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admin 10.08.2013

The term “pyrotechnics” lends itself to meaning “the science of fire.” But for most people watching a fireworks display, there is not so much science, but the wonderful art of it all!
What we think of as “light” are waves or packets of energy, part of the “electromagnetic spectrum” with specific wavelengths (distance from one wave’s crest to the next) that the human eye can pick up on. Both elements and molecules can be involved in an effect called “emission,” either atomic emission (for elements in their atomic form) or molecular emission (for molecules, whether in common stable forms or in fleeting unstable forms).
There are certain elements and molecules that give off very useful wavelengths of light (colors) when they are heated.
So how does the pyrotechnician, knowing that certain chemicals give off certain colors when burned, tailor this property to the colored fireworks shells that we see every midnight on New Year’s Eve around the world and every Fourth of July here in the United States? In this case, we have magnesium as our hot fuel that is oxidized during burning by the three other chemicals (all oxygen sources), propagating the burning reaction.
In this case, we again have our fuels that burn (red gum and magnalium, an organic and a metal, respectively), an oxidizer to provide oxygen (potassium perchlorate), and also our strontium to emit the red.
Pyrotechnicians have many tools at their disposal to help them design the best colors that they can for fireworks.
The pyrotechnician can also mix different colors to get nearly everything in the rainbow:  85% red and 15% blue to make maroon, 80% green and 20% blue to make aqua, or even 55% green and 45% orange to make yellow! Many tools are at the pyrotechnicians disposal to make colors for fireworks displays, for signals, and many other applications. Morecambe Bay is a declining basin and Centrica has been managing the dwindling reserves by producing from it mainly in winter when UK gas demand and prices are highest.
The Chancellor pushed through an extra 12% in tax on North Sea oil and gas production, raising the rate to 32% from 20% in the March Budget, despite warnings from the industry this will limit exploration and make the UK more dependant on imports from Russia and other overseas sources.
E.ON Energy raises business energy contract prices for non maximum demand  meters from Tuesday 3rd May. We seem to be seeing weekly increases in business energy prices lately , and UK  businesses are beginning to feel the strain. Many independently owned pubs, restaurants and hotels are feeling the squeeze from a large increase in business energy costs this year. These increases in energy costs are being absorbed as much as possible but many in the hospitality industry are telling us that they will have to increase the costs of their food and drink menus in order to keep trading this year.
With the news that Scottish Power has updated their business electricity and business gas tariffs , it is the ideal time to do a business energy comparison. The Square Kilometre Array telescope, a multi-million dollar project which could begin construction in 2016, requires an absence of radio interference, which the fracking may cause.Several government departments will lead the research into whether the semi-arid Karoo region could be damaged by fracking. The credit score of your business will affect the competitiveness of your renewal offer from your current supplier as well as any prospective supplier.
Some customers may have been with a supplier for years and always paid by direct debit with no problem but on contract renewal the supplier suddenly wants a deposit or refuses to renew them, leaving them on very high out of contract rates. While we understand the commercial pressures on suppliers, we feel that a number of business energy suppliers are using this cynically as a way of renewing customers at higher prices.
The irony is that at least one of suppliers stating poor credit as an excuse for expensive unit rates has a credit score that they themselves would not take.
Wholesale gas prices are set to increase today on news that liquefied natural gas destined for the UK market has been diverted to Japan. Prices surged the week after the quake and tsunami hit Japan on fears that large volumes of LNG would be diverted to Japan, it seems that these fears have been realised. For further information on future business gas prices call our business gas team on 01202 682127. After the first comprehensive analysis of the green house footprint of shale gas by Cornell University in the US, it has been discovered that the environmental impact of shale gas is a minimum of 20% more that coal. Some have argued that shale gas will provide energy security as well as a signpost to a reduced carbon future.
The debate on shale gas is just beginning, and there are many vested interests from all sides.
There was some volatility seen in power market on Wednesday, showing promise of some clawing back some of the previous sessions losses early on.
The afternoon period of trading saw a reversal of these gains, the whole of the power curve closing the day down. Most of the losses were driven from the gas curve, which responded to a well supplied system and current demand levels being comfortably well supplied. Another good day of renewable generation was seen on Wednesday, wind and hydro generation combining for an overall 8% contribution to the generation mix. The personal examples made it easy to relate the material to my life.JTSpanaway, WARead moreVery informative and knowledgeable.
