01.06.2014

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Many people with bipolar disorder take prescribed medication regularly to reduce bipolar symptoms and prevent relapse.
Some people find that the first medication they take to treat their bipolar disorder helps them to keep well. The person might need to work with their clinician and try different bipolar medications alone, in combination, or at different doses to find the right treatment for them. Bipolar treatments often take time to begin to work and for people to experience the full benefits of taking them.
The person may need to weigh up the benefits of a certain bipolar medication in helping them to keep well and the discomfort of the side effects. If the person develops new bipolar symptoms, medications that have helped to keep their bipolar mood stable may need to be adjusted. The person may need to check with their clinician or pharmacist to see if the medications they are taking have negative interactions with other medications they may need.
She brought up my medications, asking if there were any changes, and I told her that my Effexor XR dosage had been increased. Panic attacks for me are stretched out minutes in which I am sure something terrible is about to happen, where time has no end. And while I want to feel, perhaps I don’t want to feel as deeply as I do, but I think I can stand up here on my little soapbox and speak for many of us who live with bipolar disorder and say that we sometimes live life in the extremes. Last updated: 1 Dec 2014Views expressed are those solely of the writer and have not been reviewed.
Majority are nonviolent, but overall, like any psychotic disorder, there is an above average risk of physical violence. If this problem persists: She will continue hearing imaginary things that others can't hear (like noises or someone whispering or talking).
Schizophrenia causes significant cognitive impairment in 85% of the individuals suffering from this disorder, but early treatment with antipsychotic medication can stop this cognitive impairment, and may improve it.
There are "basic symptoms" of schizophrenia that are continuously present throughout the illness. Schizophrenia usually starts between 10 and 25 years for men and between 25 and 35 for women, but 23% of people with schizophrenia experience their first episode after the age of 40. 30's are more often female, have less evidence of structural brain abnormalities or cognitive impairment, and display a better outcome.
Some individuals appear to have a relatively stable course, whereas others show a progressive worsening associated with severe disability.
Thought perseveration, ie, an obsessive like repetition of insignificant thoughts or mental images.
Thought blockages either with or without intrusion of a new thought also includes a sudden loss of the thread or train of thoughts. Disturbance of expressive speech, ie, problems in producing appropriate words, sometimes also experienced as a reduction in active vocabulary. Disturbances of abstract thinking, ie, an unusual basic symptom seen when asking the patient to explain sayings or idioms.
Decreased ability to discriminate between perception and ideas, true memories and fantasies. Research has shown that it is not the psychotic symptoms of schizophrenia that cause most of its disability. One hundred years ago, the early psychiatrists noticed that many individuals with schizophrenia lost their emotion and motivation. This loss of emotion and motivation was later called the "negative symptoms" or "deficit syndrome" of schizophrenia.
Although antipsychotic medication doesn't decrease negative symptoms once they appear; staying on antipsychotic medication appears to often prevent these negative symptoms from developing or getting worse.
The prevalence of negative symptoms or deficit syndrome is approximately 15% in first-episode patients and 25%-30% in chronic schizophrenia.
In genetically vulnerable individuals, certain illicit drugs, especially cannabis ("pot"), have been shown to trigger Schizophrenia.
The life expectancy of individual with Schizophrenia is shorter than that of the general population for a variety of reasons. Schizophrenia shortens lifespan by up to 15 years, primarily due to cardiovascular disease, and this excess mortality is getting worse.
The best outcomes are associated with early and persistent treatment with antipsychotic medication soon after the onset of Schizophrenia. Schizophrenia is the fourth leading cause of disability in the developed world (for ages 15-44), and Schizophrenia is observed worldwide. In 2002, the overall cost of Schizophrenia in America was estimated to be USD $62.7 billion. Alcoholism and drug abuse worsen the course of this illness, and are frequently associated with it.
The first-degree biological relatives of individuals with Schizophrenia have a risk for Schizophrenia that is about 10 times greater than that of the general population. Antipsychotic medication shortens the duration of psychosis in Schizophrenia, and prevents recurrences (but psychotic relapses can still occur under stress).
Electroconulsive therapy (ECT) may provide months of benefit, but this benefit is not sustained. No therapy is a substitute for antipsychotic medication, but a number of psychological and social therapies do increase the effectiveness of antipsychotic medication. Research on cognitive remediation therapy for schizophrenia has shown the treatment effect is small and disappears at follow-up assessment. There are many ineffective therapies that promise miracle-like recovery from Schizophrenia with vitamins or other treatment fads. Swedish scientists did a 40 year followup study of 97% of all Swedish males, aged 18-20, entering the Swedish army in 1969-70 (a total of 49,321 males). Some people argue that illicit drugs should be legalized to decrease the crime associated with these drugs.
