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Most commonly known as freeze-drying, lyophilization is a dehydration process used to preserve a perishable or biological material. The lyophilization process is slow and can take days depending upon the samples and the freeze-drying conditions. The most common accessories that provide heat to samples when freeze-drying are heated product shelves. Many end users do not realize that when freeze-drying with flasks and manifolds, heat still enters the samples. The longest freeze dry runs will occur when the sample is placed on unheated product shelves within a chamber or placed inside the freeze dryer’s condenser. During the primary drying phase (first phase) of freezing-drying heat can be added to your sample to sublimate the water out of the sample.
If you do not know the eutectic temperature, it is best to add heat slowly and observe the sample as you gradually add more heat to each subsequent run until you determine the maximum amount of heat that can be added safely to the sample. It is difficult to control the heat that is transferred to the sample when lyophilizing in flasks on a manifold. Putting a flask inside another larger flask with an air gap in between the two flasks is another way to provide insulation to limit the amount of heat that is transferred to the sample.
How a sample is frozen will not only affect the quality of the final freeze dried sample, it will also affect the length of the lyophilization process. Spreading the sample out to increase the surface area as well as forming a thin layer of ice will speed the sublimation process. If a shell freezer is not available, it is recommended to slant freeze samples in flasks to increase surface area as much as possible. At vacuum levels lower than .200 mbar, there are not enough molecules present in the system for good heat transfer. After all of the free water molecules are sublimated in primary drying, secondary drying begins.
New end point detection accessories are available on some models of freeze dryers to determine the end of the sublimation process for samples in flasks.
By better understanding the lyophilization process and employing these suggestions, hours or even days can be saved when freeze-drying. It’s true that the SteamScrubber and FlaskScrubber are each loaded with great features and high quality construction. The SteamScrubber operates much like a home dishwasher – water is pumped through a spray arm on the bottom of each rack and from a third spray arm mounted to the top of the washer. Thus, the SteamScrubber is best suited to wash standard laboratory equipment such as beakers, utensils, pans and other normal-shaped items found in the laboratory. The FlaskScrubber moves water through individual spindles, allowing for water to spray directly into narrow neck glassware. Additionally, the FlaskScrubber also utilizes the rack mounted and roof mounted spray arms found in the SteamScrubber washer.
You can take advantage of the FlaskScrubber’s injection cleaning while simultaneously washing regular glassware items. Please log on to our NEW Glassware Washer Configurator Tool to design your own SteamScrubber or FlaskScrubber for your laboratory. During the development of the Protector Echo Filtered Fume Hood, the design engineers decided to challenge the Echo with not one, but four different third-party containment tests. Why? It’s simple, really - to ensure containment was going to live up to the Labconco standard. Instead, it is a filtering fume hood that will filter out the contaminated air and exhaust the clean air into the laboratory, making it very energy efficient.
It was designed with superior containment in mind, using all of Labconco’s highly engineered high performance fume hood features.
All of the features that make Labconco’s ducted fume hoods effective provide the same protection on the Protector Echo.
During independent testing*, the Protector Echo Hood was challenged well beyond the SEFA-1† standards. The Echo was subjected to both the standard ASHRAE 110 test using Sulfur Hexafluoride (SF6) tracer gas test while attached to a canopy, as well as the modified ASHRAE 110 test with no canopy connection, using Isopropyl Alcohol (IPA) to replace the SF6. And to go above and beyond, the NIH protocol was used – which means that during the test with a canopy, the SF6 release rate was increased to six liters versus four liters per minute in the standard ASHRAE 110 test, the hood was filled with paint cans and boxes and rapid walk-bys were incorporated. In all scenarios, the Protector Echo allowed 0.00 ppm average level of tracer gas outside the fume hood. This allows us to conclude that for those customers who cannot duct out of their building, or for those who want to save on energy costs and use filtered fume hoods in lieu of or alongside ducted fume hoods, this enclosure will present a safe alternative. A new 2-step method for extracting lipstick gives investigators and scientists an easier and more efficient way to process samples using gas chromatography (GC). They began with an established method of lipstick sample extraction, but then eliminated unnecessary steps and improved upon the rest. By narrowing the results by type and manufacturer, criminals can be linked to a crime scene by the simple presence of the cosmetic. This funding will largely be focused through the coffers of the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta.
