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admin 12.02.2015

Sweden with an ambitious goal of phasing out fossil fuel by 2020 has to depend on nuclear energy and hydro power to cut down CO2 emission from fossil fuel burning. 100% dependent on green energy is still a long journey to go and the impending challenge is to stop global warming from CO2 before it’s too late. Sweden and France are using a mix of alternative energy sources from nuclear, hydro, wind, sun, etc. The funny thing is Green Perkasa in Malaysia against hydro dams and nuclear plants, but accept fossil fuel burning for their green utopia in Malaysia.
I’m no longer respect the Green Perkasa for their aimless and madness in green struggle, they are a bunch of idiots with no brain to understand fossil fuel burning is going to destroy the earth first than other sources of energy.
The family of former PM Pak lah was linked today to a company that supplies the controversial digital electricity meters to TNB alleged to have hiked up energy consumption bills and gained the national utility company billions of ringgit in profit. Noor Asiah Mahmood, who is the younger sister to Pak Lah’s first wife, the late Tun Endon Mahmood, owns Ombata-Ambak Holdings Sdn Bhd, which has a 15% share in Malaysian Intelligence Meters Sdn Bhd, the latter which is one of 5 companies contracted by TNB to supply the new digital meters.
Not sure if it is like AES where some collection goes to the contractors too, therefore the hike? The replacement of new meter is just another CLASSIC example of rent-seeking business by BN …as they don’t even try to think hard to make new business !!
Much has changed since the state of Texas completed its first comprehensive renewable energy resource assessment in 1995.1 The cost of energy resources has risen, with the world price of crude oil reaching new heights in mid-2008. In response to concerns over the cost, availability, and environmental impacts of some traditional energy resources, Texas has taken a number of steps to tap into its vast renewable energy resource base. View Exhibit 1-3: Energy Consumption Estimates in Texas by Sector, 1960 to 2005, in Table Format. Energy consumption is often broken down into four end-use sectors: industrial, transportation, residential, and commercial.
The demand for electricity, encompassing all sectors, is growing faster than any other type of energy consumption. Historically, Texas has been a national leader in the production of petroleum products, crude oil and natural gas, and in the generation of electricity. The steady decline in production levels combined with the growth in consumption has led to an energy crossroads never before seen in the state of Texas.
Due to rising energy costs, volatility in the prices of some energy resources, variation in the suitability of different types of energy resources in different applications, national security issues, and environmental concerns, Texas must rely on a diversity of energy sources to fulfill its ever-growing energy needs. Source: Virtus Energy Research Associates, Texas Renewable Energy Resource Assessment, Report for the Texas Sustainable Energy Development Council, July 1995. View Exhibit 1-8: Total Texas Energy Production Estimates by Source (2005), in Text Format.
View Exhibit 1-9: Energy Production Estimates by Source in Texas, 1960-2005, in Text Format. Exhibit 1-7 and Exhibit 1-8 show the 2005 breakdown of energy production by source for the US and Texas, respectively.
Used primarily for transportation as a direct use energy source (including heating and manufacturing), petroleum products have played a major role in the state’s energy make-up and economy for decades. Coal, in the form of lignite, is yet another non-renewable resource found within the state.
View Exhibit 1-10: US Renewable Energy Consumption as Share of Total Energy (2007), in Text Format.
View Exhibit 1-11: Renewable Energy Consumption by Energy Use Sector (2007), in Text Format. Interest in renewable energy in the US and Texas has experienced a rebirth in recent years due to an increase in environmental awareness, skyrocketing oil and gas prices, and national security concerns. Renewable energy is obtained through a variety of sources; hydropower, geothermal, biomass, wind and solar resources are all utilized in some manner to produce energy. Renewable resources are fundamentally limited in terms of how they can be used and their availability in certain areas or at particular times. Hydropower and biomass (including wood, waste, and biofuels) resources have historically led the way in terms of energy production and consumption in the state.
View Exhibit 1-13: US Renewable Energy Consumption as Share of Total Energy (2007), in Table Format.
The potential for increased production of renewable energy in Texas is large, barring a few key issues. Transmission-related obstacles are the major barriers to new renewable electricity generation in the state. In July 2008, the Public Utility Commission of Texas (PUCT) took the first step in addressing the transmission problem by granting preliminary approval of a $4.93 billion plan to build new transmission lines from the windy west to the more populous urban areas of the state.
A number of studies have explored the potential role of renewable energy and energy efficiency in mitigating climate change.
