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In a pair of landmark studies that exploit the genetic sequencing of the "missing link" cold virus, rhinovirus C, scientists at the University of Wisconsin-Madison have constructed a three-dimensional model of the pathogen that shows why there is no cure yet for the common cold. Rhinovirus C is believed to be responsible for up to half of all childhood colds, and is a serious complicating factor for respiratory conditions such as asthma. The work is important because it sculpts a highly detailed structural model of the virus, showing that the protein shell of the virus is distinct from those of other strains of cold viruses. The A and B families of cold virus, including their three-dimensional structures, have long been known to science as they can easily be grown and studied in the lab. The new cold virus model was built "in silico," drawing on advanced bioinformatics and the genetic sequences of 500 rhinovirus C genomes, which provided the three-dimensional coordinates of the viral capsid.
With a structure in hand, the likelihood that drugs can be designed to effectively thwart colds may be in the offing. Because all three cold virus strains all contribute to the common cold, drug candidates failed as the surface features that permit rhinovirus C to dock with host cells and evade the immune system were unknown and different from those of rhinovirus A and B. Based on the new structure, "we predict you'll have to make a C-specific drug," explains Holly A. The common cold virus may be more common than previously thought in university students not reporting any symptoms.
Scientists are reporting progress in the search for the first broad-spectrum drugs to combat human rhinoviruses (HRVs), which cause humanity's most common infectious diseases.
Why some people are troubled by cold sores while others are not has finally been explained by scientists.
Everything you eat or drink affects your intestinal bacteria, and is likely to have an impact on your health. In a major breakthrough, scientists at the Gladstone Institutes transformed skin cells into heart cells and brain cells using a combination of chemicals. Age-related changes in the human pancreas govern how our bodies respond to rising and falling blood sugar levels throughout our lifetimes, and could affect whether we develop diabetes as adults. For the first time, scientists studying stool transplants have been able to track which strains of bacteria from a donor take hold in a patient's gut after a transplant.
In an era of tight budgets, supporters of depression research argue that more funding is needed to find a cure.
We can understand the puzzling tenacity of depression by posing the opposite question: How has nature built us with the capacity to become depressed?
Moods have been selected for because they flexibly tune behavior to situational requirements. Moods are a clever adaptation because they integrate multiple aspects of how well or poorly we are doing. Just as pain protects us from injury, the unpleasant aspects of low mood are in keeping with its utility.
Here are just a few examples of recent designs from the Keep Calm-o-Matic creative community. When Wrex comes after Shepard after you sabotage the genophage cure, why is there an Intimidate option if the result is the same?
I was always sad at how they let wrex die with an uncerimonious pistol shot in a cut scene in both games.
You can't save Tali if you side completely with the geth either, despite the Paragon interrupt. Wow, so you mean Shepard's actions actually have CONSEQUENCES now, rather than magically all line up in a way that's the most beneficial to him, like in ME2?
Seal coating is an important tool in extending the life of pavement and should not be overlooked.
What leads to the deterioration of asphalt?A  The number one offender is water!A  Water causes clay expansion, washes away dirt and can erode rock supporting asphalt.A  This is why it is imperative that a site is properly graded and drained at installation.
Other factors that can deteriorate an asphalt surface include oxidative properties of ultraviolet light which can denature the surface of asphalt. We recommend year round scheduled maintenance with inspections in spring and fall and crack sealing and repair as indicated. Although the terms cement and concrete often are used interchangeably, cement is actually an ingredient of concrete. So, there is no such thing as a cement sidewalk, or a cement mixer; the proper terms are concrete sidewalk and concrete mixer.
Materials that contain appropriate amounts of calcium compounds, silica, alumina and iron oxide are crushed and screened and placed in a rotating cement kiln.
The kiln resembles a large horizontal pipe with a diameter of 10 to 15 feet (3 to 4.1 meters) and a length of 300 feet (90 meters) or more. Curing is one of the most important steps in concrete construction, because proper curing greatly increases concrete strength and durability. Good concrete can be obtained by using a wide variety of mix proportions if proper mix design procedures are used.
