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Electron-electron angular correlation experiments, or so-called (e,2e) coincidence experiments, provide the most detailed test of theories which attempt to describe the ionisation of a target atom by an incoming electron. The parameters (Ea,qa,fa,Eb,qb,fb) are freely selectable experimentally within the constraints that energy and momentum must be conserved during the collision. In the experiments described here the DCS has been measured in the perpendicular plane using a helium target with incident electron energies ranging from 10eV to 80eV above the ionisation threshold.
The electron coincidence spectrometer was designed to measure angular and energy correlations between low energy electrons emerging from near-threshold electron impact ionisation of helium and is capable of accessing all geometries from the perpendicular plane to coplanar geometry.
A number of modifications to the original spectrometer as described in Hawley-Jones et al (1992) have been implemented and are detailed elsewhere. Unique to this (e,2e) electron spectrometer is the computer interface which controls and optimises the spectrometer during normal operation. Figure 2 is a block diagram of the hardware interface between the computer and the spectrometer. At the heart of the operation is an IBM 80286 PC which controls the spectrometer and receives information about the system status from monitors around the spectrometer.
The electrostatic lens and deflector voltages in the system are supplied by separate optically isolated active supplies controlled by 12A bit digital to analogue converter (DAC) cards, while a digital monitor measures the voltages and currents on the various lens and deflector elements around the system.
The analyser positions are measured by potentiometers located in the drive shafts external to the spectrometer, and are monitored by a datalogger located on the main PC bus, which also monitors the EHT supplies and the vacuum pressure in the system. Count rates from the channel electron multipliers and photomultiplier tube are monitored by a 32 bit counter board, and the TAC output is sent directly to an MCA card installed in the main PC. The software controlling the electron coincidence spectrometer is written to address specific tasks unique to the coincidence experiment. The main PC controls the spectrometer lens and deflector tuning during operation, optimising these voltages using a Simplex method. Following input of relevant control information, the system is switched to computer control. The electron gun is then optimised to the counts detected by the photomultiplier tube, thus ensuring that the electron current is focussed to a beam of diameter approximately 1mm at the gas jet. The analyser input lenses and deflectors are then adjusted by the computer to optimise the non-coincidence counting rate of each analyser. A coincidence correlation spectrum is then acquired for a predetermined time, after which the analysers are moved to a new position and the optimisation procedure repeated in the inner loop. Once the analysers have moved around the detection plane, the whole system is reoptimised and the process of data collection repeated. A correlation function between the scattered and ejected electrons is therefore accumulated over many sweeps of the detection plane until the results are statistically significant. During operation the running conditions are monitored every 50 seconds by the data logger, allowing any anomalies in the data to be accounted for when final results are considered.
Results from experiment for the symmetric case, where the outgoing electrons following the collision have equal energy, are shown in the figures 4a - 4h. In the perpendicular plane, the symmetry about the incident electron beam direction requires that the DCS must be symmetric about f = 180A° and this is evident in the data. Inspection of the 94.6eV data (35eV scattered and ejected electron energies) indicates that this result does not follow the trends of the other data in the set. The resolution of the spectrometer (~ 1eV) does not allow these contributions to be excluded, and so the 94.6eV data set cannot strictly be considered as part of the overall set of data which is presented here. The first result in this data set therefore is the same as the first result in the previous set, allowing a convenient point for common normalisation of the data sets. Above 54.6eV incident energy the results differ markedly, the angular correlation evolving into a single broad peak instead of the three distinct peaks observed in the symmetric case. This is most clearly evident at 74.6eV incident energy, where the symmetric case shows three distinct peaks of approximately equal intensity, whereas the non-symmetric case shows only a broad featureless structure centred about 180A°.
The sets of data shown in figures 4 and 5 were each normalised relative to the result obtained at 34.6eV incident energy, where both the electrons emerge from the interaction region with an energy of 5eV. The relative angular data presented at any particular energy is normalised by consideration of the electron singles counting rate, which depends on the Double Differential Cross Section at 90A° but is independent of the azimuthal angle f. The procedure adopted here allows an upper and lower bound to be estimated, as no facility exists to allow these overlap volumes to be accurately determined experimentally as is implemented by other electron scattering groups. The DDCS gives the probability of obtaining an electron from the scattering event at an angle q1 in a solid angle dW1 at an energy E1 A± dE1. The solid angle of detection depends upon the geometry and operating potentials of the electrostatic lenses, and is therefore also a function of the detected electron energy.
