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Chemotherapy is indicated when prostate cancer starts to spread or metastasize to other organs or tissues. Prostanorm for Enlarged Prostate  QUESTION : What is the role of prostanorm in the treatment of premature ejaculation and difficult erection? Since last 3 years I am having enlarged prostate, where some residue of urine is remaining. What Are the FDA-approved Drugs for Prostate Cancer? Not rated yet QUESTION : Can you provide a list of FDA approved drugs for prostate cancer? PSA was 1.95 prostate size as -43cc and PVR urine retention was -40 ccQuestion I am male 58 yrs and diagnosed for BPH 12 months back.
Finasteride Side Effects - Oral Uses, Interactions & Hair LossLearn about Finasteride side effects, oral uses, interactions and hair loss; and how it affects lipid profile. Your brain creates simple electricity through an electrochemical process, which allows it to carry out all of it's functions, including learning, communicating and managing emotions. Just like physical exercise helps the body stay healthy, toned and maintained, training the brain helps it function more effectively and overcome conditions and disabilities where the brain is not working the way it should.
The Interactive Metronome® (IM) is a patented technology designed to enhance focus and concentration through a series of synchronized hand and foot exercises. Research confirms the most important ingredient in learning is the ability to focus on the material being learned. HEG (hemoencephalography) is the study of blood flow in the brain by voluntarily controlling blood flow or oxygenation in specifically chosen areas of the brain. EMDR (Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing), is an information processing therapy which contains elements of several psychotherapies including cognitive, behavioral, interpersonal, experimental and body centered approaches. Heart rate variability (HRV) is the beat-to-beat variations in heart rate or pulse, which occur naturally during all levels of activity, from running and jumping to sitting still or sleeping.
The Alpha-Stim 100 is a precision medical instrument designed to provide mild electrical stimulation to the head. You wouldn't trust your physical health to an unlicensed doctor without a clinical background and specialized training, so why do it with your mental health? Enlarged prostate or benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is abnormal cellular growth (not cancer) of prostatic tissue.
Prostate cancer occurs when abnormal cells undergo uncontrolled growth within prostatic tissue, forming a tumor mass. Chemotherapy involves the use of anti-cancerous drugs, which are injected into a blood vessel or taken orally. The first MRSA infection emerged in England in 1961 in the hospital environment shortly after methicillin was introduced.
Fridkin SK, Hageman JC, Morrison M, et al; Active Bacterial Core Surveillance Program of the Emerging Infections Program Network. Usually, this type of abnormal cellular growth is supported by the male sex hormones (androgens), like testosterone and dihydrotestosterone (DHT). The incidence of MRSA infections has increased steadily since then.2 Infections that occur in otherwise healthy persons who have not recently (ie, within the past year) been hospitalized or had a medical procedure (such as dialysis, surgery, or intravenous catheter insertion) are known as community-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA) infections. Four pediatric deaths from community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus—Minnesota and North Dakota, 1997-1999. Outbreaks of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus skin infections—Los Angeles County, California, 2002-2003. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus disease in three communities [published correction appears in N Engl J Med. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of cephalexin for treatment of uncomplicated skin abscesses in a population at risk for community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection.
Necrotizing fasciitis caused by community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Los Angeles.
Infective pyomyositis and myositis in children in the era of community-acquired, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection. Severe community-acquired pneumonia due to Staphylococcus aureus, 2003-04 influenza season. Severe methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus community-acquired pneumonia associated with influenza in Louisiana and Georgia, December 2006-January 2007. Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: an emerging pathogen in orthopaedics.
Severe staphylococcal sepsis in adolescents in the era of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections of the eye and orbit (an American Ophthalmological Society thesis).
Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole plus topical antibiotics as therapy for acute otitis media with otorrhea caused by community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in children. An outbreak of community-acquired foodborne illness caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Clindamycin treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections in children.
Use of long-acting tetracyclines for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections: case series and review of the literature.
