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A Aseptic Meningitis in the Newborn and Young InfantA  This is a corrected version of the article that appeared in print.
This disease is of two types – viral meningitis, characterized by fever and illness and bacterial meningitis, causing brain damage and resulting in death.
Whenever, there is any bacterial or viral infection in the body, it is important to make use of antibiotics available. It is usually injected into the body that spreads all along the body, to kill and destroy infection causing bacteria. If a person is affected by meningitis, he or she will have trouble in breathing that reduces the supply of oxygen to the body. Meningitis has the characteristics of affecting the brain, therefore it is important to reduce air or pressure near the brain. There will be a huge loss of water and chemical components in the body during meningitis, which has to be normalized for curing it.
Before, reaching the hospital for treatments, it is important for patients to take rest in properly ventilated area. MelAus PartnersVIRAL MENINGITIS SYMPTOMS TODDLERS Symptoms, diagnosis,read about causes, risk factors transmission. Cerebrospinal fluid should be obtained (unless lumbar puncture is clinically contraindicated) to enable initial therapy to be planned. Symptoms to inquire about in the infant include poor feeding, lethargy or irritability, altered sleep pattern, seizures, rash, vomiting, diarrhea or respiratory difficulty.1A  Fever may or may not be present (Table 1). Patients should be hospitalized, and treatment with intravenous antibiotics should be started. This infection leads to the irritation and swelling near the brain and spinal cord covering regions, which puts the life of a person at risk.
While the former occurs commonly among individuals, the latter occurs occasionally, but has to be treated at the earliest to avoid serious health affects. It is necessary to keep a check on the antibiotic dosage levels, which helps in overcoming drug resistance situation.
It is important for individuals to breathe properly without any troubles, which helps in reducing meningitis infection to an extent. In oxygen therapy, physicians make use of nose piece, windpipe, hood and face mask like structures providing needed air for patients to breath.
Patients are advised to take large amount of fluids and waters frequently, which helps in preventing the risks of dehydration and vomiting.
Initial results of cerebrospinal fluid testing may not conclusively differentiate between aseptic and bacterial meningitis, and antimicrobial therapy for all likely organisms should be instituted until definitive culture results are available.
To help identify the cause of meningitis, it is important to consider the season, the patient's exposure to ill persons and travel history, and typical infectious diseases that may be prevalent in the community at the time.2 In infants younger than three months of age, congenital and perinatal diseases may present with abnormal cerebrospinal fluid findings. Although it usually presents as sepsis in the neonate, it can have a late-onset presentation as meningitis at one to 12 weeks of age.5 Escherichia coli and Listeria monocytogenes are other pathogens that cause meningitis in the newborn.
Hearing should be assessed one to two months after discharge, using brainstem auditory evoked response testing. This threat is seen among people of all ages, but the risks of disease are high among adults, because of their damaged and improper immune system.