VA(E1) is given by the three way overlap of the gas beam, electron beam and volume as seen by the analyser. The DDCS varies only slowly over the energy range dE accepted by the analyser (Jones et al 1991) as does the efficiency and solid angle of detection of the analyser as determined from electrostatic lens studies. The energy resolution DEA is independent of E1 because the pass energy of the hemispherical deflector is kept constant. This expression can be rearranged to yield the ratios of analyser efficiency and solid angle in terms of the DDCS, singles count rates and overlap volumes at the two energies E1 and E2 for an incident energy Einc.. The ratios on the left-hand side of this equation were obtained from the DDCS data of MA?ller-Fiedler et al (1986) at an incident energy of 200eV for each analyser at the selected energies of interest.
The first three terms in this expression are evaluated directly from the experiment, while the fourth and fifth terms are taken from the data of MA?ller-Fiedler et al (1986). As no experimental facilities existed to measure these parameters, a SIMION ray-tracing model was set-up to allow a computational determination of these volumetric terms.
The analyser input electrostatic lenses were also modelled to determine the volume viewed at the interaction point for the varying energies of electrons selected. Figure 6 indicates the experimental geometry as viewed by the analysers in the perpendicular plane, where the atomic beam direction is at 45A° to the incident electron beam trajectory. Table 1 indicates the calculated relationship GV as determined from the SIMION ray tracing model, and these values have been used to calculate the normalisations as given in figure 4. The dominant error in the expression is given by the double differential cross sections as measured by MA?ller-Fiedler et al (1986), since these terms arise four times in the expression, and typically have measurement errors of A± 15%. This is possible since the q = 90A° coplanar symmetric energy-sharing result is identical to the perpendicular plane f = 180A° energy-sharing result. Since data was not obtained at an incident energy of 100eV in these experiments, an interpolation between the energy normalised symmetric results yields a relative value.
The uncertainty in the normalisations of the relative energy is approximately A±30%, as discussed in the previous section. The absolute differential cross sections as presented in figures 4 and 5 therefore have uncertainties of approximately A±44%. These latter calculations, normalised to one energy, produced results that were close to those of the experiment.
A simple descriptive model for the symmetric case illuminates a possible scattering processes involved. On the other hand the peak that is observed at 180A° can be explained in terms of either single or multiple scattering.
In terms of single scattering it is due to the incident electron selecting a bound electron whose momentum is equal in magnitude but opposite in direction to its own momentum.


In terms of multiple scattering, particularly at the lower incident energies, the peak at 180A° has additional contributions that may be described by outgoing electron correlations as in the Wannier model. The mass equivalence of the scattered and ejected electrons requires that a quasi-free collision results in electrons emerging at approximately 90A° to each other irrespective of their resulting energies, and so application of this model would once again yield three peaks, although the relative peak intensities might be expected to change. These results predict a single peak at 180A° due to a mechanism following elastic scattering of the incident electron from the nucleus that is more delicate and complex than the quasi-free collision, however the wings at the lower energies in the experiment are not predicted by this model. This may not be entirely unexpected as the DWBA model gives better results at higher energies. The central peak predicted by the theory also differs in width and height from the results presented here, when normalised to the 34.6eV data.
Last week, the Public Utilities Commission of Ohio cut the rates FirstEnergy proposed in a three-year plan.
FirstEnergy will not go quietly back under traditional rate regulation -- at least not it if can't have the rate increases it wanted. In addition to withdrawing the rate proposal that state regulators reduced, the Akron-based utility said its Ohio companies would buy power from wholesale suppliers for the first three months of 2009.