Linezolid versus vancomycin for the treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections.
Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus skin infection: a retrospective analysis of clinical presentation and treatment of a local outbreak.
Relationship of MIC and bactericidal activity to efficacy of vancomycin for treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia.


Increased vancomycin MICs for Staphylococcus aureus clinical isolates from a university hospital during a 5-year period. Larger vancomycin doses (at least four grams per day) are associated with an increased incidence of nephrotoxicity. Clinical features associated with bacteremia due to heterogeneous vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus. The safety and efficacy of daptomycin for the treatment of complicated skin and skin-structure infections. Daptomycin versus standard therapy for bacteremia and endocarditis caused by Staphylococcus aureus. Treatment failure of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus endocarditis with linezolid.
The efficacy and safety of tigecycline in the treatment of skin and skin-structure infections: results of 2 double-blind phase 3 comparison studies with vancomycin-aztreonam.
Results of a double-blind, randomized trial of ceftobiprole treatment of complicated skin and skin structure infections caused by gram-positive bacteria. A randomized, double-blind trial comparing ceftobiprole medocaril to vancomycin plus ceftazidime in the treatment of patients with complicated skin and skin-structure infections.
The efficacy and safety of ceftobiprole in the treatment of complicated skin and skin structure infections: evidence from 2 clinical trials. Efficacy and safety of weekly dalbavancin therapy for catheter-related bloodstream infection caused by gram-positive pathogens.
Randomized, double-blind comparison of once-weekly dalbavancin versus twice-daily linezolid therapy for the treatment of complicated skin and skin structure infections. In vitro activity of recombinant lysostaphin against Staphylococcus aureus isolates from hospitals in Beijing, China.
Neutralization of Staphylococcus aureus Panton Valentine leukocidin by intravenous immunoglobulin in vitro. Phase II, randomized, double-blind, multicenter study comparing the safety and pharmacokinetics of tefibazumab to placebo for treatment of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia. Phase II, randomized, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of a polyclonal anti-Staphylococcus aureus capsular polysaccharide immune globulin in treatment of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia.
Impact of rapid in situ hybridization testing on coagulase-negative staphylococci positive blood cultures. Perspectives on daptomycin resistance, with emphasis on resistance in Staphylococcus aureus. High rate of decreasing daptomycin susceptibility during the treatment of persistent Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia. Strategies for clinical management of MRSA in the community: summary of an experts’ meeting convened by the centers for disease control and prevention. Our mission is to save precious time by offering the best and latest on rheumatology in an easy-to-read format, always hyperlinked for more in-depth reading later. What's inside? Influenza and pneumococcal vaccinations for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Prostate cancerAs the causes and manifestation of each prostatic problem differ, there are myriad drugs used nowadays for the treatment of prostatic diseases.
Hormone therapy (also known as androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) or androgen suppression therapy), are prostate drugs which can block or prevent the action of androgens.It is proved clinically that reducing the levels of androgens in the body causes the cancer to shrink or delay its growth. Skin and soft-tissue infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus [published correction appears in N Engl J Med. News summaries based on studies published in leading medical journals and specialty medical journals, conference coverage, case-based quizzes and more. Differences between CA-MRSA infections and health care–associated MRSA infections are summarized in Table 2. We also publish case studies and practice-related articles by rheumatologists and other specialists. EPIDEMIOLOGY AND CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS Initially, MRSA was recognized as an important pathogen in patients who frequented health care facilities and in persons who were in contact with patients who had MRSA infection. Injection drug users (IDUs) with a history of antibiotic exposure—usually from illicitly purchased medications—are another group in whom a high prevalence of MRSA infection has been recognized.3 In the mid-1990s, reports of CA-MRSA infections emerged in Australia, New Zealand, the United States, the United Kingdom, France, Finland, Canada, and Samoa. These infections were notable because they occurred in persons who had no previous contact with the health care system. In a surveillance study covering the years 2001 through 2002 involving 3 communities in the United States, 1647 cases of CA-MRSA infection were reported. Eight percent to 20% of all MRSA isolates collected were not associated with traditional risk factors and were classified as CA-MRSA.
