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Lectures on Physics has been derived from Benjamin Crowell's Light and Matter series of free introductory textbooks on physics. Plot speculation for Star Wars VII: The Force Awakens is reaching its peak in the weeks before the movie opens. You are probably thinking that all the methods simply explode the star, and in a way, that’s true. So, if you want to destroy a star you must add enough energy to essentially increase the size of the star. The Doppler Effect says that as you move toward a source, the observed frequency of light is higher than the actual frequency of the source (this is called blue-shifted). If the starkiller kills stars, how do you kill a star without killing yourself since the resulting supernova will have a very large impact area?
Approximate the change in gravitational potential energy for the material in a star (assume one like our Sun) as it expands to create a density of 1000 atoms per cubic centimeter. Approximate the percent of hydrogen that needs to be converted to helium in order to increase the size of star in the previous question. We will start with a look at density with experiments and procedures done done by the students.
Once density has been reviewed Archimedes' Principle and the Principle of Floatation will be investigated. HYDRAULIC AND PNEUMATIC SYSTEMS INTRODUCTION Learning Objective: Explain the operating principles of hydraulic and pneumatic systems. In automotive and construction equipment, the terms hydraulic and pneumatic describe a method of transmitting power from one place to another through the use of a liquid or a gas. The extensive use of hydraulics to transmit power is due to the fact that a properly constructed hydraulic system possesses a number of favorable characteristics. If the system is well-adapted to the work it is required to perform and not misused, it can provide smooth, flexible, uniform action without vibration and is unaffected by variation of load. Hydraulic systems can provide widely variable motions in both rotary and straight-line transmission of power. Pressure and Force The terms force and pressure are used extensively in the study of fluid power. Computing Force, Pressure, and Area A formula is used in computing force, pressure, and area in hydraulic systems. Transmission of Forces through Liquids When the end of a solid bar is struck, the main force of the blow is carried straight through the bar to the other end (fig. The physical principle formulated by Daniel Bernoulli that states that as the speed of a fluid (gas or liquid) increases, the pressure within the fluid decreases. Use the above equation to sove and try Note#2 link and insert the correct values and let the program solve it for you.
Pascal's Law An important property of fluid pressure is that if the fluid is at rest then the force it exerts at every outer surface must always be perpendicular to the surface.
Pascal's Law states that any pressure P exerted on a confined fluid is transmitted throughout the fluid increasing the pressure at every point in the fluid by the same amount P. Since the atmospheric pressure acts on the free surface of the liquid, this is transmitted throughout the liquid increasing the pressure (hdg) at any point by the amount of the atmospheric pressure.
Two very useful devices based on Pascal's law are hydraulic brakes and hydraulic lift shown overleaf. A large lawn refuse or garbage bag is sealed with duct tape and approximately a dozen plastic drinking straws are inserted evenly around the bag.
Suggestions for Presentation: If you want to have fun with this one, ask if anyone would like to “blow up” the professor (or another student).
The ratio of load piston to effort piston determines the mechanical advantage of the system.
A speed run is designed to give the rider the feeling of accelerating faster and faster without the feeling of weightlessness. The increase in velocity of the car comes from lost gravitational potential energy being converted into kinetic energy.