The ultimate goal of Socolow’s wedge theory is to provide a way of looking at reducing carbon emissions through the use of clean energy resources, energy efficiency standards, and other realistic measures without unduly hampering economic growth.
The update to the Texas Renewable Energy Resource Assessment is sponsored by the State Energy Conservation Office (SECO) through the Office of the Comptroller, as required by Rider 15, Comptroller Fiscal Programs, House Bill 1, 80th Legislature, Regular Session, 2007. The study’s objective is to provide an update to the Texas Renewable Energy Resource Assessment, originally produced by Virtus Energy Research Associates in July 1995. The next chapter gives an overview of the Texas climate and is followed by six sections highlighting each of the major renewable energy resources.
1 Virtus Energy Research Associates, Texas Renewable Energy Resource Assessment, Report for the Texas Sustainable Energy Development Council, July 1995. 2 Texas Comptroller of Public Accounts, The Energy Report 2008 (Austin, Texas, May 2008), p.
5 Texas Comptroller of Public Accounts, The Energy Report 2008 (Austin, Texas, May 2008), p. 6 Texas Comptroller of Public Accounts, The Energy Report 2008 (Austin, Texas, May 2008), p. 7 Texas Comptroller of Public Accounts, The Energy Report 2008 (Austin, Texas, May 2008), p. 9 Texas Comptroller of Public Accounts, The Energy Report 2008 (Austin, Texas, May 2008), p. 10 Texas Comptroller of Public Accounts, The Energy Report 2008 (Austin, Texas, May 2008), p. 11 Texas Comptroller of Public Accounts, The Energy Report 2008 (Austin, Texas, May 2008), p. 14 Texas Comptroller of Public Accounts, The Energy Report 2008 (Austin, Texas, May 2008), p. 16 Texas Comptroller of Public Accounts, The Energy Report 2008 (Austin, Texas, May 2008), p.
19 Texas Comptroller of Public Accounts, The Energy Report 2008 (Austin, Texas, May 2008), p. 21 Texas Comptroller of Public Accounts, The Energy Report 2008 (Austin, Texas, May 2008), p.
35 Texas Comptroller of Public Accounts, The Energy Report 2008 (Austin, Texas, May 2008), p. 38 Texas Comptroller of Public Accounts, The Energy Report 2008 (Austin, Texas, May 2008), p. Seth Ayotte: As others have mentioned, this page seems to use a different definition of efficiency than we have commonly been using in class. Name: Tamara Larsen I would have to agree with Harold Weinrich on this idea that geothermal energy seems to be an enormous idea.
Harold Weinrich: After reading this page, I would agree that geothermal energy seems to be a promising way to provide different forms of energy in a very clean way.
Like Harold I also wondered how the efficiency of 400% came about, and I do appreciate Zach for discussing how he believes they got this efficiency. First, I think that this wiki page was well written and resembles articles on the real website. I had no idea that geothermal could be so efficient, even with the lower numbers found by Zach. Laura Elbert: After reading, I have learned that there are numerous benefits to this form of energy, but like others have mentioned, the cons seems to overshadow the benefits. Plate tectonics can also affect the geothermal gradient, due to new hot rock rising to the surface as the plates move. The United States is currently the world leader in capacity of geothermal energy and generation of electrical power from geothermal energy.
Electric Generation- There is three types of geothermal electric generation plants used today and they are 1. Flash Steam Plant- Flash steam plants are used where the liquid temperatures are above 360F. Binary Cycle Plant- The binary cycle plant is mostly used where the temperature of the water is below 400F. Geothermal Heat Pumps- The earth’s upper layer of crust (about 10 feet below the surface) has an almost constant temperature 50-60F. There are no visual clues above ground that will show you where the geothermal reservoirs are.
Geothermal energy has the potential to play a significant role in moving the United States (and other regions of the world) toward a cleaner, more sustainable energy system.

Geothermal energy can be and is being used to heat and cool thousands of homes and buildings across the United States of America and other countries such as Iceland. Heat pumps or ground source heat pumps are highly efficient and are now gaining wide acceptance for housing and buildings. Because geothermal power doesn't require any chemical change, it has no toxic byproducts. The flow of energy from geothermal plants is more or less constant, making them exceptionally reliable.
Geothermal energy is theoretically sustainable since it uses only water and even that is recirculated. Geothermal energy is theoretically very scalable, since it does not require a large plant to be efficient and some sites of geothermal availability are quite expansive.