That declaration and the withdrawal of its rate plan opened the door to what could be a prolonged legal battle and extreme rate volatility. At issue is whether the state can regulate what FirstEnergy charges for the generation portion of its bill -- that is, for the electricity itself. Three years ago, FirstEnergy moved ownership of its power plants from its traditional utilities, including The Illuminating Co. The Public Utilities Commission of Ohio on Friday sharply reduced FirstEnergy's proposed rates, ordered discounts for schools and eliminated charges that would have kept outside companies from selling power here.
The PUCO made its order under the new law, which requires utilities to file regulated rate plans but allows them to test the rates against those based on wholesale power markets. But even without the market mechanism in place, FirstEnergy said it intends to seek competitive bids next week with the help of CRA International, a global consulting company, using a bid process approved by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission.
As the business world becomes less certain, techniques many resource companies typically use to manage risk are becoming far less effective.Risk resides in simple choices with knowable probabilities-think of the roll of a dice-but uncertainty arises in messy situations, where we cannot know the probabilities. About A Power Company we provide business electricity n gas and home electric for less, we work with several electricity supply companies to provide you with the lowest electric rate from our energy professionals for your low commercial power rates call today for lower electric rates to power your industry with a low cost.
Wea€™ll schedule a visit to your facility, conduct a free lighting audit, define youa€™re lighting problems and review all of the LED benefits.
The economics of LED lighting makes the technology a compelling one for governments that are struggling to cut expenditures while trying to meet a€?greena€? goals.
For example, a 2013 New York State Department of Energy Conservation report says that if all state municipalities replaced existing incandescent streetlights with LED bulbs a€” which are brighter, more energy-efficient and longer-lasting a€” it would reduce energy consumption by 22.3 million kilowatt-hours annually, while cutting greenhouse gas emissions by 9,200 tons. On top of that, the report suggests that switching from traditional mercury vapor streetlights to LED doesna€™t just significantly reduceA  energy and maintenance costs (a big deal, since street lighting makes up roughly 40% of the statea€™s municipality electrical bills), but also the number of lamp posts needed is more effective as well.
SmartPlanet profiled an example of LED savings in action, telling the story of a NYC property owner who is retrofitting 21 properties with LED lighting (replacing fluorescent, incandescent and halogen fixtures) for an energy savings of $750,000.
Plus, the fact that LED lighting is solid-state means it can be controlled by software, leading to a whole new avenue of growth: programmable lighting.
LED Lighting is a new technology that promises to replace all other types of lighting by 2020. In short, it saves 40-90% on lighting, has a very long lifespan, and looks better than other types of lighting and is easily controlled.
LED's are expensive, but they will pay offA  in about 1-10 years and save tons of money in the long run. One LED lamp will last as long as several traditional lights, saving money on replacements. The answer is simple: because of SSL's rapid ongoing improvements and superior energy-saving potential.
That doesn't mean DOE has abandoned lighting controls and other light source technologies, however. DOE is keeping a close watch on solid-state lighting, in both the lab and the marketplace, to make sure it doesn't run into the same roadblocks that slowedA market acceptance of compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) back in the 1990s. There's little doubt that solid-state lighting ultimately will emerge as the technology of choice for an unparalleled variety of applications, because, all things being equal, everyonea€”building owners includeda€”wants to save energy and protect the environment. DOE has made a long-term commitment to advance the development and market introduction of energy-efficient solid-state lighting. With three annual workshops that collectively bring together approximately 700 attendees, as well as periodic stakeholder roundtables, DOE's solid-state lighting program is open and participatory and coordinates with many lighting and standards groups, such as the Illuminating Engineering Society of North America, the International Association of Lighting Designers, the National Electrical Manufacturers Association, the American National Standards Institute, and the National Institute of Standards and Technology. Specific heat capacity is the amount of heat energy required to raise the temperature of a given mass of material. Specific heat capacity (C) is defined as the amount of heat energy required to raise the temperature of a given mass of material. Leta€™s say we use a bunsen burner fuelled by methane gas to raise the temperature of 200 mL of water by 40oC.
In an exothermic reaction, the total chemical energy of the substances decreases, so the enthalpy (chemical energy) change is negative. In an endothermic reaction, the total chemical energy of the substances increases, so the enthalpy (chemical energy) change is positive.