Research on new vaccines and novel approaches to solving this hazard through elimination of disease vectors and disease mechanisms are already underway at the CDC. Researchers fear Zika causes microcephaly, a serious birth defect in which a baby's head is too small, as well as other threats to the children of pregnant women infected with it. President Barack Obama has asked for about $1.9 billion in emergency money to fight Zika but the request has stalled in the GOP-controlled Congress. Safety in the workplace is important regardless where you clock in every day, but it's especially important to master when your professional environment regularly contains hazardous particulates, harmful chemical vapors or radionuclides.
Even basic microbiological work has some associated risks, as oftentimes it is not only necessary to protect the person sitting at the face of the cabinet but the science taking place inside on the work surface. That just scratches the surface, so we decided to dig a little deeper and get the input of an outside industry expert to talk about the true meaning of creating a culture of safety for biosafety in laboratories and how that relates to leadership.
He has testified in front of Congress about infectious diseases and, in 2014, prepared the clinical staff at Emory Healthcare to respond to the first cases of Ebola on American soil.
What type of connection does your science require—are we talking recirculated A2 or thimble connected A2?
From a big picture perspective, we look to make sure the cabinet is certified, it is functioning properly and it passes a smoke test.
The risk assessment list goes on and on, but having effective, tested and validated SOPs is critical throughout the life of the cabinet. These technicians are dealing with long hours at the bench, and you have to consider posture, arm position and a number of other behaviors that can affect how safe the work actually is. Adequate preparedness is critical in the workforce, and that's a leadership responsibility. Q: Can you explain in greater depth the role of ideal leadership in the laboratory and how that relates to safety? Guidelines and policies bring us together, but being together and doing together are very different things.
Sean Kaufman spoke before Congress on safety in the laboratory as it pertains to the anthrax incident of June 2014 at the Center for Disease Control. For more of what Sean has to say about the importance of biosafety cabinet ergonomics, energy savings and efficiency access his latest webinar.
And though we've known this for years, it's still hard to understand that the Universe is still expanding! When it comes to selecting a vacuum pump there are a number of options for choosing the best pump for your application. There are four main types commonly used in laboratories for freeze drying (lyophilization), evaporation and concentration. Traditional Rotary Vane (RV) Vacuum Pumps are often used because they can have a lower up-front cost, are smaller than other types, and can be used with multiple applications. Any solvents that are not trapped or recovered before they enter the RV vacuum pump can condense in the pump oil and damage the inside of the pump.
Rotary Vane vacuum pumps reach deep ultimate vacuum levels and have high displacement capacity. Diaphragm Vacuum Pumps are dry pumps that operate using a pulsing motion that opens and closes valves to move air. While they can have a higher up-front cost, they do not use any oil so operation and maintenance costs are significantly lower than pumps that require oil.
Ultimate vacuum levels of these pumps are not extremely deep and displacement capacities are much lower than other types of vacuum pumps. Combination Vacuum Pumps, also known as Hybrid Vacuum Pumps, have both a Rotary Vane and Diaphragm pump together in the same vacuum pump. So while there may be a higher up-front cost than an RV pump, the operation costs are lowered as less replacement oil is needed and less time is lost changing the oil. Combination pumps are recommended for freeze drying corrosive or volatile samples as they can be used with acidic samples and those containing harsh chemicals such as TFA, acetonitrile, HBe and Nitric acid. Scroll Vacuum Pumps are dry pumps that use two spiral scrolls to compress air and vapors and move them toward the exhaust.
Because the scrolls are made of metal, even on chemical- or corrosion-resistant models, only samples with acids below 20% are recommended.
Scroll pumps are recommended for freeze drying as they can be used with aqueous and solvent samples including acetonitrile.
No matter what type of pump you’re using, one of the most important things to remember about vacuum pumps is that whatever goes in the pump will come out! Labconco offers multiple vacuum pump options and many vacuum pump accessories including the new Scroll Pumps. A Type B2 BSC experiencing a remote exhaust failure can pressurize the work zone, pushing contaminated air into the laboratory. An A2 can be ducted to handle odors and non-hazardous chemistry and it is easily adapted to exhaust systems.
Type A and Type B BSCs cannot be retrofitted, altered or otherwise made into the other type of cabinet.