Though geothermal power is nearly inexhaustible on a large scale, individual plants can locally deplete the resource if they extract too much energy too quickly. There is some possibility that geothermal plants which forcible inject water could cause destabilization to the surrounding land area. In my experience spending endless hours looking for energy consumption, production, price, fuel types, trends, outlooks, predictions (you get the idea) statistics, no other organization has been more of a one stop shop than the EIA. The point that I want to make from the above is that I appreciate the EIA and all that they do. Again, I intend to emphasize energy intensity in upcoming columns, but needless to say, this finding surprised me. Clearly energy consumption increased quickly since the 1900’s and there was no looking back once oil was discovered. Residential photovoltaic (PV) energy production is in a position to become a significant producer of energy in the United States and elsewhere. Considering the fact that rooftop solar systems are capable of producing all of a typical household energy needs, the implications here are staggering.
Unfortunately, Rooftop PV will not be a majority producer of our total energy needs in the next decade or two. Concerns over the contribution of fossil fuel use to global climate change are reported in the press on a daily basis.
Goals for renewable energy were established as part of the legislation which restructured portions of the state’s electric utility industry in 1999. The hot and humid climate that dominates much of the state is responsible for a high demand for summer air conditioning. During the early 1990s, consumption overtook production, effectively establishing Texas as a net importer of energy resources, forcing the state to increasingly rely on outside sources of energy to meet demand (Exhibit 1-5). As of June 2008, Texas ranked first in the nation for installed wind capacity with a generating capacity more than twice that of second place California. As carbon emissions continue to grow and concerns surrounding climate change mount, renewable energy resources could become a major player in the development of a cleaner, less carbon intense energy policy for Texas and the nation.
Today, the state has the natural resources, cost-effective technologies and manpower to turn Texas into the dominant leader in the renewable energy industry.
Each resource is described in terms of its current and potential use and how it is being incorporated into the overall energy make-up of the state.
If production and consumption levels are based on the economic value of energy resources, Texas continues to be a net exporter. Direct Testimony of Brendan Kirby for The Wind Coalition and Electric Transmission Texas, LLC. My understanding was that efficiency was defined as the percentage of the potential energy provided by the source that is converted into electrical energy. While it may provide a very necessary energy supply in the near future, Geothermal is not good enough for the distant future. There is less toxic fumes given off as well as the concept of recirculation is very impressive.
It is hard to predict how long a source will last, pushing investors to renewable resources instead.
Some of the benefits that stuck out to me are the high efficency, cleanness, and the fact it does not rely on weather conditions (unlike solar and wind energies). The heated fluid that is extracted for use in a plant can be injected back into the reservoir.
It is one of the few renewable energy technologies that—like fossil fuels—can supply continuous, base load power. We can do this by harnessing the heat or cold that lies just below the Earths surface; this is also known as direct use.
Geological Survey estimates the geothermal resource base in the United States to be between 95,000 and 150,000 MW, of which about 22,000 MW have been identified as suitable for electric power generation. With growing efficiencies and a wider market we could begin to see more from geothermal in the near future. These pumps provide space heating and cooling for a lower cost than a normal air conditioning unit or heater.
With investors coming from all over the world to the United States to invest in renewable energies, the economics of geothermal energy is looking better and better everyday.
There is still some ambiguity here since I’m not sure exactly how this energy was used back then, a good guess is that it’s mostly for heat. As Figure 2 shows, coal didn’t register until 1850, petroleum until 1860, natural gas until 1885, hydro in 1890 and the first electron consumed at the hands of Americans from nuclear power came in 1958.
You’ll notice that my chart goes up to 2027, those are the Department of Energy predictions.
The final breakthrough needed to make this a reality is already on the way – affordable battery storage. Many of these individuals are simply invested in other forms of energy, so there statements cannot be taken seriously.
The fossil fuel industry is simply too entrenched and will continue to take advantage of their considerable power and momentum. Until the recent increases in natural gas prices, the price of electricity in Texas tended to remain below national averages.
This gap will continue to widen over time based on historical trends, thereby illustrating the fact that traditional energy sources will not be enough to satisfy the nation’s growing thirst for energy. For example, the opportunity to harness solar power is not always available due to rain or thick clouds; however, at the same time the majority of the earth is exposed to sunlight on a daily basis. The state also leads the nation in biodiesel production as a transportation fuel and is starting to capitalize on solar power as a viable energy resource.
As a greenhouse gas, these carbon emissions blanket the earth, trapping greater amounts of heat within the atmosphere. At this juncture, forward-thinking policies are critical to the establishment of a robust and sustainable renewable energy market.
New research and updated statistics have been included and were used to evaluate Texas’ total renewable energy resource base.