In dot point 5.3 above, a problem referred to a€?assuming the unlikely outcome of the heat raising the temperature of the water onlya€?. The existence of oceans also moderates the temperature fluctuation of the air, especially in coastal areas. 5.10 Explain what is meant by thermal pollution and discuss the implications for life if a body of water is affected by thermal pollution. Warm water has less dissolved oxygen than cold water, so organisms may be killed by oxygen-depleted hot water. Warm water also increases metabolic rate in a€?cold-bloodeda€? organisms, requiring them to consume more food.
Sometimes, when a substance dissolves in water the temperature increases.A  In this case, we say that the dissolution is exothermic. Sometimes, when a substance dissolves in water the temperature decreases.A  In this case, we say that the dissolution is endothermic. DANGER!A  Those same student from the previous warning now say a€?endothermic reactions absorb heat so the solution gets hota€?!A  In fact, endothermic dissolutions are cold.A  Heat energy is taken from the surroundings and turned into chemical energy.
The existence of oceans also moderates the temperature fluctuation of the air, especially in coastal areas.A  People living in Sydney are surprised by the frosts and high temperatures on the same day in places like Broken Hill and Moree.
Warm water also increases metabolic rate in a€?cold-bloodeda€? organisms, requiring them to consume more food.A  The number of organisms that can be supported then declines because of reduced food supply.
These experiments measure the angular correlation between a projectile electron which is scattered from a target and a resulting electron which is ionised from the target. For an unpolarised target and unpolarised incident electron beam the only azimuthal angle of significance is given by f = fa - fb. When the electrons are detected in the perpendicular plane, the two angles qa and qb are both equal to 90A°. The perpendicular plane is accessed mainly through double collision processes (Hawley-Jones et al (1992), which represent only part of the full dynamical picture.


The computer loads all the voltage supplies from either a manually selected set of voltages or from the results of a previous optimisation run. This decouples the tuning of the electron gun from any tuning requirements of the electron analysers. This should be compared with the data obtained near threshold by Hawley-Jones et al (1992), which also shows a single peak with an approximately Gaussian structure. This is considered to be due to the contribution to the cross section of a number of resonances in helium for scattered and ejected electron energies around 35eV. The model indicated that the electron gun operating at the voltages determined by the optimisation routines produced an electron beam of diameter approximately 1.0mm at the interaction region, consistent with the tuning of the electron beam onto counts from the photomultiplier which views a 1mm3 volume.
For the non-symmetric data no compensation is required for volume effects since GV = 1.0 at all values of Ei. The electrons are then able to emerge at approximately 90A° with respect to each other in the perpendicular plane, as is observed. As the momentum distribution of the bound electron peaks at zero for helium, the peak at 180A° diminishes with increased incident electron energy as the probability of finding a bound electron with the required momentum decreases.
Now, the utility says it will set rates based on market prices - setting the stage for fluctuating prices to consumers, and a long legal battle. The company is signaling it will test the constitutionality of Ohio's "hybrid" regulatory law, if necessary. The commission cut off that avenue for FirstEnergy a month ago when it rejected the company's market proposal, ruling that the market plan did not conform with the legislation. We have to have a process to line up supply," she said, when contracts the utilities have with FirstEnergy Solutions end Wednesday, Dec. Exterior and interior general illumination, safety and security, general production and service lighting uses are just some of the financial energy savings that local businesses and municipalities can benefit from. We will show you the energy and installation savings you will achieve while filling your buildings with the most beautiful, brilliant white light youa€™ve ever seen. Despite the higher initial investment, switching to LEDs from incandescent lighting can quickly pay off on both fronts, while avoiding the complaints and limitations associated with the compact fluorescent (CFC) bulbs that havena€™t quite lived up to their expected potential. The switch would also save on maintenance costs since bulbs would require less frequent replacement. Even at the current, high-cost of LED bulbs, the estimated payback on the project is only three years, with the remaining lifespan of the LED bulbs (which should be at least another 10 years) representing pure savings.