This information is provided to educate and inform life science and biosafety laboratories about their new options in selecting Class II BSCs for varying applications and operations. The Active Protection Protocol engages only in emergency building exhaust system failures and provides safety to the BSC operator while they complete their emergency shut down procedures. During a remote exhaust failure, Type B BSC must detect an exhaust remote failure within 15 seconds.
During a remote exhaust failure the Axiom can protect an operator for up to 5 minutes while they complete shutdown procedures and secure their laboratory assets. MISINFORMATION: In regard to ventilation, laboratory building requirements today cannot be easily altered. TRUTH: Scientific laboratories and their mechanical systems are specifically designed to handle changes in laboratory airflow volumes and pressures. FABRICATION: In laboratory design, the ventilation requirements for both supply and exhaust are calculated for pressure, air change rates and removal of heat load. TRUTH: The balance of a scientific laboratory is based on pressure, air change rates and removal of heat load in accordance with ASHRAE requirements.
Even simple VAV systems can automatically adjust for this change based on programmable pressures, and even simpler versions are controlled using a PC interface program.
Moreover, it allows facility and laboratory management to maximize the usefulness of their existing laboratory space, eliminating the need to operate both Type A and B BSCs for varying or alternating uses. The Axiom can be tied into almost any existing appropriate building exhaust system (with sufficient CFM reserve). MYTH: The inlet relief valve opens in the event that the building exhaust system pulls too much air through the BSC.
Air is not pulled through a Type C1 by the exhaust system, conversely the exhaust system on a Type B BSC is required to pull air through the BSC. BENEFITS: Acting like a shock absorber, the inlet relief valve is an adaptive technology that balances and maintains negative pressure by allowing a small volume of room air to bleed into the transition plenum.
The inlet relief valve is part of the system that allows the Axiom to operate in either an A-mode or B-mode and makes it flexible enough to work on most building exhaust systems with sufficient CFM capacity in reserve. TRUTH: During building exhaust failures, both Class II Type A and Type C BSCs positively pressurize ductwork.

A Type C BSC, such as the Axiom, prevents this positive pressurization from lasting longer than 300 seconds (or 5 minutes); limiting exposure to hazardous chemical vapors.
BENEFITS: Existing Standards and equipment manufacturers all agree, positively pressurizing chemically contaminated ductwork under normal operation is not recommended.
The Active Protection Protocol that positively pressurizes duct work is an emergency response mode – not an operational mode. If a facility wishes to not have their ductwork positively pressurized, then the program can be set to operate for zero seconds.
MYTH: Cleanability at the grille, work surface and sump under the work surface is negatively impacted with the additional plenum in comparison to traditional BSCs with one large work surface and no obstacles underneath. BENEFITS: The plenum under the Chem-Zone can easily be removed for cleaning by using the lift knob. Yes, the Axiom uses paired internal exhaust and supply blowers to provide proper inflow, down flow and positively pressurized exhaust that is similar to a Class II Type A2; therefore, it can be used as a room recirculating BSC.
FABRICATION: Since the Axiom has an internal exhaust motor blower, there is risk of fire or explosion when using vapor forming volatile chemistry inside the BSC. The Type B cabinets that are suggested to be safer for use with volatile chemical vapors have electrical outlets on the BSC interior, at the source of evaporation, where air is moving at a much slower rate. During a remote exhaust failure, Type B BSCs must detect an exhaust remote failure within 15 seconds.
TRUTH: With all applications handling hazardous materials a risk assessment must be completed. BENEFITS: Before the Axiom, selecting Biosafety Cabinets followed this risk assessment process of determining the difference between hazardous chemicals and hazardous chemistry. If a laboratory is using chemistry of any reasonable level with its microbiology now or in the future, the C1 should be selected. FABRICATION: The unique recessed area in the center may restrict the use of equipment and other procedures commonly done in a BSC that require a flat work surface.
BENEFITS: Besides simply containing spills, the Chem-Zone, as demonstrated by Biological Safety Officers at ABSA, provides visual cues for organizing and maintaining the interior work zone of a Class II BSC. Additionally, following the practices of human factors design (ergonomics), the Chem-Zone is optimally calculated to provide sufficient working space, keeping non-essential equipment out of the way.
Tuberculosis (TB) is a highly contagious respiratory infection disease caused by the bacterial complex tubercle bacilli. New therapies and diagnostics will go a long way to reduce the number of TB related deaths by 95% and new TB cases by 90% – all by the year 2035. What makes these therapies unique and important is that after 60 years of targeting the bacteria that kills TB, these treatments open a new door in the fight against infection. Labs, too, can do their part by ensuring the containment and safety of professionals handling TB.
