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The personal examples made it easy to relate the material to my life.JTSpanaway, WARead moreVery informative and knowledgeable. How to Avoid the Flu and a ColdEleven Steps to Prevent Obesity in Your ChildIs Your Child At risk for Obesity?
Cartoon by Khalil BendibPetroleos Mexicanos (Pemex), the state owned oil company, is quietly expanding operations to extract oil from shale deposits in six Mexican states.
To correlate ionization energies, electron affinities, and electronegativities with the chemistry of the elements. We have seen that when elements react, they often gain or lose enough electrons to achieve the valence electron configuration of the nearest noble gas. Because atoms do not spontaneously lose electrons, energy is required to remove an electron from an atom to form a cation. If an atom possesses more than one electron, the amount of energy needed to remove successive electrons increases steadily. Carbon credits are a hot commodity these days, but reliance on this system as a permanent offset of fossil fuel emissions may be dangerous. Land management is key to carbon markets, because protecting and rebuilding forests facilitates sequestration – the capturing of a tradeable commodity. NEWSFLASH: Carbon offset policies and markets typically rely on the promise of carbon storage in land reservoirs of 100 years as sufficient for issuing a carbon credit. HARD DRIVES CRASH: Land carbon stocks are also not particularly reliable places to permanently store carbon.
This is not to say that protecting forests is not vitally important for the health of the planet for many reasons, including climate change. As long as the right kinds of land management responses are implemented, the land carbon buffer can provide a valuable, cost-effective, short-term service in helping to reduce atmCO2, and slow the rate of anthropogenic climate change, bringing co-benefits for biodiversity and sustainable livelihoods, and giving us some time to develop a low carbon economy….
Consistent with our understanding of the lifetime of the airborne fraction of a pulse of CO2, the most effective form of climate change mitigation is to avoid carbon emissions from all sources. Caroline Alden is a graduate student at the Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research in the Department of Geology at the University of Colorado at Boulder. A recent BURN Journal post on the global carbon cycle and the fate of fossil fuel CO2 emissions – Carbon Cycle 101 – discussed how land plants and the world’s oceans slurp about half of fossil fuel CO2 emissions out of the atmosphere each year. In other words, 50% of fossil fuel CO2 emissions are naturally sequestered by nature in land plants and ocean waters. Scientists have been waiting worriedly for these sinks to “saturate,” or quit taking so much extra CO2 out of the atmosphere. A paper published last summer in Nature by researchers in Boulder, Colorado compared the growth rate of the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere each year with the amount of CO2 put in the atmosphere by fossil fuel combustion each year since 1959. What they found was that not only are land and ocean sinks still taking up excess CO2 from the atmosphere, but that the rate of uptake has grown steadily stronger for the last 5 decades! The good news is that, to date, climate change has probably been attenuated by strong natural sinks; if more of our emissions had remained in the atmosphere, the globe would have warmed more than it already has. The bad news is that climate change is already happening, in spite of the 50% climate discount on emissions that the Earth’s natural sinks currently offer us. When the land and ocean sinks saturate – and all signs say they very will soon – the impacts of each watt of electricity produced by a coal-fired power plant, of each mile driven by a gasoline-powered vehicle, and of each lawn mower lap around the back yard will be felt in full by greenhouse gas warming of the planet. McKibben is the founder of, a grassroots organization aimed at stopping fossil fuel extraction (350 is the atmospheric concentration of CO2, in parts per million, above which leading scientists predict global warming may seriously threaten civilization).
Despite the aggressive work of 350 and other organizations, 230 billion more tons of CO2 have been dumped into the atmosphere over the last 6 years, putting us at  397 ppm today.
Also on tour were Ira Glass and Josh Fox (the banjo-wielding creator of Gasland), and an elaborate demonstration involving multiple cases of beer and Winona LaDuke drinking them: a witty metaphor for… wait… what was the point of that again? In an interview with Gothamist last summer, McKibben frequently cited the economic success of divestment in ending South Africa’s system of Apartheid. There have been a handful of successful divestment campaigns in recent history, including Darfur, Tobacco and others, but the largest and most impactful one came to a head around the issue of South African Apartheid.
Economists point out that it wasn’t the direct economic instrument of divestment that ended Apartheid, but the combined social and economic pressures that mounted and prevailed, as the global community identified and rejected a moral wrong. This week, in New York City, the Union of Concerned Scientists is convening a meeting of dozens of public officials from New York, New Jersey, Virginia, North Carolina and Florida to talk about one of the most serious issues these officials are facing: rising sea levels brought about by global warming, the product of greenhouse gases. I’ve known the Union of Concerned Scientists to be public-minded advocates of science-based solutions to all sorts of issues. UCS and public officials have done such a great job getting out the climate message that there is noted consensus about the urgency of doing something.