Most of these isolates were associated with clinically relevant infections that required treatment. Generally, CA-MRSA SSTIs are not life-threatening; however, in some circumstances, as in cases complicated by invasive infection (eg, bacteremia, necrotizing fasciitis), they can become difficult to treat and even cause death. In one study of 843 patients with MRSA SSTIs, the strain identified was USA300 staphylococcal cassette chromosome (SCC) type IV, which is the signature of CA-MRSA.8 Associated conditions or risk factors included previous MRSA infection, hepatitis C virus infection, diabetes, current or past injection drug use, cancer, and HIV infection. This illness is more commonly seen in the tropics but is increasingly recognized in temperate climates, especially in patients with HIV infection.
CA-MRSA is likely to become a more common cause of pyomyositis as the global prevalence of this organism increases. In analyzing 45 previously healthy children in whom episodes of bacterial myositis or pyomyositis occurred, Pannaraj and colleagues9 found that S aureus was the cause in 26 of these children (57.8%). It has been associated with post–influenza virus infection and influenzalike illness (post–influenza pneumonia).


During the 2003 - 2004 influenza season, 15 cases of MRSA CAP from 9 states were reported to the CDC. Ten cases of severe MRSA CAP that occurred between December 2006 and January 2007 and included 6 deaths (fatality rate, 60%) among previously healthy persons in Louisiana and Georgia were reported to the CDC in January 2007.10,11 Infective endocarditis (IE).
Risk factors for IE in the setting of bacteremia include the presence of a prosthetic valve and underlying valvular defects, injection drug use, intravascular catheter infection, and persistent bacteremia.
CA-MRSA bone and joint infection may be caused by direct injury or as a complication of S aureus bacteremia.13 Sepsis with or without Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome.
The Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome is characterized by petechial rash, coagulopathy, cardiovascular collapse, and bilateral adrenal hemorrhage. The syndrome is generally associated with fulminant meningococcemia; however, in 2005, 3 fatal cases attributed to S aureus infection in children were reported. Interestingly, the majority of these patients (57%) had a history of blunt trauma at the initial apparent site of presentation. Suppurative lymphadenitis,16 ophthalmic infections (preseptal cellulitis, lid abscess, conjunctivitis, corneal ulcers, endophthalmitis, orbital cellulitis, blebitis17), otitis media,18 sinusitis,19 and food-borne GI illness20 have all been associated with CA-MRSA. MANAGEMENT OF CA-MRSA INFECTIONS Most CA-MRSA infections involve the skin and skin structures. Purulent SSTIs without associated sepsis or hemodynamic instability are generally managed with surgical incision and drainage. However, no topical agent has been approved for MRSA SSTIs because of lack of data supporting effectiveness. The most commonly administered topical agents are bacitracin (alone or in combination with polymyxin and neomycin) and mupirocin. Oral therapy The drug of choice for oral systemic therapy in the ambulatory setting has not been established. Familiarity with local antibiotic patterns is crucial for selecting empirical antibiotic therapy, and culture results and susceptibility data are critical to tailoring treatment.21Table 3 lists oral agents commonly used for treatment of CA-MRSA infections. Clindamycin (300 to 450 mg every 6 to 8 hours) has good activity against MRSA and also is capable of inhibiting bacterial toxin production.
Careful monitoring of local clindamycin susceptibility patterns is important because of reports of increasing rates of resistance in different regions. In addition, isolates that appear susceptible to clindamycin and resistant to erythromycin by standard susceptibility testing have a relatively high likelihood of mutating, such that resistance to clindamycin develops.