Concrete is tested to ensure that the material that was specified and bought is the same material delivered to the job site. The real indicator is the yield, or the actual volume produced based on the actual batch quantities of cement, water and aggregates. Portland cement is a hydraulic cement which means that it sets and hardens due to a chemical reaction with water.
It is concrete that is strong enough to carry a compressive stress of 3,000 psi (20.7 MPa) at 28 days.
Stains can be removed from concrete with dry or mechanical methods, or by wet methods using chemical or water. Common dry methods include sandblasting, flame cleaning and shotblasting, grinding, scabbing, planing and scouring.
Wet methods involve the application of water or specific chemicals according to the nature of the stain. To remove blood stains, for example, wet the stains with water and cover them with a layer of sodium peroxide powder; let stand for a few minutes, rinse with water and scrub vigorously. Color may be added to concrete by adding pigments-before or after concrete is place-and using white cement rather than conventional gray cement, by using chemical stains, or by exposing colorful aggregates at the surface. Each country has its own standard for portland cement, so there is no universal international standard. Alkali-silica reactivity is an expansive reaction between reactive forms of silica in aggregates and potassium and sodium alkalis, mostly from cement, but also from aggregates, pozzolans, admixtures and mixing water. White portland cement is made from raw materials containing little or no iron or manganese, the substances that give conventional cement its gray color.


If you have a question that was not answered in this section, please contact us and we will be happy to answer it! The protein coat of the a€?missing linka€? cold virus, Rhinovirus C (right), has significant differences from the more observable and better studied Rhinovirus A. 28, 2013) in the journal Virology, a team led by UW-Madison biochemistry Professor Ann Palmenberg provides a meticulous topographical model of the capsid or protein shell of a cold virus that until 2006 was unknown to science. Together with rhinoviruses A and B, the recently discovered virus is responsible for millions of illnesses yearly at an estimated annual cost of more than $40 billion in the United States alone.
Rhinovirus C, on the other hand, resists culturing and escaped notice entirely until 2006 when "gene chips" and advanced gene sequencing revealed the virus had long been lurking in human cells alongside the more observable A and B virus strains.
Drugs that work well against the A and B strains of cold virus have been developed and advanced to clinical trials. Basta, the lead author of the study and a graduate student working with Palmenberg in the UW-Madison Institute for Molecular Virology. To be effective, a drug, like the right piece of a jigsaw puzzle, must fit and lock into the virus. The World Health Organization projects that by 2030, the amount of disability and life lost due to depression will be greater than that from war, accidents, cancer, stroke, or any other health condition besides heart disease.
Yet the search to discover a fundamental defect in the brain that causes depression has foundered.
Depression is a byproduct of evolution, which has shaped not only the physical structures of our bodies but the basic mechanisms of our minds. Moods track key resources in our external environment (like food, allies, and potential mates) and our internal environment (for example, fatigue, hormone levels, and adequacy of hydration).
People in a low mood may blame and criticize themselves, turn situations that went wrong over and over in their heads, and experience pessimism about the future.
An ancient mood system has collided with a highly novel operating environment created by a remarkable species. Click through to see more designs, create your own, share designs and purchase customised products.
Picking the options essentially means your perfectly okay with betraying your comrade and then finishing him off. In practical terms, it's similar to that Paragon interrupt that lets you jump after Tali once she casts herself off the cliff, but it still doesn't save her. Someone just came into work one day at Bioware and said, "Let's kill as many main characters as we can in one game! Seal coats generally consist of a mixture of emulsified asphalt, water, mineral fillers and various other admixtures.
Future applications of seal coat should be applied at intervals of three to five years, or at times when roadway aesthetics are not up to par with the balance of the community. Ingredients used in this process are typically materials such as limestone, marl, shale, iron ore, clay, and fly ash. These air pockets relieve internal pressure on the concrete by providing tiny chambers for water to expand into when it freezes. There are a dozen different test methods for freshly mixed concrete and at least another dozen tests for hardened concrete, not including test methods unique to organizations like the Army Corps of Engineers, the Federal Highway Administration, and state departments of transportation.
