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The foresightful worker is attired in personal protective equipment to safeguard against the arc-flash. Workers in the wind power industry face several potential hazards that include arc flashes, electrical discharges that occur upon opening energized circuits.
As a regulatory body, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) is the main federal agency responsible for the enforcement of safety and health legislation in the United States.
One important standard set by the organization requires employers to mark electrical equipment with signs, warning personnel of potential risks, including arc flashes. Until 2014, OSHA offered no regulations or recommendations on a preferred calculation method. NFPA 70E-2012, Standard for Electrical Safety in the Workplace, is the standard that explains and provides guidance for arc-flash hazard analyses.
Calculations for arc-flash hazards on wind farms differ from many other applications in that they can be ascertained from two sources: the utility system external to the wind farm, or from the wind turbine generators. The process of quantifying arc-flash hazards for electrical equipment has been evolving ever since the 1980s. NFPA 70E-2012 Informative Annex D lists several calculation methods, for instance, but only for informational purposes. IEEE Standard 1584 has been the default method used in most software packages typically applied in the wind power industry for equipment less than or equal to 15 kilovolts (kV). Due to the authority granted by Section 5(a)(1) of the Williams-Steiger Occupational Health and Safety Act, OSHA is responsible for enforcing arc-flash safety.
In April of 2014, OSHA created a final rule of 29 CFR Parts 1910 and 1926, which became effective in July of 2014. With consistency in mind, OSHA’s final rule makes changes to several safety-related topics, addressing the different methods of arc-flash calculations. Appendix E to Subpart V of Part 1926 – Protection from Flames and Electric Arcs summarizes OSHA’s recommendations. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration considers these methods reasonable for enforcement purposes when employers use the methods in accordance with Table 1. OSHA deems the results of this method reasonable when the employer adjusts them using the conversion factors for three-phase arcs in open air, or in an enclosure, as indicated in the program’s instructions. To summarize, the IEEE Standard 1584b-2011 equations are applicable for equipment less than and including 15 kV. Interestingly, OSHA’s ruling also recommends ARCPRO, a software program based on an electrical arc model 4 for equipment greater than 15 kV. The Wind Team delivers up to the minute wind news, wind resources, wind product innovation and more. Windpower Editors Paul Dvorak, Nic Sharpley and Steven Bushong interview the industry's biggest newsmakers and allow them to tell their stories.
Solar Power World reaches executives, managers, engineers, installers and technical professionals involved in the design, manufacturing, development, and installation of solar power projects. Design World Online provides the latest design engineering news, articles, tutorials, videos, and products. The third segment describes the principles and procedures on the weighting of different energy carriers (such as electricity, gas, oil or wood) when they are aggregated to overall amount of delivered(and exported) energy. The CENSE project published a booklet with a compilation of the CENSE Information Papers on these standards.Figure 2.
The Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD) requires a general framework and a methodology for calculating the integrated energy performance of buildings.
European Standard EN 15603 covers this final step in the set of CEN standards that implement the EPBD.
Per cluster of standards on a specific subject technical recommendations have been prepared by the CENSE teams.
The questionnaire is designed as a simplified questionnaire, distributed as email text, which contained a few questions and could be answered within a couple of minutes.The questionnaire aimed at inquiring the status of implementation of the standards in the different member states of the European Union. The questionnaire was sent out to contact persons identified within the CENSE project from the 27 EU Member States as well as Switzerland. We need a restructuring of the standards, leading to a clear separation between the obligatory common procedures in the standards and the options to be chosen at national level.
Students use a Bunsen burner, microwave oven, and hot plate to determine which instrument heats water most efficiently. Students will use observations to calculate the energy efficiency of various heating methods. It may be difficult for some students to come up with a satisfactory scheme for collecting and measuring the amount of methane collected from the gas outlet.
If presented as a “lab challenge” this basic investigation could be adapted as a lab practical exam to test how students are able to apply what they have learned. Make sure students are familiar with the proper operation of Bunsen burners, hot plates, and microwaves. This investigation could be incorporated into a unit on stoichometry, chemical changes, or thermochemistry.