If energy-induced global warming truly is global, how come it’s not showing up in my neighborhood?
Most of the greenhouse gas emitted through human activity comes from the production of energy. This group of gases is thought to contribute to global climate change, long-term shifts in weather partly due to the tendency of these gases to trap energy, in the form of electromagnetic radiation from the sun, that would otherwise have been reflected back out into space. Noteworthy greenhouse gases  are carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, methane, hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6).
Plants and some types of microscopic organisms take carbon dioxide gas out of the air and turn it back into solid, carbon-based materials like plant fibers, using the energy of sunlight.
The United States produces more greenhouse gas each year per person than most other countries. Furthermore, instead of holding steady at a particular emission rate, every year we use more energy and therefore emit more greenhouse gas. For more information go to The connection between greenhouse gases, climate change, and global warming. Each year what proportion of emissions are man-made are carefully tracked by several agencies nationally and internationally, including the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the National Weather Service, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Climate change includes any change resulting from different factors, like deforestation or an increase in greenhouse gases. Greenhouse gases are those thought to contribute to the greenhouse effect, an overall warming of the Earth as atmospheric gases trap electromagnetic radiation from the sun that would otherwise have been reflected back out into space. Noteworthy greenhouse gases are methane, nitrous oxide, carbon dioxide, hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6). Currently, the composition of the atmosphere is mostly nitrogen and oxygen, with just 0.033 percent carbon dioxide and all other gases accounting for even less. According to 2010 models cited by NASA, 20 percent of the greenhouse effect is attributed directly to carbon dioxide and 5 percent to all other greenhouse gases.
Some greenhouse gases are produced in natural processes, like forest fires, animal manure and respiration, or volcanic eruptions.

Cap-and-trade can be used to regulate any pollutant, not only carbon dioxide or other greenhouse gases. Australia has been considering a cap-and-trade program for carbon dioxide, but that too hasn’t been implemented as of June 2011. In 2005, the European Union passed its own cap-and-trade program to limit carbon dioxide emissions, applied to more than 12,000 factories and power plants in 29 countries. Some regulators have already claimed success, as the carbon dioxide emissions were reduced in 2009; they increased again a little in 2010. Ten states in the Northeast have applied a cap-and-trade system to carbon dioxide as of 2008, in the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative, with the goal of reducing greenhouse gas 10 percent by 2018.
Some economists prefer carbon taxes, as they are simpler to enforce, particularly internationally, and there’s likely to be less dramatic shifts in pricing. From a carbon tax perspective, diesel fuel and natural gas have an advantage over gasoline and coal, respectively, since they produce less carbon dioxide for the energy they generate.
In the United States, carbon taxes in individual states are currently insignificant compared to other market pressures on the price of fuels, particularly in the case of petroleum. However, the company has failed to disclose its use of a controversial technology called fracking and explain the potential environmental impacts to local communities, say activists.The Mexican government estimates that there are as much as 141 trillion cubic feet of viable shale gas reserves in Mexico, almost nine times greater than “conventional gas” reserves. In this section, we develop a more quantitative approach to predicting such reactions by examining periodic trends in the energy changes that accompany ion formation. Larger values of I mean that the electron is more tightly bound to the atom and harder to remove.
Fires and droughts can release massive amounts carbon back to the atmosphere within a season.
It must also be recognized that the capacity of the land buffer to remove and store CO2 from the atmosphere is strictly limited. But the language and metrics in carbon markets and policy forums should be both scientifically sound and self-consistent. The important corollary is that only half of the CO2 we emit each year remains in the atmosphere to trap heat and warm the globe. Models predict that land plants will soon become satisfied with the level of fertilization that extra atmospheric CO2 provides, and that ocean chemistry will soon lose its capacity to accommodate extra CO2. Panel b shows emissions from fossil fuel combustion (in red) as well as land-use changes (gold). So far, four colleges, one public university, one major city, and potentially one mega church have committed to freezing and ultimately withdrawing investments. He painted a picture of a global society that wants electricity to come out of wall sockets, but doesn’t want to destroy the planet in the process. By his calculus, framing this global issue as an actionable fight against an antagonistic tyrant may mobilize people – especially young people, who will be most affected by climate change – to demand change from their universities, colleges, churches, and local governments. By the mid-1980s, 155 campuses — including some of the most famous in the country — had divested from companies doing business in South Africa.