How to Avoid the Flu and a ColdEleven Steps to Prevent Obesity in Your ChildIs Your Child At risk for Obesity? All numbers are even, as there is space for two sets of electrons, paired according to opposite spins (as required by Pauli exclusion principle). Elements that have valence electrons in s orbitals constitute the s-block, of the periodictable. The question you normally get is, for instance, write the electronic configuration of aluminium.
That shows also that the valence shell, n=3, has 3 electrons, 2 in a s type subshell and 1 ina p type subshell. If we consider the capacity of subshells s, p, d and f, t he diagram also shows us the capacities of the main shells.
There are things that retailers can do to reduce energy usage from the simplest like turning off lights and equipment when they are not needed, but these good housekeeping measures do not deliver the sort of cost reduction I was looking for. A search on the internet brought me to the Carbon Trust website that gave me a lot of information about lights, refrigeration and general energy management. When they visited the shop their representative took details of everything to do with how my business was using energy.
Having measured how and when we use power they come up with a set of recommendations as to how I could make a substantial reduction. The set of changes that they recommended included installing LED lighting, adding time switches to all the electrical equipment that we only use during working hours like drinks chillers and putting motion sensors in the off shop floor areas to switch on the lights only when they are in use. The biggest saving would be with the refrigeration and there are over 15 metres of chilled display cabinets in the store.
The quote for supplying and installing the equipment was ?8000 and because of EnviroGlow's saving guarantee I was comfortable with this size of investment.
EnviroGlow's own technicians came to my store in August and fitted the new lights, Chillscoops and improved the temperature control system on all the chill cabinets and the other smaller alterations. The result has been above my expectations with every week delivering a saving greater than the 20% that hey guaranteed. Dan CockThe owner of Whitstone Village Stores since 2007, Dan Cock has developed his business by adding local produce, hot food to go and an off licence.


Photovoltaic (PV) energy, the conversion of sunlight to electricity, was discovered in the late 1830s, followed by usable PV cells developed in the early 1950s.
PID is a severe threat to PV module reliability because it can result in a power loss of nearly 100 percent in modules at the end of a system string (a number of PV panels aligned in series), sometimes in just one month. PV technologies began with the use of treated crystalline silicon operating as a semiconductor to generate a flow of direct current electricity when exposed to light.
While there is no shortage of sunlight, there are shortcomings with some PV products on the market today. Overall, renewable energy is helping to advance markets and industries, along with everyday adoption of such technologies like never before. The PV industry is projected to install an additional 400 to 600 gigawatts of PV capacity by 2020 as the underlying costs of PV energy are expected to drop by an estimated 10 percent per year.
UL is a global independent safety science company with more than a century of expertise innovating safety solutions from the public adoption of electricity to new breakthroughs in sustainability, renewable energy and nanotechnology. CapTherm has been conducting in-depth studies to determine the effect operating temperature has on operating efficiency and power consumption in high-powered electronics and semiconductors.
Given our core products’ capacity for reducing energy consumption for our customers, CapTherm is already well-positioned to be a facilitator of greater sustainability. CapTherm’s sustainability strategy unfolds in the way we do business and is reflected through our company infrastructure. Our corporate governance framework prompts us to select responsible suppliers, outsourcers and distributors.
CapTherm uses a refrigerant with zero Ozone Depletion Potential (ODP) and zero Global Warming Potential (GWP).
The fireworks division of pyrotechnics, aside from propellants (for rockets) and explosives (for mining and military uses), is almost entirely predicated on the show effect: the loud bang, the bright flash, the whistles and crackles, the blossoming shells, and, of course, the wonderful colors around everything! The human eye can perceive electromagnetic waves that are between approximately 380 and 740 nanometers (a nanometer, or nm, is .0000000001 meters, very small!).
These elements combine to form what we know as molecules, such as carbon dioxide CO2, water H2O, as well as barium nitrate Ba(NO3)2. When energy, in the form of heat or flame, is applied to these chemicals, the electrons in their atomic orbitals take on that energy and get “excited,” like getting a quick sugar-high. Barium and boron will give off green, strontium will give off red, calcium will give off orange, sodium will give off yellow, copper will give off blue, zinc will give of aquamarine, etc. They have different compositions and recipes used to best emit these colors, in whatever colors they can make! The presence of strontium nitrate and strontium oxalate, as they are reacted in this hot plasma, will accept this hot burn as energy to excite their electrons, and then releasing electromagnetic radiation upon relaxation—it just so happens that they release this energy in the form of waves that we see as bright red! For instance, an emission spectrophotometer can measure the wavelengths that it records through an optical sensor and plot those on a graph versus intensity or counts.