Thus far, the main tools for treating cancer have been relatively crude: chemotherapy, radiation and surgery. One organization has recently introduced immunotherapy, which is over 90% effective and uses the patient’s own immune system to target and eliminate cancer. After many years of research, the greatest discovery offers hope for saving more lives struck by the disease.
Read the entire article, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center is the launchpad of new cures by Gary Gilliland - and watch the video below for a clearer picture of the process.
US EPA Method 550.1 requires an evaporation or concentration step when extracting polyaromatic hydrocarbons from liquid. GreenFumeHood Technology is unique because it adds elements of safety, energy savings and versatility to lab environments.
The fact that the resulting fume hoods are far and away superior to other kinds of chemical fume filtering systems raises many questions. A: Carbon has been used for personal protection over 100 years now (think gas masks in WWI). All of us enjoy the individual and environmental benefits of carbon-based filtration every day, in the form of drinking water treatment, wastewater treatment, air purification and chemical purification. A: Instead of getting our carbon ready for a specific molecule like other manufacturers, Erlab decided to flip the equation and get the various molecules ready for our carbon.
A: The entire filtration technology package including the breakthrough detection and communication systems and, of course, the fume hood structure underneath it all. The detectors do not provide a ppm or ppb reading to the user and they do not require frequent recalibration or replacement.
If chemicals do break through the primary filter, an identical secondary Neutrodine filter captures them.
Think of it this way: similar to electrical current, air will flow along the path of least resistance. For comparison, consider if you were to stack two (or even 15) inferior carbon filters on top of each other and that each filter has preferential passages for the air to flow without chemical removal, then the user would not be safe for long, if at all, because the chemicals would quickly break through all of the filters.
A: Carbon Shifting (or settling) occurs when the filter frame is not properly designed or sufficiently filled. Carbon channeling is similar, as it, too, allows a preferential path for air to flow untreated.
As you can likely imagine, there will be many areas where there is very little carbon for the air to flow through and other areas with lots of carbon.
The carbon we use, its activation, the multiple layers of transformative technology and the filter frame design allow the most efficient and complete use of the carbon’s capacity. Compare that to a filtered fume hood, where the cost of replacing the four primary filters in a 6-foot hood is roughly $4,000 to the owner, including labor. Get more information on the Protector Echo or Protector Airo Filtered Fume Hoods with GFH technology. A new report from the United Nations states that pollinators worldwide are nearing extinction, which doesn’t bode well for our food supply. The product shelves of most Tray Dryers are microprocessor controlled, and the shelf temperatures are automatically changed according to a program that has been set and stored. It is very difficult to transfer heat through an air gap and even more difficult when the air gap is under vacuum.
The eutectic temperature (triple point) is the temperature at which your sample only exists in the solid phase. If the eutectic temperature is unknown, developing the optimal method will require many trial and error runs until the critical temperature is determined. At vacuum levels above .200 mbar, there are too many molecules present and this will slow down the sublimation rate. Set the vacuum level in the freeze dry system at .200 mbar to maximize the sublimation rate. Because ending a run too early can cause a sample to melt back or result in a collapsed cake, the tendency is to error on the side of caution and extend the lyophilization run further than necessary. Because of evaporative cooling, the sample temperature will be lower than the shelf temperature. The multi-directional spraying arms move as much as 112 gallons per minute throughout the washer chamber, ensuring powerful scrubbing of water to the entire chamber.
Once wash and rinse cycles are complete, items are dried by air forced through the wash arms and a floor-mounted blower. After wash and rinse cycles, air is forced through each spindle, in addition to the spray arms, for fast drying of tough-to-dry glassware.
These tests ranged from the standard ASHRAE 110 containment test, to a challenging modified containment test with adverse conditions to truly test its limits.
The team found that GC provides the best results out of all other chromatography methods for analyzing the type and manufacturer of lipstick.
Now that the Ebola virus has largely subsided in Africa and the Zika outbreak is spreading rapidly in South America, approximately $600 Million in leftover funds will be shifted to fight Zika. Many representatives in Congress threaten to fight this shift in funds; however, others support the new focus on this hazardous virus as it threatens to spread across US borders.