One of the biggest thrills on a roller coaster is the free fall as a rider travels over a hill.
To give riding more of a thrill, the designer needs to design the shape of the hill to match the falling ball. The speed at the bottom of a free fall drop is calculated the same way as the speed at the bottom of a speed run drop. There comes a certain point on the free-fall drop where the track needs to redirect the riders. To calculate the angle of the hill use the same methods you would use to calculate the impact velocity of a projectile hitting the ground. To solve this the horizontal and vetical velocities at thei pointin space need to be calculated. For the bottom section of the track, the new equation has the desired outcome of changing the direction of the coaster from a downward motion to a purely horizontal motion. However, for this first method I am considering just putting enough energy into the star such that all its material is spread out. Decrease the density of the star to something like the 1,000 atoms per cubic centimeter and you essentially turn that star into a non-star. If the rate of core fusion increases, the core pushes more on the outer parts of the star, causing it to expand. It works because light can push on matter in the same way sunlight pushes on one of the tails of a comet. As you move away from a source, the light appears at a lower frequency than the actual source (red-shifted).
If you pick the correct frequency of light, the two interactions (moving toward and away) interact differently. What kind of angular widening (not sure about the exact technical term) would your laser need in order to hit a star?
Identify the components, component functions, and maintenance procedures of hydraulic and pneumatic systems. By rearranging the above formula, this state may be condensed into the following: P = F divided by A. Under extremely high pressures: the volume of a fluid can be decreased somewhat, though the decrease is so slight that it is considered to be negligible except by design engineers. When liquid in a closed container is subjected to high temperatures, it expands and this exerts pressure on the walls of the container; therefore, it is necessary that pressure-relief mechanisms and expansion chambers be incorporated into hydraulic systems.
In the first two devices air moving through a tube passes through a constriction, which causes an increase in speed and a corresponding reduction in pressure. At the lower position (y1) the pressure P1 is higher than the pressure (P2) when the fliud is at the higher position y2.
The surface it is in contact with exerts a reaction force which is equal and opposite and if this reaction force acting on the fluid had a component parallel to the surface then the fluid would be in motion in the direction of this component. As we already know this pressure (P+hdg) acts equally in all directions and the resultant force acting at the outer surface is normal to the surface.
The pressure applied by the foot on the break pedal is applied to the brake fluid contained in the master cylinder.
A person (demonstrator or student) sits on the bag and several students are asked to come to the front and blow air into the bag through the straws. But the bag has a much greater cross-sectional area than the straw, so the pressure forces exerted on the bag are huge. Next to a horizontal straight piece, the speed run is the easiest piece of the track to design and analyze. The easiest way to experience free fall is to hang from a tall height and drop to the ground.
To give this weightless sensation over a hill, the hill is designed to have the same shape as the path of a ball being thrown off the top of a hill. In other words use the vetical and horizontal velocities to calculate the angle at that position.


The track will need to apply a vertical component of velocity to reduce the coaster’s vertical velocity to zero. This is essentially a more powerful version of the Death Star that doesn’t destroy planets, but solar systems. For the apple, the primary interaction keeping the apple together is the electrostatic interactions between different molecules in the atoms. These high-energy atoms push the outer parts of the sun and essentially balance the gravitational forces that want to crush the star. You can make it so that when the particle is moving toward the light, the light pushes on it to slow it down. You should be familiar with the following terms, as they are associated with hydraulic and pneumatic systems. Without these precautionary measures, the expanding fluid could exert enough pressure to rupture the system. As a result, liquid is forced up into the air stream (through a narrow tube that leads from the body of the liquid to the constriction) by the greater atmospheric pressure on the surface of the liquid.
This pressure is transmitted undiminished in all directions and acts through the brake pads on the wheel reducing the rotatory motion to a halt.
The track will also need to increase the horizontal velocity of the coaster to the value determined from energy relationships. The pieces of the apple would separate from the rest of the apple pieces and move in different directions. This allows the star to gravitationally collapse and rapidly increase the core pressure and fusion rate. However, we can kind of represent all of these constants with just one constant—the Fine Structure Constant.
It is push or pull exerted against the total area of a particular surface and is expressed in pounds or grams. The direction of the blow almost entirely determines the direction of the transmitted force.
In the aspirator air is drawn into a stream of water as the water flows through a constriction.
This is based on the Law of Conservation of Energy; Energy cannot be created by a machine but forces may be changed as required. Sliding friction between the tyres and the road surface opposes the tendency of forward motion reducing the linear momentum to zero. It is held together by the gravitational force (it’s too big to keep together with other forces). The more rigid the bar, the less force is lost inside the bar or transmitted outward at right angles to the direction of the blow. Bernoulli's principle can be explained in terms of the law of conservation of energy (see conservation laws , in physics). How do you push on some atoms to slow them down while not pushing on other atoms to speed them up?
As a fluid moves from a wider pipe into a narrower pipe or a constriction, a corresponding volume must move a greater distance forward in the narrower pipe and thus have a greater speed. At the same time, the work done by corresponding volumes in the wider and narrower pipes will be expressed by the product of the pressure and the volume. Since the speed is greater in the narrower pipe, the kinetic energy of that volume is greater. The second laser shoots into the core to slow stuff down. These technical details should be left to the engineers.
Then, by the law of conservation of energy, this increase in kinetic energy must be balanced by a decrease in the pressure-volume product, or, since the volumes are equal, by a decrease in pressure.



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