Characterizing the energy base in Texas, technologies necessary to convert renewable resources into useable forms is discussed. What you call “efficiency” on this page, at least in some places, might be better changed to Coefficient of Performance, as mentioned below as energy in vs. With is ability to be depleted at a specific time for an unknown length of time it would seem that it is not a good enough option for our future. Some sites have reported that after several years of extracting steam, suddenly the steam stopped.[1] Even though the mantle has large energy holdings, can this eventually run out? There were some issues I would like to address, there is a lot of statistics and numbers in the beginning, but no examples to compare these numbers. Anyways, I wrote a paper a couple of years ago researching the possibility of using more geothermal to sustain New Zealand's power need. As for the cons, the use of geothermal energy seems to be only practical small-scale for houses and buildings, and the costs are extremely high. Therefore the most important areas of geothermal production are found around plate margins.
This lowers the overall environmental impact of the plant and does not deplete the energy available. The hot water from the earth is run through a heat exchanger which causes the second liquid to flash to vapor, the vapor then spins a turbine which is connected to a generator that generates the electricity. During the summer the temperature in the ground is lower than the air temperature so the geothermal heat pumps use that to cool buildings in the summer. Unfortunately, only a fraction of this resource is currently utilized, with an installed capacity of 2,800 MW (worldwide capacity is approximately 8,000 MW). So far there has been over one million installed in just the United States (US department of Energy). To my knowledge, no other country or organization makes access to invaluable energy statistics as easy or as readily available as the EIA. Also, it’s a good bet that the efficiency of your typical energy conversion device in the 17-1800’s has improved somewhat today.
The fact that they see oil maintaining exactly a 39% share between now and 2027 tells me that they may have taken a simplistic approach to their predictions. We can realistically supply our energy needs with a combination of solar, wind, hydro, and geothermal.

Relatively low energy prices, the availability of crude oil and natural gas reserves within the state, and an expanding economy made Texas an ideal site for the development of energy-intensive industries, such as petroleum refining and chemicals production, steel mills, aluminum smelting, and electronics. Unfortunately, this may lead to an increase in emissions, affecting air quality throughout the state.
Inadequate transmission to more populous areas of the state, where additional energy resources are needed, has hampered the overall growth of alternative energy. This results in the Earth warming above the temperatures that would otherwise occur, causing changes in long-term weather patterns across the globe. For example, cutting electricity use in homes and offices through basic efficiency measures could reduce CO2 emissions by one wedge.
The final chapter provides a discussion of the issues and opportunities concerning renewable energy resources, compares the economics of each resource, and delineates a variety of energy policy options for consideration.
The energy that is extracted is very expensive and there are cheaper ways out there to retain energy.
It takes some energy to pump water down to the heat and back again (at maybe 80-90% efficiency), but when it comes out it has a much higher internal energy, giving the water more energy out than in.
For instance: it costs so much to find a site and build a plant that might exhaust its resource within a decade or so, and too few locations around the world are suitable for this type of energy production.
Down to the limit of current drilling technology, about 15,000 meters, the average geothermal gradient is in the range of 2.5-3°C per 100 meters. This process also allows for the ability to replenish areas that previously did not return the fluid to the reservoir, causing the energy production to decline.
The type of plant used depends on the fluid, if it is water or steam and the temperature at that location. The Pacific Rim is an active location for such geothermal activity, it is called the Ring of Fire. Some geothermal facilities have realized at least 50 percent reductions in the price of electricity since 1980. But thanks to declining costs and state and federal support, geothermal development is likely to increase.
With the lack of investment interest from the United States for geothermal energy and the global emphasis on oil and gas exploration, geothermal energy has been put off.
In fact, I could spend some time criticizing other governments (mostly my government) for not providing resources that even come close to the EIA’s. To be sure, there must have been a fair bit of estimating going on, considering that the Department of Energy, as we know it today, was only created in 1977, not to mention the U.S. Since the end of the 2nd World War and the birth of the suburbs, petroleum has dominated energy consumption and its share of primary energy has increased quickly from 2.4% in 1900 peaking at 47% in 1977 and since the 1980’s has stabilized to around 40%.
This means that residential energy use is about one fifth of total energy consumption in America.
It won’t be long before grid independent residential solar power systems are affordable as well.
As prices for renewable energy sources continue to plummet, we’ll see a continued acceleration of clean power production.