Some of these officials dealt with Hurricane Sandy – the one that left parts of Manhattan without power for five days and battered the New Jersey coast.
UCS, which describes itself as a coalition of citizens and scientists working to better public policy and corporate practices, has closed the meeting. I sent UCS a note asking to go, and dropped what I thought would be our best card with this group – we were just recognized by the American Association for the Advancement of Science for best radio science reporting.
These are public officials, at a meeting convened by a science organization that boasts of its citizen involvement. They have boats out everyday, and they sample water temperature daily just off from where I go in.
The basis for all of our fuels, even the fossil fuels, comes from exploiting the fact that organisms convert  light energy into chemical energy, a potential energy source inside the plant or organism’s cells, whether the energy was converted in the last few decades (wood, biodiesel, ethanol) or millions of years ago (fossil fuels). However, even if we stopped producing any carbon dioxide at all, which is unlikely, the world would still keep producing 80 percent of its former output. Energy involves burning oil and natural gas for heating, burning gasoline, diesel, and jet fuels for transportation. Nitrous oxide is a much smaller percent of the gas mix than carbon dioxide, but for its weight it has a much stronger heat-trapping capability. Global warming is one type of climate change, and it refers to the increasing temperature of the surface of Earth. These gases are thought to affect the climate directly and indirectly, even though they constitute only a small fraction of the blanket of gases that make up the atmosphere. The remaining 75 percent of the greenhouse effect is thought to be due to water vapor and clouds, which are naturally-occurring. However, the majority of new greenhouse gases are produced from industrial processes and energy production.
Often called emission trading, in a working cap-and-trade system, industries that release undesirable compounds into the air, water, or soil have limits of how much they can emit based upon pollution permits. Savings from cleaner air and water and avoided death and illness are estimated in the range of $100 billion per year, according to the EPA.
The program includes some limits to nitrous oxide, and airlines will be obliged to participate by 2012. However, the EU admits it gave out too many permits and that future permits will need to be tighter. The taxes makes a beeline for fossil fuels, which are far and away the main source of carbon dioxide emissions, whether they’re burned in vehicles or for electricity.
Bella B.Everett, WARead moreI loved that the instructor, Stephany shared her story so we could relate. In order to get at these deep underground reserves of gas and oil, Pemex has turned to new fracking technologies developed in the U.S. First, the second electron is being removed from a positively charged species rather than a neutral one, so in accordance with Coulomb’s law, more energy is required. Many think that lifetime is 100 years, and for good reason; even the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change botched this one in its first assessment report.
Such a colossal task would account for only a 40-70 ppm reduction in the 2100 CO2 concentration.
As for potential carbon storage in plants, scientists don’t know exactly what this maxing out point is. Furthermore, climate change is shifting the landscapes for growth: some areas will increase biomass thanks to more rainfall and decreased evaporation. However vigorous the measures taken to increase land carbon stocks, their total potential for carbon storage is minuscule compared with the stock of fossil fuels that could yet be burnt.

Panel c shows the difference between panels a and b, or the annual global net uptake of carbon by land and ocean sinks. The narrative driving this campaign is that investing in the fossil fuel industry promotes global warming.
Standing in the way, to use McKibben’s rhetoric, are fossil fuel industry execs more interested in profit and far less concerned with the environment. 26 state governments, 22 counties, and 90 cities, including some of the nation’s biggest, took their money from multinationals that did business in the country. Others, especially in Florida, already see evidence of climate change – not from storms, but simply in the tides. I though of this as an opportunity to meet and listen to the people who are going to be creating the policies and practices that will be of ever greater significance in this country, as more and more lives and enormous swathes of property are at increasing risk. But when I protested the exclusion of reporters and others from this meeting, a UCS press person said that climate has become so controversial that they worried about hecklers, or trouble-makers – people who would show up for theatrical opposition. And they want to talk just among themselves because an outsider might be argumentative – even disruptive? But when they close the doors, I hope there’s a flicker of shame somewhere inside there.
Today, however, organisms don’t have the capacity to capture anywhere near as much of the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide as we produce, partly because we are burning fuels produced over millions of years. Transportation accounted for just over a third of all carbon dioxide emissions in 2009, electricity was almost 40 percent and residential, commercial, and industrial production, excluding electricity, made up roughly 26 percent. According to NASA, the term global warming gained popular use after geochemist Wallace Broecker published a 1975 paper titled Climatic Change: Are We on the Brink of a Pronounced Global Warming?