It's with this eye toward protection that laboratories have rightfully turned to employing the use of biosafety cabinets, allowing their technicians to properly and safely handle biosafety agents requiring BSL 1-3 containment. Sean's approach to the biosafety industry is truly safety-centric, and his knowledge has been called upon in various high profile circumstances including the 2001 Anthrax attacks and SARS outbreak.
He then traveled to Nigeria and Liberia to prepare healthcare workers there to do the same. When you look at a biosafety cabinet, the first and most basic thing you have to do is determine what you're going to be using it for. If all those are in check and you've chosen the appropriate equipment, the biosafety engineering aspect has been done for you.
Leaders need to train them how to choose appropriate personal protective equipment and develop standard operating procedures (SOPs) that answer real questions. In my opinion, by the way, the cabinet should be broken down and cleaned at the end of each night.
When there are standard, easy to follow checklists in place for routine operations, some of those processes can be streamlined and the risks minimized.
However, the minute they come in contact with a human exhibiting human behaviors, that person better be trained or the cabinet could risk losing its protectiveness. Even if they were to follow all of them, leadership still has a responsibility to the workforce. Everyone has to be on-board with safety in order for it to work, and that starts at the top.
The size of the Universe cannot be overstated, which reiterates everyone's ultimate insignificance within the grand scheme of things. Vacuum pumps are available in different types that offer varying displacement capacities and ultimate vacuum levels. RV pumps use oil to ensure a tight seal, lubricate the working parts and remove heat to cool the rotors.
It’s necessary when using an RV pump to collect the evaporated vapors upstream of the pump. It is recommended that the oil in these pumps be checked regularly and changed approximately every 3,000 hours of use.
While there are systems that automate oil changing, time is still lost while the pump is out of use for the maintenance. Diaphragm pumps can handle highly viscous liquids and be used with a wide range of samples but the applications are limited to those requiring higher ultimate vacuum levels. Therefore, almost any type of sample, even those containing a combination of solvents and acids can be used with these pumps, making them a good choice for both evaporation and concentration. In a combination pump the diaphragm pump keeps the oil of the RV pump under negative pressure to reduce or eliminate vapors going through it and condensing in the oil.
The ultimate vacuum level and displacement capacity with combination pumps is similar to those of RV pumps. While they can have higher up-front costs, the lifetime operation costs are much lower because they don’t require oil and very little maintenance is needed.
By eliminating the oil, the hydrocarbon-free design means these pumps are environmentally friendly as well. Compared to diaphragm pumps, scroll pumps can reach deeper ultimate vacuum levels and have higher displacement capacities.
They may be used with concentration applications also, however the cost tradeoff may make another type of pump more attractive. Even with filters, you need to take other precautions when samples include potentially hazardous materials. If you’re unsure which vacuum pump is the best for your application, our Application Specialists are always here to help. Though similar in airflow to a B1, the Type C1 does not require special considerations when handling hazardous chemistry, nor does it require a dedicated exhaust system. The Type C1 adopts the strengths of the Type A and B BSCs while addressing their limitations and is cross functional.
It will be designated something other than a Type A or Type B, will be defined as such, and upon completion will be recognized by NIH, CDC, CFIA, and PHAC. Type B2 cabinets are commonly selected out of an over-abundance of caution related to a microbiology lab’s use of chemicals considered to be hazardous, not out of risk assessment determining that the application is using hazardous chemistry. However, since the B2 must have a dedicated exhaust system, the cabinet is forever committed to its installation.

This is possible because the cabinet does not exhaust 100% of its air and does not need a dedicated exhaust system. Though there are laboratory balance considerations, modern laboratories outfitted with VAV and lab balance mechanical systems can easily handle the volume of air this entails.
If the Axiom’s installation is changed, all of these requirements would have to be recalculated and physically changed. This flexibility makes it possible for a laboratory to save over 50% of operational costs compared to Type B BSCs (over $50,000 compared to the life time operating costs of each Type B2 BSC).
One Axiom does the job of both Type A and B while costing the institution only the price of a single BSC.
The inlet relief valve is used to ensure that the exhaust transition plenum is kept under negative pressure in B-mode – maintaining containment of hazardous chemistry in the duct. The inlet relief valve is open all the time when the Axiom is operating with proper building exhaust in B-mode.
What’s more, positive relief valves shunt chemically contaminated air back into the laboratory.