If the concrete can't flow because the consistency or slump is too low, there are potential problems with proper consolidation. Three field tests are widely specified: the pressure meter and volumetric method are ASTM standards and the Chace Indicator is an AASHTO procedure.
According to Building Code Requirements for Reinforced Concrete (ACI 318), as long as no single test is more than 500 psi below the design strength and the average of three consecutive tests equals or exceed the design strength then the concrete is acceptable.
The unit weight test can be used to determine the yield of a sample of the ready mixed concrete as delivered. Too much water in the mix will produce a weaker, less durable concrete that will contribute to early flaking and spalling of the surface. If this excess water is worked into the concrete because the finishing operations are begun too soon, the concrete on the surface will have too high a water content and will be weaker and less durable. The factor that most predominantly influences concrete strength is the ratio of water to cement in the cement paste that binds the aggregates together.
Steel-wire brushes should be used with care because they can leave metal particles on the surface that later may rust and stain the concrete. The chemical treatment either dissolves the staining substance so it can be blotted up from the surface of the concrete or bleaches the staining substance so it will not show.
Follow with the application of a 5 percent solution of vinegar to neutralize any remaining sodium peroxide.
However, there are some aggressive materials, such as most acids, that can have a deteriorating effect on concrete. The United States uses the specification prepared by the American Society for Testing and Materials-ASTM C-150 Standard Specification for Portland Cement. External sources of alkali from soil, deicers and industrial processes can also contribute to reactivity.
They have the same properties as types I, II, and III, except that they have small quantities of air-entrained materials combined with them.
Those surface differences, revealed in a new three-dimensional model of Rhinovirus C from the UWa€“Madison lab of Ann C. However, their efficacy was blunted because they were built to take advantage of the surface features of the better known strains, whose structures were resolved years ago through X-ray crystallography, a well-established technique for obtaining the structures of critical molecules. The lack of a three-dimensional structure for rhinovirus C meant that the pharmaceutical companies designing cold-thwarting drugs were flying blind.
Depression's toll has risen even as more research and treatment resources have been poured into combating it. There remains no biological test to diagnose depression, despite hundreds of physical assays, nor are there any genes that strongly predict it. When conditions are unfavorable, or when goals are unreachable, low moods pause behavior to ensure that an animal does not engage in fruitless efforts.
These characteristics, although uncomfortable, are also potentially useful in that a keen awareness of what has already gone wrong can help a person avoid similar stressors in the future. Our big brains have enabled our dominance over the planet and have also made childbirth far more dangerous. Depression is worse in humans than in other mammals not because our species has more flaws but because of our unique strengths.
One lesson learned from treating chronic pain is that it is tough to override responses that are hardwired into the body and mind.


Personally, I think Wrex coming back to bite renegade Shepard in his ass is a masterpiece and put Wrex in a really good light. The process seals the top of the asphalt, preventing water from penetrating the surface of the pavement and protecting the top layer of asphalt from oxidation and wear caused by exposure to the sun. The thickness of the wearing surface will depend on the number of coats applied and the amount of water added by the contractor. The aggregates are sand and gravel or crushed stone; the paste is water and portland cement. The raw mix is placed in the high end and as the kiln rotates the materials move slowly toward the lower end. However, hydration occurs only if water is available and if the concrete's temperature stays within a suitable range. Air-entrained concrete is produced through the use of air-entraining portland cement, or by the introduction of air-entraining agents, under careful engineering supervision as the concrete is mixed on the job. If the concrete won't stop flowing because the slump is too high, there are potential problems with mortar loss through the formwork, excessive formwork pressures, finishing delays and segregation. Conventional concrete has strengths of 7,000 psi or less; concrete with strengths between 7,000 and 14,500 psi is considered high-strength concrete.