Taking into account the energy requirements for a process and finding ways to minimize the energy required are important ways to make the process as environmentally friendly or “green” as possible. Of course, not all of the energy released by this reaction is actually absorbed by the material being heated. Using the balanced equation above, calculate the amount of energy (?H) for the combustion of methane.
Write a plan, paying particular attention to safety, including how you will safely dispose of the natural gas you are measuring. Fill a beaker with a carefully measured (+ or ? 1 mL) amount of tap water (somewhere between 175 and 225 mL). Using a procedure similar to the activity above, heat a sample of water similar in size to the amount used in part A, and use the results to calculate the efficiency of the electric hot plate for heating water.
Microwave ovens have long been used in homes, but now they are being used more widely in scientific laboratories.
Look at the bottom, sides, or elsewhere on the microwave oven for its power rating, measured in watts. Using a procedure similar to the activity above, heat a sample of water and use the results to calculate the efficiency of the microwave oven for heating water.
Calculate the amount of heat absorbed by the water, the amount of heat released by the burning natural gas, and the percent efficiency of the heating process.
When you have calculated the efficiency for heating by each method, record your results, along with the rest of the class, on the board in the front of the classroom, or as your teacher directs. You can get more practice with calculations like these in Preparation & Combustion of Biodiesel. The data you gathered helps determine the efficiency of the various types of heating, but does not reveal the total cost of heating. The total cost of energy should reflect not only the cost of production, but also the indirect costs associated with damage to the environment, regulations, and other factors. Use your household electricity and natural gas bills to calculate the cost in dollars for each part of this investigation. This cost in dollars is rarely a reflection of the total cost to the environment, since it only reflects the net cost (after government subsidies) to consumers for the energy.
Using the information you collected regarding efficiency, dollar costs, and environmental costs, make a recommendation for how best to minimize the energy used to heat substances in your school laboratory. Without proper training and safeguards in place, one wrong move could lead to thermal burns, electrical shock, and falls as a result. The magnitude of a potential arc-flash hazard can be quantified in terms of incident energy. Because there are several methods for calculating incident energy, different organizations provided inconsistent calculations for different types of equipment. In either case, a hazard exists if a person may be exposed to an arcing fault on energized electrical equipment. It represents the point at which personnel need to wear personal protective equipment (PPE) to safeguard against a potential arc-flash hazard. Different methods are described in national consensus standards, including in NFPA 70E-2012, IEEE 1584, and NESC 2014. The Ralph Lee calculation method is usually employed for equipment greater than 15 kV, although the NESC tables from Section 410 for high-voltage equipment is sometimes preferred depending on the type of equipment being studied. It includes new and revised provisions for operations and maintenance (O&M) of electric power generation, transmission and distribution lines, and related equipment. It compares calculations for similar equipment, noting the different results obtained with each method, and pointing out the basis and limitations of each one. However, employers should be aware that these methods don’t necessarily result in estimates that offer full protection from internal faults in transformers and similar equipment, or from arcs in underground manholes or vaults. If this isn’t the case, an employer must demonstrate that only one phase is present or that the spacing of the phases is sufficient to prevent a multi-phase arc. ARCPRO was developed by HD Electric, the company that provided the test data for low-voltage equipment used to develop the equations in IEEE Standard 1584 and the tables in NESC Section 410; however, these only apply to a limited set of equipment types and voltages.
The results have been deemed reasonable, so long as they are adjusted using conversion factors for three-phase arcs in open air, or in an enclosure, as indicated in the program’s instructions. OSHA’s final ruling of 29 CFR Parts 1926 and 1910 provides much needed consistency for calculating incident energy for equipment of different voltages. These recommendations are based on a combination of questionnaires and specific workshop sessions.In addition to the general recommendations, described in the articles above, the technical recommendations on the two main standards dealing with the overall energy performance are described in this article.
The energy performance of a building is the amount of energy consumed or estimated to fulfil different energy requirements. These recommendations are based ona combination of questionnaires and specific workshop sessions.In addition to the general recommendations, described in the articles above, the technical recommendations on the set of standards dealing with the overall energy performance are described in this article.
