak what they see and how they see it, allowing them for their most change-worthy habits to be in their faces whenever they need to detract overusing energy. However, part of this improvement was offset by an increase in the number of appliances and larger homes.

Romania, Latvia, Slovenia), thanks to a combined effect of higher energy prices and energy efficiency improvements. The impact of all these measures was as significant reduction in the average emission of new cars[9].
In fact, the service sector saw the highest increase in energy consumption since 1990 (see ENER16). TheA effects of the main drivers influencing the energy efficiency progress is represented in percentage change compared to 1990 levels (Fig.3). Reducing energy consumption as a result of energy efficiency progress and behavioural changes can lead to significant reductions in environmental pressures associated with energy production and consumption. It is up to the Member states whether they base their targets on gross inland consumption, final energy consumption, primary or final energy savings or energy intensity. In the Energy Roadmap 2050 the Commission explores the challenges posed by delivering the EU's decarbonisation objective while at the same time ensuring security of energy supply and competitiveness.
For some branches the trends shown include also some non-technical changes, especially in the chemical industry the shift to light chemicals, due to the fact that this sector is not sufficiently disaggregated.
Therefore, for the EU-27, dataA extrapolations are being used basedA as much as possible on Eurostat supporting data (e.g. The same principles apply to your washing machine, a robot vacuum cleaner, the dishwashing machine, all your electronics etc. The average household consumed 90 million British thermal units (Btu) in 2009, based on RECS data.
The difference in these expenditures is mainly due to the higher demand for heating in New Jersey. The next RECS data release this summer will include energy use for each fuel and by specific end use.
Since the year 2005 however, energy consumption per capita in the household sector decreased in almost all countries. The combined effect of these two factors increased the energy consumption per dwelling by around 0.4% a year on average (Figure 3), offsetting around 45% of the energy efficiency improvement achieved through technological innovation. However, the magnitude of the impact of such standards varies across the countries, depending on the number of standards upgrades, their severity and the annual volume of construction (i.e.
There is a factor 4 difference between the lowest energy consumption per m2 in southern countries such as Cyprus and Spain and the northern countries with the highest unit consumption (Estonia, Finland, Latvia); there is a factor 2 difference between these highest values and the other Mediterranean countries (Croatia, Bulgaria, Greece and Italy) and The Netherlands.
The share of dwellings with air conditioning has particularly increased in Spain (from 15% in 2000 to 60% in 2010), Italy (from 11% to 35%), Cyprus (from 40% to 90%) and Croatia (from 17% to 27%).
Since 2005 we can observe a slowdown in the improvement of energy efficiency for trucks and light vehicles[10], resulting in an increase in the consumption of road goods per tonne-kilometre. Energy consumption for households per square meter (climate corrected) is represented as percentage change compared to a baseline year (1990, 2000). This directive has a direct impact on the renewables target since it aims to reduce the final energy consumption, thus making theA renewables target easier to reach.
However this indicator does not monitor progress at EU level on the energy efficiency target (different methodologies may be applied for this purpose particularly if the emphasis is on energy savings) but it does provide an indication of progress to date in achieving energy efficiency (in this context energy efficiency means mainly improvements in technological performance). The implicit assumption in the mode of calculation of the ODEX is that all these sub-sectors have the same energy efficiency gains as the sector average. You might even opt for taking a subscription of an Energy Service company, which can do this optimization for you. This continues the downward trend in average per-household energy consumption of the last 30 years.
The larger sample size also permits the release of data for more specific categories and provides a much greater level of precision for all estimates. The loss of efficiency during a recession period is linked to the fact that, the energy consumption does not follow the reduction in activity as part of the consumption is not linked to the level of production, also because industrial equipment, such as kilns, boilers or motors, are less efficient when they do not operate at full capacity.
In Bulgaria and Slovenia the diffusion of air conditioning is more recent but important (15% of dwellings equipped in 2010). In this way some consistency between this top-down calculation and the bottom up made for specific countries is ensured (also country data makes use of Eurostat to the extent possible). Improvements in efficiency for space heating, air conditioning, and major appliances have all led to decreased consumption per household, despite increases in the number of homes, the average size of homes, and the use of electronics. Future analyses will discuss regional differences in fuels used, energy demand, weather, and electricity prices in the residential sector. Efficiency improvements in space heating and large electrical appliances reduces the consumption while increasing size of dwellings and increased use of electrical appliances and central heating contribute to increase the consumption and offset part of the energy efficiency benefits. It is estimated that new dwellings built in 2010 consumed about 40% less energy than dwellings built in 1990, because of new building codes[2]. In 2010, the average unit consumption per m2 for air-conditioning is still low as the percentage of dwellings with air conditioning is low although progressing rapidly.
Newer homes also tend to feature better insulation and other characteristics, such as double-pane windows, that improve the building envelope.
CO2 emissions per dwelling were 24% below their 1990 level in 2008, mainly because of CO2 savings resulting from switches to fuel with a lower CO2 content. Over the period 1990-2010, improvements took place in all industrial branches except the textile industry. This impact is however limited due to the fact that dwellings built since 1990 only represented 20% of the total stock in 2010.
The three most energy intensive branches (chemicals, steel and paper), which represent over 50% of the energy consumption of the sector, reduced their specific energy consumption, i.e.
By 2020 all new buildings in the EU should be a€?nearly-zero energy buildingsa€? according to the EPBD. Significant improvements were also made in the machinery and cement industries which reduced their specific energy consumption by 31% and 17% respectively. The required decrease in energy consumption of a€?low energy buildingsa€? will range from 30 to 50% of what is presently required for new buildings with the existing regulations. For large appliances, the improvement in energy efficiency results from technical improvement driven by EU mandatory Directives on labelling, minimum energy standards for cold appliances and voluntary agreements with CECED (the association of domestic equipment manufacturers).
As a result, the share of appliances which are most efficient (A, A+, A++) has increased significantly: from 6% in 1997 to 94% in 2009 for refrigerators and from 3% to 95% for washing machines, for example[4].

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