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Modern Medicine Image GalleryPhoto courtesy Children's Healthcare of AtlantaVaccines have prevented millions of deaths around the world. In this article, we'll learn about the inspiration for vaccines, the basic science behind how they prevent illness and the diseases they keep at bay. At a minimum, a vaccine must have an antigen and an adjuvant (the adjuvant is inherent in the case of live, attenuated vaccines2). Your use of this website constitutes acknowledgement and acceptance of our Terms & Conditions. In 1796, a physician named Edward Jenner decided to prove a theory that had been circulating for some time. To produce antibodies to the vaccine, B cells are thought to require two signals: (i) binding to the antigen through the surface receptor and (ii) a co-stimulatory signal provided by T cells activated against the same antigen by dendritic cells.

The development of the vaccine kicked off an era of illness prevention unlike anything the world had ever seen. Adjuvants are essential for the provision of the second signal, but some adjuvants, such as TLR9 agonists, also can provide a third stimulatory signal through TLR9 expressed in the B cell. In fact, vaccinations are largely viewed as the most successful medical advancement in the history of public health. Cowpox was a less serious disease related to smallpox that milkmaids often caught through exposure to infected cows. Before vaccines were introduced, smallpox killed millions, nearly 20,000 were paralyzed by polio, and rubella (German measles) caused serious birth defects in about 20,000 newborns. Jenner tested this theory when he took some infected cowpox matter and exposed an otherwise healthy boy through a cut in his arm.

After the boy caught and recovered from cowpox, Jenner exposed him to smallpox via an injection.
According to the national Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) the world's last case of naturally occurring smallpox was in 1977.
The disease has since been eliminated from natural occurrences in the world, so the vaccine is no longer given.

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