ANSI Z9.5 for Laboratory Ventilation only briefly mentions Class II BSCs in the ventilation (section 5) and merely describes the types of connections and requirements for manifolding (ganging) BSCs with hoods and general exhaust. These large VAV mechanical systems are significant enough in volume to absorb the volume of air being moved by an Axiom with the Active Protection Protocol engaged. It is designed to bridge the gaps in safety, flexibility and engineering that exist among current BSC types. For the A2, A2 with canopy, B2 and C1 – users simply work inside the dished work surface. When using chemicals, this is where the operator MUST work – an operational requirement sure to cause fatigue, mistakes and injuries. A back wall mounted latch can be used for hands-free assist by holding the Chem-Zone work surface out of the way during cleaning.
However, the large volume of the air moving through the exhaust system keeps most chemical applications in a BSC well below ignition levels. For the purpose of selecting the correct BSC type, this risk assessment must determine one thing: is the chemistry being used hazardous or not? Chemical and biological risks are addressed with the chemical containment of a type B, the flexibility of a type A and remote exhaust failure dynamic protection exclusive to the Axiom. This empowers the use of equipment and other procedures commonly done in a BSC in a safe, productive and efficient manner. Definitions including those for the different types of Class II Biosafety Cabinets (BSC) are to be reviewed, updated and added to.
These treatments often make the patient even sicker in hopes of eventually making them better, but the results are mixed. New treatments are being developed to attack different forms of cancer from brain to skin and many cancers in between. Erlab debuted GFH Filtration Technology at Pittcon in 2008, offering manufacturers (like Labconco) access to an altogether new and sustainability-focused hood operating system.
One of the key elements of your GFH Technology is the inclusion of Neutrodine filters, a new and significantly better-performing type of carbon filter. It has evolved significantly over this time and most improvements focus on it being able to adsorb a broader range of chemicals and do so at a higher capacity.
Our multi-layer design allows the filter to neutralize acid molecules before they reach the carbon, and the original molecule has been transformed. Neutrodine filters can adsorb acids, bases and solvents, simultaneously and in large capacity, making them ideal for applications that use a wide variety of chemicals, such as undergraduate chemistry teaching labs (general, organic, inorganic), QC test labs, cosmetics R&D labs, petrochemical companies and many other applications.
From a detection and safety standpoint, users must be warned when filters are losing their efficiency and chemicals are breaking through.
With this double filter arrangement, the user exposure is always less than 1% of Threshold Limit Value (TLV) as set by ACGIH or OSHA.
Erlab has engineered the most optimal filter frame for molecular filtration, and we've spent over 47 years perfecting crucial components of our filters. If the inside perimeter of the filter frame allows preferential passages for the air to flow without chemical removal, the chemicals would break through very quickly. Erlab’s Neutrodine technology allows the use of a Primary and a Secondary filter, each with superior capacity and range of chemical adsorption. Channeling specifically, though, is a result of improper filter frame design in the area where the carbon meets the frame, the perimeter and any interior frame supports.
The channels between the socks are where the air will mostly flow, allowing chemicals to break through the filter quickly. Of course, as a general rule, filter life is based upon the volume of vapors generated within the fume hood and thus is very application-dependent.
Operating cost savings are achieved when the filter replacement costs are less than the energy that would have been consumed by an equivalent ducted hood. Depending upon use, the operating cost of this ducted hood is somewhere around $3,000 to $4,500 per year—possibly more.
If the filters last three years in the customer’s application, that is an annualized cost of only $1,350 versus a potential expenditure totaling $4,500 or more. From an overall filtered fume hood perspective, what are we looking at in terms of a lab's bottom line?
Rather, they are stand-alone devices that do not require connection to anything other than an electrical outlet and, of course, any services the customer needs to work (like vacuum, gas or water as with a traditional ducted hood).
Incineration does require energy, yes, and there is some remaining ash that must be stored long term. Of the world’s food crops, a full 75-percent relies on pollination by insects and other animals. Tens of thousands of species of pollinators play some part in the pollination ritual – and they need our help to survive. With nearly 16% of the global vertebrate pollinators facing extinction, we must act now to prevent a breakdown in our future food supply.
Increasing the amount of the sample that is in contact with the glass sides of the flask, will increase the heat transferred to the sample and will result in a faster lyophilization rate. If your frozen sample goes to a temperature higher than the eutectic temperature, it will begin to melt.