Geometric patterns can be scored, stamped, rolled, or inlaid into the concrete to resemble stone, brick or tile paving. The first line of defense against chemical attack is to use quality concrete with maximum chemical resistance, followed by the application of protective treatments to keep corrosive substances from contacting the concrete. There are a few other countries that also have adopted this as their standard, however, there are countless other specifications. The reaction forms an alkali-silica gel that swells as it draws water from the surrounding cement paste, thereby inducing pressure, expansion and cracking of the aggregate and surrounding paste. Palmenberg, explain why no effective drugs have yet been devised to thwart the common cold.
Friedman recently wrote, "Of all the major illnesses, mental or physical, depression has been one of the toughest to subdue." Despite 26 different antidepressants to choose from, only a third of patients with major depression will experience a full remission after a round of treatment. Brilliant scientists cannot find the defect -- even if they look with different or more expensive toys -- because their search is animated by the wrong question: Where is the disease? This efficiency is important given that resources of every sort -- time, energy, or money -- are finite. Our propensity toward anxiety is at once an important defense against threats and a lurking vulnerability to paralyzing conditions. Instead, we must follow the economy of mood where it leads, attending to the sources that bring so many into low mood states -- think routines that feature too much work and too little sleep.
Remember, seal coat is water soluble, so it is important to deal with reputable contractors in the asphalt-maintenance business.
Flame jets are at the lower end and all the materials in the kiln are heated to high temperatures that range between 2700 and 3000 Fahrenheit (1480 and 1650 Celsius). During the curing period-from five to seven days after placement for conventional concrete-the concrete surface needs to be kept moist to permit the hydration process.
The amount of entrained air is usually between 4 percent and 7 percent of the volume of the concrete, but may be varied as required by special conditions.
The reason that contractors put joints in concrete pavements and floors is to allow the concrete to crack in a neat, straight line at the joint when the volume of the concrete changes due to shrinkage.
The total weight information may be shown on the delivery ticket or it can be provided by the producer. Every desirable physical property that you can measure will be adversely effected by adding more water. Other interesting patterns are obtained by using divider strips (commonly redwood) to form panels of various sizes and shapesA  rectangular, square, circular or diamond.
Principles and practices that improve the chemical resistance of concrete include using a low water-cement ratio, selecting a suitable cement type (such as sulfate-resistant cement to prevent sulfate attack), using suitable aggregates, water and air entrainment. This often results in map-pattern cracks, sometimes referred to as alligator pattern cracking.
We need broader mood literacy and an awareness of tools that interrupt low mood states before they morph into longer and more severe ones.
Good looks are an added benefit, but seal coating is not just for aesthetics--it will actually extend pavement life. Portland cement is not a brand name, but the generic term for the type of cement used in virtually all concrete, just as stainless is a type of steel and sterling a type of silver.
This high heat drives off, or calcines, the chemically combined water and carbon dioxide from the raw materials and forms new compounds (tricalcium silicate, dicalcium silicate, tricalcium aluminate and tetracalcium aluminoferrite). In general, the temperature of new concrete should not be allowed to fall below 50 Fahrenheit (10 Celsius) during the curing period. This would be impractical, so a time period of 28 days was selected by specification writing authorities as the age that all concrete should be tested. A large number of chemical formulations are available as sealers and coatings to protect concrete from a variety of environments; detailed recommendations should be requested from manufacturers, formulators or material suppliers. ASR can be avoided through 1) proper aggregate selection, 2) use of blended cements, 3) use of proper pozzolanic materials and 4) contaminant-free mixing water. These tools include altering how we think, the events around us, our relationships, and conditions in our bodies (by exercise, medication, or diet). For each ton of material that goes into the feed end of the kiln, two thirds of a ton the comes out the discharge end, called clinker. But other producers may not even realize that a mix designed for one cubic yard might only produce 26.5 cubic feet or 98 percent of what they designed.
In more severe forms of low mood, these costs are higher, such as damage to the body from the release of stress hormones.
Through a process called hydration, the cement and water harden and bind the aggregates into a rocklike mass.
This hardening process continues for years meaning that concrete gets stronger as it gets older.
A small amount of gypsum is added during the grinding process to control the cement's set or rate of hardening.



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