The evaluation of the questionnaire should provide information on future efforts to make the standard better known and accepted and on necessary contents for revising the standard in order to allow a broad application in daily design practice. And although the structure of the standards EN 15603 and EN 15217 is clear and understandable the majority of respondents expressed the need for a compact method at national level which had as consequence that only selected parts of the CEN standards were integrated in the national methods.


As part of the preparation of the development of a second generation of CEN standards on the energy performance of buildings, it is important to take these into consideration. You could vary the complexity of the task by adjusting the amount of information you provide (such as the enthalpy of combustion for methane).
You may direct students to read the procedure and make up appropriate data tables before they go to the lab. The other 35% was “lost.” Of course, this 35% wasn’t really lost either, it is on the floor under the leak, but it was “lost” to our system (the container). The typical setup is to use natural gas that is piped into the classroom from a commercial supplier and mixed with air in the burner to produce a flame.
You will have access to the following equipment: 1-meter hose, a tub or bucket for holding water, a stopwatch or clock with a second hand, a 2-L soda bottle, and a variety of volumetric containers, such as large graduated cylinders. When you have documented the plan, show it to your teacher and get approval before proceeding. In this part you will do an experiment similar to the one described in Part A, but this time you will determine the efficiency of using an electric hot plate to heat water. Be sure to use the hot plate on the highest setting to be sure it is operating at its highest power output.
Use the experience and information in the previous two investigations to determine the efficiency of heating a sample of water with a microwave oven.
Be sure to use the microwave oven on the highest setting to be sure it is operating at its highest power output. Calculate the average efficiency for each of the methods and discuss the precision in the range of results of the data from the various lab groups.
Depending on how it is generated, the power plants that produce electricity may contribute significantly more (or less) pollution in the process than does the production of natural gas. OSHA has since aimed to reduce uncertainties and increase jobsite safety, thanks to their new ruling. It also demonstrates calculations for single-phase flash arcs in open air, three-phase arcs in open air, and three-phase arcs in an enclosure. This is because the results are quite conservative, and tend to be unrealistic for this voltage level. This amount shall be reflected in one or more numeric indicators that take into account insulation, technical installation characteristics, design and sizing in relation to climatic variables.
It accounts for energy generated in the building, some of which may be exported for use elsewhere.
It is expected that in the coming years feedback from early experience will lead to a basis for further harmonisation. If your lab doesn’t have a typical standard gas system piped in permanently, consider using portable gas burners, alcohol lamps, or whatever other alternative system you generally use. This investigation also provides an opportunity for considering the total environmental cost involved in a simple lab procedure.
If 1000 mL of water leaks and our container holds only 650 mL, we would say our catchment process is 65% efficient. In this lab you will consider the energy efficiency of heating water in a typical high school laboratory setting. Measure the initial temperature of the water with a thermometer to the nearest 0.1 °C, and begin to heat it with the Bunsen burner. Discuss any result that differs significantly from the class average, and if time allows, repeat the experiment to improve the precision.
If natural gas is not available in your community, use the national average price or substitute the cost of propane gas (an alternative fuel to natural gas). Using the Internet and other resources, investigate which power source tends to require less energy to produce and contributes less total pollution to the environment.
Ultimately, PPE is selected and enforced by the owner of the electrical equipment, and NFPA 70E serves to provide recommendations only.
In order to be able to compare different energy sources, an aggregate value must also be calculated. It presents a summary in tabular form of the overall energy use of the building and defines the uses of energy to be taken into account for setting energy performance ratings for new and existing buildings. You will consider three ways this is typically done and calculate the efficiency of each method.
Stop the microwave and take the temperature at intervals until the desired temperature change is achieved. Another concern is that the MS [Member States] don't want to be confronted with substantive changes in the calculation procedures which will jeopardize the continuity in the instrumentation implemented at national level.More specific observations and recommendations related to the level of complexity of the methods and the link with software tools are presented in the relevant sections of this report.



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