Remember: these are *emissive* colors, they don’t work like mixing paints, but like mixing colored “gels” for stage lights. From the science of light emission, color generation is a crucial part in the art of fireworks. Its reliance on imported LNG has increased since then, forcing British gas and other suppliers to compete with other buyers internationally to obtain it. This increase follows the recent slight drop in prices for maximum demand meters offered by E.ON Energy.
SME business customers who took a one year contract last year are seeing a unit rate increase of up to 50% on contract renewal this year. We have also seen in the last few months an increase in the amount of customers who are being asked for a security deposit before the commencement of a new contract. Qatar have agreed to sell 4 million tons of LNG to Japan , which means there will be less gas coming to Europe and the UK.
The number of LNG vessels headed for the UK has dropped drastically in the last week while deliveries to Japan have increased massively. Researchers from the United States discovered that shale gas wells emit large amounts of methane gas, a key contributor to Global Warming.
This theory now seems to be completely wrong and in fact shale gas will prove an even bigger greenhouse polluter than coal and traditional natural gas.
Methane is far worse than CO2 from a green house perspective, although it lingers for a far shorter time in the atmosphere.
Refrigeration, lighting and air conditioning have the potential to use large amounts of electricity. I decided that I needed to look at what reductions I could achieve by making more substantial changes such as investing in new low lighting or refrigeration. With further research I came to the conclusion that I needed help from a specialist who could help me understand the potential changes and saving I could make. This covered the electricity supplier, the voltage that was coming in to the store, the lighting, refrigeration, air conditioning: in fact it was a very complete audit. In fact they guaranteed that we could reduce our power usage by 20% which in cash terms is around ?300 per month. EnviroGlow had two recommendations to reduce the power consumption used by these fixtures; I could retrofit doors which would deliver the greatest saving, but would be pretty expensive or they could fit their own Chillscoop system.
They did the work in a very professional manner with little inconvenience to our customers. The best performance was a saving of 30% so I don't think that I will have any complaints about underperformance. Last year was a record-breaking year as the market grew by 76 percent, according to the Solar Energy Industries Association (SEIA).
Product reliability plays a crucial role in the overall PV energy cost profile and return on initial investment – related to both higher and more consistent power output and the need for fewer, less frequent PV panel replacements. Creating an established scientific test procedure that is easier and less costly to screen modules for PID helps enhance PV reliability, as well as promote PV adoption. Although crystalline silicon is still used by the majority of the industry, newer thin film polymer and semi-conducting molecule PV technologies are evolving, allowing PV use in products such as flexible roofing applications. It is important for the PV industry to develop a unique and proven PID testing method, particularly one that is innovative and comprehensive in the way it assesses PID susceptibility.
There is greater demand for innovative energy generation, distribution, management and usage. But this cannot occur without putting safety, performance and reliability in the spotlight – achieved through fundamental discovery, progressive testing methodologies, equipment, and procedures, integration of software and innovating standards. As long as the industry can ensure reliability, solar energy will continue to push forward as a clean, renewable source of energy utilized widely by consumers and businesses. We believe that, by solving basic cooling problems, we will definitely improve energy efficiency but will also open up the scope for much more flexible industrial design possibilities. However, we also strive to implement sustainability practices throughout our internal company infrastructure, in concert with our internal stakeholders and shareholders and, externally, with our supplier relationships.


We are constantly driven to develop and commercialize cleantech innovation and we strive to create and internalize a culture for sustainability and energy conservation among all our stake and shareholders.
We aim to develop a corporate image that is in line with the products we develop and the value proposition they convey.
Instead of the traditional welding techniques we use ultrasonic welding equipment in most production steps, avoiding the traditional use of chemicals and fossil fuels.
But how does a pyrotechnician, a scientist, translate chemicals into a fireworks art display for the viewer’s enjoyment? If you apply heat to water you may boil it and get steam, but if you apply enough heat to barium nitrate in the right conditions you get a very deep green flame. The electrons “jump” to what’s called a higher energy state, but they can only stay there for so long; the electrons will “relax” back down to their original states, but not without passing along that extra energy that they were given.
In our example earlier, if the oxidizer (or oxygen source) barium nitrate Ba(NO3)2 is burned along with a fuel such as aluminum powder or an organic tree extract called “red gum,” the self-sustaining fire will be a green color from fleeting barium ions and short-lived chemicals in the flame.