It is necessary for patients to make use of treatment for meningitis available, by taking proper medical advice from specialist medical doctors. It is important to note that treatments for meningitis depend on the type of disease, age and other related factors. This therapy helps an individual in getting back to normal, which helps him in fighting against meningitis. There are also chances of fever and seizures that is suffered by the patients, which has to be treated with necessary medicines available for curing it.
Blood tests and pressure has to be checked, which helps in tracking sugar and sodium levels in the body. Following these measures efficiently, can help in reducing the health impact caused by meningitis. Comprehensive therapy, including antibacterial and antiviral agents, should continue until a cause is identified and more specific therapy is initiated, an etiology is excluded or the patient improves considerably and the course of antimicrobial therapy is completed. The mother should be questioned about any fever or complicating illness occurring during pregnancy or around the time of delivery.
Although bacterial organisms are frequently associated with a more fulminant course, HSV and Enterovirus may also produce viral septic shock.
Neuromuscular assessment at the time of discharge should be documented and periodically assessed on an outpatient basis to allow early detection of any deficiencies.
People having viral type will get fully recovered within 10-15 days and it is necessary to confirm that they are positive for meningitis infection. Acetaminophen is used for treating fever and Dilantin is used to provide relief from seizures, which has to be consumed according to physicians’ advice. Group B streptococcus is the most common bacterial etiologic agent in cases of meningitis that occur during the first month after birth. Antibiotics should be administered until all bacterial cultures have been negative for at least 72 hours. Learning disabilities, behavior disorders and speech delay, which can be difficult to diagnose in infants and young children, require close monitoring after discharge and at subsequent well-child visits. But on the other side, bacterial meningitis is serious that requires serious medication treatment under physician’s observation.
Etiologies of aseptic meningitis include viral infection, partially treated bacterial meningitis, congenital infections, drug reactions, postvaccination complications, systemic diseases and malignancy. Long-term sequelae of meningitis include neuromuscular impairments, learning disabilities and hearing loss.
He had no cough, vomiting or diarrhea.The prenatal history was remarkable for maternal first-trimester primary genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection.
Prompt diagnosis and treatment are essential to improved outcome.When a newborn or young infant presents with fever and lethargy or irritability, meningitis is a primary concern. Bacterial meningitis has an incidence of about 20 to 100 cases per 100,000 live births during the newborn period.1 Aseptic meningitis is even more common.
Although most types of aseptic meningitis do not cause serious sequelae, some types result in significant morbidity and mortality if not properly diagnosed and treated.

She had not traveled out of the country and had no known exposure to ticks, cats or undercooked meat. Current treatment for Enterovirus meningitis is supportive, and most infants recover completely. He had no bulging fontanelle, rash, petechiae, vesicular lesions, hepatosplenomegaly or neurologic abnormalities.The cerebrospinal fluid showed a red blood cell count of 15 per mL and a white blood cell count of 1,295 per mL, with a differential of 1 percent neutrophils, 32 percent lymphocytes and 67 percent monocytes.
Important physical findings include lethargy or irritability, fever or hypothermia, petechial, vesicular or macular skin rash, mucosal lesions, tachypnea or apnea1A  (Table 1). His peripheral complete blood cell (CBC) count was 13,600 per mL, with a differential of 32 percent neutrophils, 61 percent lymphocytes and 2 percent monocytes.Because of the patient's age and the maternal history of genital HSV infection, the infant was admitted to the hospital, and cefotaxime (Claforan), ampicillin and acyclovir (Zovirax) were administered. The child may be more irritable while being held than while lying still (paradoxic irritability).LABORATORY DATAThe most important test to perform when meningitis is suspected is the lumbar puncture. Children possible causes, signs and treatment Of meningitis bacterial and viral types symptoms ofcare guide for viral. After bacterial cultures were negative for 72 hours, therapy with cefotaxime and ampicillin was discontinued. The cerebrospinal fluid should be tested for cell counts with differential, Gram stain, glucose determination, protein and bacterial cultures. After cerebrospinal fluid culture for HSV was negative for seven days and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test of the cerebrospinal fluid was negative, therapy with acyclovir was discontinued. PCR can provide same-day results for several viruses, including HSV, cytomegalovirus, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the enteroviruses.3Other important laboratory values to obtain during the evaluation include a CBC and bacterial cultures of blood and urine. Occasionally, a computed tomographic (CT) scan or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is indicated to help identify causative agents.
Although cerebrospinal fluid values may help to differentiate bacterial from viral etiologies, culture is still the gold standard. Aseptic meningitis typically follows a shorter, more benign course than bacterial meningitis.
Cerebrospinal fluid values for bacterial and aseptic meningitis may overlap, and all newborns and young infants should receive antibiotic therapy if cerebrospinal fluid values are abnormal or meningitis is suspected. Approximately 40,000 infants born in the United States have cytomegalovirus infection, and 20 percent of these infants experience significant morbidity or mortality.13 A diagnosis of congenital syphilis should be considered in infants with the physical stigmata of syphilis or in those whose mothers have a known history of inadequately treated syphilis. Each year in the United States, about 3,000 infants are born with congenital toxoplasmosis.
Most cases of toxoplasmosis are acquired through ingestion of undercooked meat or oocytes from cat feces.

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