The more heat you apply the faster the process, however your sample must remain below its eutectic point during primary drying.
If a sample in a flask is melting back (getting too much heat) simply, insulate the flask with foam to slow the heat transfer down.
As the front moves through the sample, the sublimating water vapor must pass through the dry cake that is formed behind the ice front, as it is being evacuated from the sample to the condenser. If there are no molecules present around a sample, it is difficult to effectively transfer heat. With sample temperature probes and heated shelf temperature probes, end point can be detected when the sample temperature becomes equal to the shelf temperature. Advances to lifting lipstick stains are helping forensic scientists identify and target criminals before they’re able to strike again. You can spend thousands and thousands of dollars on a cabinet, but all the control can be negated in an instant with inappropriate behavior. That's how we have instances of individuals coming out of biosafety cabinets and contaminating other areas of their laboratories. RV pumps work especially well for aqueous samples and solvents with high boiling points whose vapors can be easily trapped before they reach the pump. The valves are often made of polytetrafluoroethylene making the pump resistant to corrosives and less susceptible to damage from vapors. This design keeps the oil cleaner and allows for less frequent changing – oil lasts up to 10 times longer between changes compared to RV pumps. Because the diaphragm pump is incorporated into the design, these pumps are better at handling acids and solvents than RV pumps. Scroll pumps handle water vapor better than most types of pumps and make significantly less noise during operation. A B1 BSC cannot operate without exhaust and therefore will always require the infrastructure and cost associated with moving expensive tempered air. Type B2 BSCs also heavily tax exhaust systems with large volumes that can exceed 1,200 CFM – this can cost over $100,000 per BSC to operate over its life. Meanwhile, the BSC continues to operate as well, allowing operators to continue their work without forcing a shutdown. During which the Type C1 Axiom provides an audible alarm, visual alarm – describing the alarm occurrence, and provides a countdown timer to BSC shutdown.
This does not mean that hazardous chemicals are being used; rather that the chemicals being used are of a concentration and volume that would require a chemical fume hood. In August, 2015 that Task Group determined that the Purifier Axiom will be designated something other than a Type A or B, and defined as such. GFH technology includes a suite of detectors (solvent and acid) that will alarm when the primary filter is approaching saturation. This proprietary design prevents channeling and shifting of the carbon during transport and use. Additionally, the entire surface area of the filter frame presents consistent air pressure drop (friction to air flow, if you will) so that there is even airflow throughout the entire carbon bed.
Carbon filters must be designed properly to prevent this occurrence or they won't function properly. Also, note that the annual cost of maintenance of a ducted hood versus a filtered hood can be substantially more given the additional equipment required to make it work properly (like airflow control valves, exhaust fans, etc.).
In addition, these arrangements greatly reduce the HVAC demand and allow both laboratory supply and exhaust air to be controlled with devices that are smaller, cost less and are easier to use. Once incinerators are brought up to temperature, the combustion process is nearly self-sustaining—a catalytic effect.
Hauville, founder of Erlab, was awarded the first patent on the ductless hood back in 1970. And the motivation is there, I hope, since the pollinators’ survival has such a direct correlation to our own. Sustainable agriculture, diversifying crops and eco-friendly food production should go a long way to restoring the balance to our delicate food system. Room temperature variances will certainly affect the required length of time to freeze dry. Knowing the temperature your sample cannot go above enables the greatest amount of heat to be added to the sample without experiencing melt back.
By increasing the surface area, more sample is in contact with the flask resulting in better heat transfer to the sample. The less cake the water vapor must pass through, the faster the molecules will sublimate, resulting in a faster run. Because the majority of the water in the sample has already been sublimated, the sample temperature can rise above the eutectic point without melting back.
Just be advised that the drying time may be a little slower as the SteamScrubber does not support forced air-drying through spindles. Furthermore it localizes it to the area of the cabinet that is directly exhausting any evaporated hazards due to a spill or normal work.
These improvements allow the vast majority of the carbon to be utilized before any chemical breakthrough occurs. Far better than exhausting pollutants into the atmosphere, used Neutrodine filters must be incinerated. Since that time, Erlab has continued to further develop, innovate and invent chemical filtration solutions addressing today’s needs. The goal of pre- freezing is to form large crystals with a slower freezing rate while making sure the sample does not separate in the longer pre-freeze process.

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