The pyrotechnician can augment the oxygen found in air by adding a chemical oxidizer, such as potassium perchlorate KClO4 to give off its oxygens much more rapidly, aiding the fast burn. A firework that you or I may see as a deep red may look “meh” to a spectrophotometer (and vice-versa: it could give you the clearest red spectrum, but we may not think it’s that great). Many pubs and restaurants are reporting reduced turnover while supermarkets are reporting record turn over and profits.
One point I think all of us who are involved in the business gas sector will agree on is: anything that can help reduce the current gas prices can only be a good thing, as long as it is not at the expense of future generations. Bella B.Everett, WARead moreI loved that the instructor, Stephany shared her story so we could relate. These shapes are determined by solving the Schroedinger equation (gives quantum mechanical behaviour of electrons). The d block consists of transition metals, where the distribution of electrons in the 5 different orbitals are responsible for the varied colours and geometries of the complexes made using these elements. After talking to another Premier retailer who had already had his store made more energy efficient I asked EnviroGlow  to come a survey my store. That offers the prospect of getting a 45% return on my investment and a payback within a little over 2 years. As the overall price to install solar continues to decrease due to lowering manufacturing and material costs, it is becoming even more attractive to consumers and businesses. Through conducting research and developing new and improving standards and testing methodologies for solar products, the use of such tests that look for potential induced degradation (PID) susceptibility, for example, will help manufacturers better understand the performance of their module.
When testing is conducted in accordance with precisely defined protocols, it ensures more objective and reproducible results from subsequent PV module testing. This is a transformative age with new technologies and product developments arriving at an incredible pace.
Instilling a highly scientific, multi-faceted engineering discipline into research, development, design and manufacturing of products worldwide encourages safer and higher performance PV systems. Ken has over 25 years of experience in global safety engineering across a wide range of industry sectors. Registration or use of this site constitutes acceptance of our Terms of Service and Privacy Policy. In addition, all our products and supplies are in compliance with environmental ROHS, ReACH directives and our supply chain has been optimized to reduce and minimize our carbon footprint.
Wavelengths longer than that are “ultraviolet,” and shorter than that are “infrared,” which the human eye cannot see.
For certain elements and chemicals in certain conditions, that energy is released in the form of light of a very specific wavelength (or energy) that our eye perceives as color: red, blue, green, yellow, etc. If a chlorine-containing compound, such as Teflon® (C2F4 polymer), the barium and chlorine elements will combine and the resulting unstable BaCl- “free radical” will emit an even deeper and more lovely green color due to some “orbital effects” on the electrons.
The way that the human eye perceives color and wavelengths is “biased” in many ways in that we are more or less sensitive to different wavelengths, and therefore colors. John Conkling as an undergraduate research associate while pursuing his Bachelor’s degree in chemistry at Washington College in Chestertown, MD, with a focus on energetic materials and pyrotechnics. This tells me that confidence is still very low in the general population and the increase in energy costs for both businesses and domestic customers will only add to the feeling of less money in your pocket. You will learn how to access its powers so you can quickly and dramatically increase your energy at will. During the hypnosis I was able to visualize myself with my ideal body and it was very real! The inside shells don't usually interact with the exterior (other atoms or molecules that approach). As energy costs only seem to be going up and up I needed to do something to reduce this spiralling expense. Driven by the volatility of energy prices from traditional sources such as coal, gas and fossil fuels, the push to advance solar energy use reminds us of the critical need to mitigate certain risks that come with progress in innovation – research and standards are two ways to help do that. However, perhaps most importantly for increased adoption, the solar industry must ensure PV systems are a sound investment. Conducting PID testing with appropriate standards, helps ensure more objective and reproducible results from subsequent PV module testing.
However, all innovation is met with emerging risks, and mitigating these risks is most important to allow for further innovation.
Ken is a frequent speaker at global technical conferences, author of technical papers, and leader in the standard and code communities. Management, share and stakeholders all display various biographies that link to a background of sustainability and environmental consciousness.
So, now we know what colors are to the eye and the brain, but how can the pyrotechnician “make” these fireworks colors? Chris continued working with the Summer Pyrotechnic Seminar series while attending the University of Virginia for graduate school in organometallic chemistry. Ken was recognized as a charter recipient of UL’s Distinguished Member of Technical Staff and is a Registered Professional Engineer. The majority of the processes we have chosen for manufacturing clearly display our mandate for sustainability and energy efficiency.
The fact electron are distributed in shells is a consequence of quantization of energy, so that there is not an energy value smaller than that of the separation between shells what implies that no electron can be in between shells.



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