Clindamycin may still be effective even when the D-zone test result is positive in a few circumstances. Few data exist on the efficacy of the long-acting tetracyclines doxycycline and minocycline in MRSA infection. The disadvantages of using linezolid include cost, hematological adverse effects, and the potential to induce resistance among S aureus strains.25 Rifampin monotherapy and fluoroquinolones should not be used to treat MRSA infections, because they can exacerbate the emergence of resistant strains. Fluoroquinolones should not be used to treat SSTIs caused by MRSA, because widespread resistance has already become prevalent in many regions.27 Parenteral therapy Parenteral therapy should be considered in patients with extensive soft tissue involvement, fever, or other signs of systemic illness and in patients with diabetes, immunosuppression, or other significant comorbid conditions. Management of invasive infections Vancomycin is still considered first-line treatment for invasive infection in hospitalized patients. Therapeutic failure also has been associated with vancomycin intermediate-resistant S aureus (VISA).31 Of even greater concern, true vancomycin-resistant S aureus (VRSA) is now a threatening reality. The optimal alternative parenteral agent for patients who fail to respond or cannot tolerate vancomycin is not known. Daptomycin, a novel cyclic lipopeptide, has rapid bactericidal activity against MRSA by producing depolarization of the bacterial cell membrane.
This antibiotic, although bacteriostatic for MRSA, has excellent bioavailability and tissue penetration, particularly in the epithelial fluid lining of the lungs, making this antibiotic a potentially useful option in cases of MRSA pneumonia. But a recent report of S aureus endocarditis in a patient receiving linezolid for a skin infection and a report of clinical failure in a patient treated with linezolid for endocarditis have suggested that linezolid use may promote rapid emergence of resistant S aureus strains and that linezolid may have poor efficacy when used alone for the treatment of severe invasive S aureus infections.35,36 Tigecycline, a parenteral glycylcycline-minocycline derivative, was approved by the FDA in June 2005 for the treatment of complicated SSTIs (cSSSIs [complicated skin and skin-structure infections]) and intra-abdominal infections. The dosing schedule is 1 dose of 100 mg delivered intravenously followed by 50 mg delivered intravenously every 12 hours for up to 14 days. QD is a streptogramin antibiotic that is FDA-approved for the treatment of vancomycin-resistant enterococcal infections and cSSSIs caused by methicillin-susceptible S aureus (MSSA). Clinical experience using this agent in the treatment of nosocomial MRSA pneumonia has been disappointing, however, with a clinical response rate of only 19% compared with 40% for vancomycin.38 Ceftobiprole is a novel advanced-generation pyrrolidinone cephalosporin with the capacity to bind to penicillin-binding protein 2a, which is encoded by the mecA gene located on an SCC. Semisynthetic glycopeptides such as dalbavancin, telavancin, and oritavancin are characterized by their prolonged plasma half-lives.
Clinical trials evaluating the efficacy of dalbavancin demonstrated that it is not inferior to vancomycin in the treatment of catheter-related infection caused by gram-positive pathogens (including MRSA)42 and that it is also as effective as linezolid for the treatment of cSSSIs, with a clinical success rate of 91% compared with 89% for linezolid in patients with MRSA infections.43 Lysostaphin is a glycylglycine endopeptidase. It cleaves the pentaglycine cross-bridge structure unique to the staphylococcal cell wall and is considered to be a potential agent for use in S aureus infections. Pooled intravenous Staphylococcus antibody preparations, which neutralize Staphylococcus superantigen toxins, are being prepared for the treatment of toxic shock syndrome. These preparations also neutralize the Panton-Valentine leukocidin toxin in vitro.45 Another agent that may prove useful in immunointervention is tefibazumab.
It is a humanized monoclonal antibody that is directed at the microbial surface compounds recognizing adhesive matrix molecule clumping factor A, a protein on the S aureus surface that binds to human fibrinogen.46 A new modality of vaccine, a polyclonal human IgG with high levels of antibody to capsular polysaccharide type 5 and type 8, is currently being studied.



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