The fastest increase in temperatures in the United States is in Alaska, where average temperatures have been increases by more than 3 degrees Fahrenheit per century.
However, even though carbon dioxide and the other greenhouse gases are such a small percentage of the total gas in the atmosphere, they affect when, where and how clouds form, so greenhouse gases have some relevance when it comes to 100 percent of the greenhouse effect. Non-fuel, greenhouse gas-producing applications of fuels include industrial production like asphalt, lubricants, waxes and other . Environmental Protection Agency has three cap-and-trade programs, none of which apply to greenhouse gases. Furthermore, the recession has acted as a major factor in lowered emissions, and European industries haven’t needed to make any technological changes because of lower demand. Many carbon taxes in effect exclude biofuels like wood waste, even though they produce carbon dioxide. You will learn how to access its powers so you can quickly and dramatically increase your energy at will. During the hypnosis I was able to visualize myself with my ideal body and it was very real!
Second, removing the first electron reduces the repulsive forces among the remaining electrons, so the attraction of the remaining electrons to the nucleus is stronger. This misunderstanding is literally an issue of semantics: an individual CO2 molecule will move from the atmosphere into another reservoir in about 100 years. Consider that conservative emission scenarios predict an increase in atmospheric CO2 of 170-600 ppm by 2100 (over 2000 levels), and that total global deforestation would increase CO2 levels by 130-290 ppm. But they do know that there isn’t nearly enough storage on Earth to provide any real silver bullet place to put climate-warming excess CO2.
The dark shaded areas represent 1-sigma uncertainties, and the light shaded areas represent 2-sigma uncertainties. The South African divestment campaign helped break the back of the Apartheid government, and usher in an era of democracy and equality. The officials are meeting with one another for conversations, with a few scientists on hand to offer guidance. If UCS and public officials are doing such a great job getting out the climate message, where is the public consensus about the urgency of doing something?
The agency putting them in called them tidal gates – but the canals have been here for more than 100 years, and they never had gates until fairly recently. Emissions related to cement manufacture happen when limestone (calcium carbonate) is reacted with silica to make clinker, the lumps ground to make cement.
The government establishes how much total pollution that the permits will grant, an umbrella cap on the economy.
They aim to combat acid rain by reducing sulfur dioxide and nitrous oxide compounds, mostly an issue with coal power.
Everyone agrees that these pollutants are bad for the environment and people, and there was a commercially-available solution for nitrous oxides and sulfur dioxide emissions when the cap-and-trade system began in 1990: scrubbers on the smokestacks. The Burgos Basin, a shale formation that lies under three northern states that border Texas – Coahuila, Nuevo Leon and Tamaulipas – has also been targeted for exploration. If an industry participant wants to release more than the permit allows, they buy the right from another industry player, if available, or perhaps face penalties, depending on the details. Ultimately Pemex hopes to expand Mexican shale production to 45 percent of total output by 2026.“We don’t know a thing about it,” Gabino Vicente, a local politician in Santa Ursula, Oaxaca, told Inter Press News Service.
What matters is how long high CO2 conditions (due to fossil fuel burning) will last, and that CO2 lifetime is many thousands of years. Congress could have ordered industry to buy the scrubbers, it was easier to pass cap-and-trade politically, and only a certain sector of energy production emits a significant volume of these chemicals. There isn’t consensus about how much carbon emissions is acceptable, and there is no viable carbon capture technology. And more than 80 percent (by volume) of energy production methods still produce carbon dioxide, whether that’s from biofuels or coal.
The Mexican Alliance Against Fracking presented a 14,000 signature petition to the Mexican parliament last July and staged protests in the capital city that drew an estimated 60,000 people. However, they were unable to stop Enrique Pena Nieto, the president of Mexico, from signing into law an energy bill that allows foreign investment and fracking in the country.A few politicians have taken up this matter.
Ruperto de la Garza, a geologist at the Gestoria Ambiental y de Riesgos consultancy, published a report last year that showed a statistical correlation between the fracking and earthquakes in Mexico with a large spike in such events in the state of Nuevo Leon.“The one thing that has changed is the introduction of fracking.
Last month CartoCritica, an organization dedicated to the research and design of maps for use by civil society, released details of hundreds of fracking wells around the country.Slowly activists are starting to slowly change popular attitudes to the technology. On June 21, activists from 11 Mexican states gathered in Papantla, Veracruz, (where 172 fracking wells have been drilled) to sign a joint statement to resist fracking among other destructive trechnologies.

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