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Ultrasound employs high frequency sound waves to produce a real time image of the internal organs and structures of your pet. Since our pets cannot tell us what is wrong with them during times of illness, it is our job to find other ways to determine what is the cause. Vet appointments start at 10am and end at 6pm, so the last available appointment is 5:30pm.
3.Detection of Viral Nucleic Acid?As the most sensitive and specific test, PCR has become the gold standard for diagnosis in all stages of HIV.
Screening Tests?ELISA tests:?Direct solid phase antiglobulin ELISA is the method most commonly used. Clipping is a handy way to collect and organize the most important slides from a presentation. So far, much of this course has focused on malaria the disease; its causes and case management.
Having seen the definition and objectives of emergency surveillance, do Activity 2, it should take you 5 minutes to complete. In this, surveillance is done all the time by collecting data in your health unit or laboratory, for example, routine reporting on blood film for malaria parasite.
Having looked at the what surveillance is and the actions that should be taken, let us turn to the uses of disease surveillances in reference to malaria. Community diagnosis is a process of establishing which of the local diseases or health problems in a community are important and which ones should be given high priority by the health worker.
In this section we shall look at the measurement of disease factors in the community with special emphasis on malaria. The incidence and prevalence of malaria in the community helps us to define the extent of malaria problem in that community.
Effective surveillance systems are essential for the control and prevention of malaria disease.
Having learnt the steps in carrying out an investigation of an epidemic, let us now look at epidemiological study. Determine what background information, resources and administrative procedures are needed in order to carrying out the investigation.
When information (Data) is collected, it has a lot of uses in our day-to-day life, especially for planning purposes and to give early warning signs of increasing disease trends.

You can collect and analyze data to portray important differences, which the health services providers should be aware about.
All malaria cases diagnosed should be recorded daily according to age, sex, and type of malaria. Data on malaria collected from various sources should always be analyzed and interpreted so that appropriate action can be taken. It is defined as the difference between the largest and smallest figure of a set of values. It is the sum of all values of a set of observations divided by the number of observations. To determine the arithmetic mean we calculate the sum of all the observations and divide it by the total number of observations. It is a number of observations in a group with a particular characteristic divided by the total number in the group multiplied by 100.
This information would assist the health worker to identify priority areas, age groups and diseases for action, also in evaluating the impact of any control activities. Incidence of malaria is the number of new cases of malaria occurring during a given period of time in a given population. Prevalence of malaria is the number of both new and old cases of malaria found at a particular point in time in a given population.
The prevalence rate can be used to compare the level of malaria burden at a particular time in two or more communities or areas. For data to be more easily appreciated and to draw quick comparisons, it is often useful to arrange the data in the form that can be easily interpreted. Now that you have learnt how to collect data and report minimum statistics in malaria, let us now consider how to write an epidemiological study report. After carrying out your survey or community diagnosis, you need to communicate your findings so that people are aware of what you have done and what action needs to be taken.
When you have completed your first draft, discuss your report with your colleagues and your supervisor. To be useful, your report should not only give the results of the study and the inferences drawn, but also information about how the study was conducted to enable a critical reader carryout a similar study. Laboratory diagnosis of malaria aims at identifying the various stages in the life cycle of malaria parasite. You should now review the learning objectives given at the beginning of this unit to check if you have achieved all of them.

A combination of health statistics from various sources, used to derive information about health status, health care, provision and use of services, and their impact on health. The number of instances of illness commencing, or of persons falling ill, during given period in a specified population. An easily measurable phenomenon which is a valid, reliable measurement of another phenomenon which is of greater interest but cannot be measured directly.
Changes observed in coverage, adequacy and quality of interventions, services and practices. 8.What are the four interrelated components of the evaluation of a national malaria control programme? Content is available under the Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike License unless otherwise noted.
X-rays (radiographs) allow us to evaluate your pet’s musculoskeletal, cardiovascular (cardiopulmonary), gastrointestinal, reproductive and urinary systems.
With our in-house laboratory we at Westside are better equipped to diagnose your pet’s affliction.
The antigen is obtained from HIV grown in continuous T- lymphocyte cell line or by recombinant techniques and shouls represent all groups and subtypes of HIV-1 and HIV-2. It is important to note that there are certain stages of the parasite which are critical in deciding the type of interventions for prevention and control of malaria.
If needed, these can also be forwarded to other veterinary specialists for further evaluations and second opinions.
We have the ability to do in-house complete blood panels, parasite testing (heartworm, tapeworm, roundworm, ear mites, etc.), fungal and bacterial cultures, fecal exams and more. While we have the capacity to provide this service at Westside, you must call and make an appointment at least a week before the intended date of examination.
The results of each exam are evaluated by our resident veterinarian or veterinary technician and are analyzed for accurate diagnosis and treatment of your animal.

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