In 2005, Texas ranked first and second in the nation, respectively.8 Exhibit 1-3 shows the annual consumption in Texas by sector between 1960 and 2005. Renewable energy resources, including wind, solar, biomass, and hydroelectric power contribute a small but increasing percentage of total energy production.13 Exhibit 1-6 lists the major energy sources in Texas, denoting the primary uses for each. Overcoming this issue is seen by some as critical to the future of renewable energy production in Texas.
Scientists believe that if greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere continue to rise, weather patterns could change dramatically, resulting in potentially dire consequences for the Earth’s inhabitants. In the type of efficiency that we have discussed in class, it is not possible to utilize an energy source at greater than 100% efficiency. It’s a great resource if it was cheaper but I don’t think it’s what America needs at this point in time. This percentage seems to be a very odd way of stating the efficiency, since it is saying that energy is being created by the heat pump, when realistically it is just taking stored energy. While these sources typically don't yield a lot of greenhouse gases, there is always concern about cooling off a geothermal source so much as to make it useless, as well as the risk of bringing up toxic minerals such as arsenic from deep underground into a water supply, much as is the risk in normal drinking wells. This tells us that at a depth of 2000 meters, we can expect the temperature to be in the range of 70°C.
California is by far the leader in generated energy and capacity with more than 88% of total capacity. An example of this is in Reykjavik, Iceland where 95% of the buildings use direct heating for their heat source.
The leftover liquid that does not become vapor is flashed again in a second tank, this enables even more energy to be extracted. This is beginning to change with the recent investment capital and the interest in cleaner burning fuels, rather than burning oil, coal, and gas. I once emailed Stats Canada (the keeper of Canadian stats) for a report that they published on transportation trends and they actually wanted to charge me for it! As I think Figure 3 shows for certain, year on year growth in energy consumption cannot continue indefinitely. In one, emissions are frozen at the current rate over the next 50 years through various measures.
That being said, I think that geothermal energy is a really interesting concept that will have important local applications, as we have already seen in Iceland. Correct me if I'm wrong, but it is like saying that an engine in a car is more than 500% efficient because it uses gasoline which was taken from the ground. The use of geothermal energy for heating seems to be a more reasonable use of the resource. The states of Oregon, Idaho, California, Nevada, and Alaska have a lot of excellent places for geothermal energy.
Having to pay for an IEA report is one thing, to my knowledge my taxes don’t fund their reports, but having to pay twice for a simple Stats Canada report?
Of course, the breakdown of fuels way back then wasn’t too interesting, instead of using coal, petroleum products and nuclear energy, energy before the 19th century came mostly from burning wood. 1000 years from now, will people look at this graph and see a blip that was fossil fuel consumption around the year 2000?
He’s also heavily invested in nuclear power, so his statements are obviously not purely objective. As hot dry rock technologies improve and become competitive, even more of the largely untapped geothermal resource could be developed ( At this point I should put in a disclaimer: whale oils were used back then for lighting but the EIA doesn’t seem to include these stats. The chart below shows the only 3 possibilities: 1) a plateau of energy consumption 2) a crash and plateau and 3) a bad crash and a plateau. I don't think its right to conclude this as how they got the information, only the publishers of the article can explain this. Volcanoes, hot spring, and geysers are the most common form of geothermal energy that makes its way to the surface. In Amory Lovins’ report (Winning the oil endgame), his research revealed that roughly 30 million gallons of whale oil was produced in 1821. The first scenario would prevent the drastic increase in CO2 levels anticipated to occur if action is not taken, thus maintaining the greenhouse gas at a less volatile level.
I like the idea of geothermal on a local scale, heating buildings and maybe even providing electricity for entire towns. Visible signs of the heat within the Earth manifests itself as geysers, volcanoes, and hot springs. The fluid in the reservoir is water, which can carry chemicals and gases with it, which can lead to pollution once extracted. This sounds a bit too high to me (on a side note, does anybody know approximately what the energy density of whale oil would be?). I question its viability on large scales, as the sources are so diffuse and would require construction of extensive new transmission lines. After reading the possible benefits of Geothermal Energy, I could definately see a greater push for this option in the future. There is much more non visible action taking place beneath the Earth's crust, which we know as plate tectonics.
California has 33 geothermal plants that generate 90 percent of the nation’s geothermal electricity.
Your page is well done and I thought the part on the different types of turbine systems for geothermal was very clear. Are there any issues with the power of the geothermal energy source changing over time, causing possible complications to exisiting energy harvesting structures? After that, residential, commercial and transportation energy use has grown more slowly and industrial energy use has remained essentially constant.
When prices rose sharply, demand dropped as energy users (especially in industry) began conserving energy.

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