This has been on full public display through large scale installations like San Franciscoa€™s Bay Bridge and New Yorka€™s Empire State Building, and has begun to catch on at the home level thanks to app-controlled LED lighting systems like Philipsa€™ (NYSE:PHG) Hue wireless system. Department of Energy has invested with industry partners in research and development of solid-state lighting (SSL)a€”including both light-emitting diode (LED) and organic light emitting diode (OLED) technologies. DOE still invests to a large degree in promoting the most efficient forms of conventional lighting technologies, through such implementation programs as Building America, the Commercial Buildings Integration Program, and the Federal Energy Management Program. Accelerating the pace of commercialization for SSL will hinge on improving cost competitiveness and quality. DOE watches closely for problems with poor-performing SSL products that are not yet ready to compete with incumbent technologies, including products that fail to meet manufacturers' performance claims. Meanwhile, all things are not equal, which is why DOE repeatedly emphasizes that SSL is right for some applications but not for othersa€”and why education and due diligence should be key elements in any lighting specification and purchasing process. Its comprehensive national program addresses research and development, demonstrations, testing and quality control, market development support, and buyer supporta€”all in service of maximizing the energy-efficiency of SSL products in the marketplace.
It's also highly transparent, publishing numerous reports and roadmaps that are posted online at this website. Further it allows the electron gun to be aligned and focussed accurately onto the interaction region whose centre is located at the intersection of the axes of rotation of the analysers and the electron gun. This type of double collision process must therefore be modelled using higher order scattering terms as is done using the DWBA.
Learn how to access the Violet Ray, Heartlink to the Angels, Merkaba Energy, build Heartbeams, and connect to the World Angel Grid. FirstEnergy's appeal will grind through the legal process at the Public Utilities Commission of Ohio. Because of the move, it can now say its utilities own no power plants and must "go to market" to buy electricity. The bill tried to back Ohio out of its 10-year experiment in electric deregulation -- and the kind of price spikes other deregulated states have seen, up to 70 percent.
By converting to LED lighting, we can reduce energy use and energy costs, improve light pollution and light quality and improve where light is directed. All with no ballast to fail, no blinking, no bugs, no noxious mercury, no noise, no waiting for lights to restart. The story points to LED lighting as a€?low-hanging fruita€? for commercial property owners looking to slash the 25% to 30% of their energy bill that lighting typically consumes. Today, the purchase price of LED lighting products is generally higher than that of their conventional counterparts, often by a long shot, and the energy savings often aren't enough to offset the difference within an attractive payback period. A significant part of DOE's function is to educate consumers as well as the lighting community about those claims and other pitfalls in the SSL marketplace.
This is essential for experiments where all of these may be varied over 3-Dimensional space.
A a€?a€?a€?We will be working with the information provided at my Angelic Empowerment Workshop series. Now is an excellent time for businesses and municipalities to consider converting to LED lighting and reap these benefits.
However, DOE's program is intended to drive aggressive cost reduction, and the current rate of cost decline in LED lighting systems is about 20 percent a year. This includes several process, such as, the 12 strand DNA Activation, Clearing Karma, the Forgiveness Process, Empowered Heart, Future Life Progression, Building an Atlantean Temple, plus several other processes. We will also be learning many other Metaphysical subjects and explore Quantum Physics.A A The first 5 workshop meetings will be focused on several consecutive IET processes originally taught to IET Master Instructors only by IET originator Steven Thayer at our IET Master Retreats.
The processes build upon one another and are then imprinted with hand mudras for a quick future automatic activation.A  A I am able to "set the stage" energetically speaking so IET practitioners and non IET persons can participate and benefit from the processes. We'll end our gathering by joining in a Healing Circle and with a guided meditation and healing prayer for ourselves, our loved ones and our beautiful planet Gaia. It is very uplifting, and everyone I've ever taught always love the experience.A We will explore other ways and many more Angels that are in existence, in future meetings. Please e-mail me or call me with any questions.A A Please visit my other meetup websites for more detailed information on all my Angel Love workshop meetings. We'll end our gathering by joining in a Healing Circle and with a guided meditation and healing prayer for ourselves, our loved ones and our beautiful planet Gaia.



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