During untreated Schizophrenia, individuals may also develop paranoid personality traits; thus lack the essential social skills of trust, forgiveness, and gratitude. The schizophrenic disorders are characterized in general by fundamental and characteristic distortions of thinking and perception, and affects that are inappropriate or blunted.
The course of schizophrenic disorders can be either continuous, or episodic with progressive or stable deficit, or there can be one or more episodes with complete or incomplete remission. Paranoid Schizophrenia is dominated by relatively stable, often paranoid delusions, usually accompanied by hallucinations, particularly of the auditory variety, and perceptual disturbances.
A form of Schizophrenia in which affective changes are prominent, delusions and hallucinations fleeting and fragmentary, behavior irresponsible and unpredictable, and mannerisms common. Catatonic Schizophrenia is dominated by prominent psychomotor disturbances that may alternate between extremes such as hyperkinesis and stupor, or automatic obedience and negativism.
A depressive episode, which may be prolonged, arising in the aftermath of a schizophrenic illness.
A chronic stage in the development of a schizophrenic illness in which there has been a clear progression from an early stage to a later stage characterized by long- term, though not necessarily irreversible, "negative" symptoms, e.g. A disorder in which there is an insidious but progressive development of oddities of conduct, inability to meet the demands of society, and decline in total performance. Active-Phase Symptoms: Two (or more) of the following, each present for a significant portion of time during a 1-month period (or less if successfully treated).
Which Behavioral Dimensions Are Involved?The ancient Greek civilization lasted approximately 3,000 years (16th century BC to 15th century AD).
In life there is a constant struggle between good and evil; hence there is a need for justice.


Individuals that are open to new experience are creative, imaginative, philosophical, intellectual, complex, and curious. Adverse Drug Reaction Probability Scale (Naranjo Scale) - This scale was developed to help standardize assessment of causality for all adverse drug reactions. Schizophrenia is associated with significant cognitive impairment, which is associated with poor functional recovery. Patients with schizophrenia have an increased prevalence of structural brain abnormalities. Patients with schizophrenia have reduced life expectancy; the combination of illness and the effects of antipsychotic treatment place patients at risk of movement disorders, obesity, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and sexual dysfunction. Pharmacotherapy with antipsychotic medications is an essential component of a treatment plan for most patients with schizophrenia. Psychosocial interventions work synergistically with medication to optimize treatment adherence and successful community living.
Side effect profiles vary according to the duration of drug exposure, the evolution of the disorder, and the patient’s general health.
Dosages should be maintained within the recommended range, and reasons for going outside the range should be clearly documented and justified. Regular and ongoing evaluations are equally necessary when patients respond to medications, when they fail to respond, and when they develop side effects. Research has not found clear and consistent differences between typical antipsychotic medications and atypical antipsychotic medications in regard to treatment response for positive symptoms, with the notable exception of clozapine for treatment-resistant patients.
Atypical antipsychotic medications induce fewer neurologic side effects (that is, EPSEs or tardive dyskinesia [TD]) but have a greater propensity for metabolic side effects (that is, weight gain, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, or metabolic syndrome).
The assessment in the acute phase should be as comprehensive as possible under the circumstances. Engagement with the patient in the acute phase is facilitated by acknowledging his or her experiences, providing clear simple communication, and including family and supports where possible.
Pharmacologic treatment should be initiated as soon as possible, and the risks and benefits of pharmacotherapy should always be explained. All these principles apply in emergency situations, but emergency medication strategies are available to contain the patient and maintain staff safety.
Verbally engaging an agitated patient should always be tried in the setting of an appropriately safe emergency room envi- ronment with available security personnel. Oral medications should be offered and, if accepted, can be as effective as IM medications. When necessary to preserve patient and staff safety, restraint measures should be taken by a trained team following an approved protocol. Historically, IM haloperidol has been the most widely used treatment for agitated patients with psychosis. Olanzapine 2.5 mg to 10 mg IM has been demonstrated to be as effective as haloperidol alone. Oral solution or rapid-dissolving tablets of either risperidone or olanzapine are as effective as haloperidol IM. Zuclopenthixol acetate IM for the treatment of acute agitation is just as effective as these other treatments. When appropriate, thepatientandcare- givers need to be engaged in the treatment process and provided with information and options.
It may be possible to engage the patient in treatmentfrom the perspective of his or her concerns for secondary symptoms such as depression, anxiety, or insomnia, rather than from the perspective of the primary symptoms of psychosis. Many patients experiencing a first episode of psychosis can be treated at home if safety and support issues are addressed.
Benzodiazepines may be adequate to control agitation while initiating a low dosage with slow titration of an antipsychotic medication.
But a better echo is the poignant dialogue between Andy Dufrane and ‘Red’ about life on the outside. Well for me coping is now distilled into those iconic words ‘Get busy living or get busy dying’.
Alternatively, you can find it available at other Worldwide on line book stores like Barnes & Noble, and finally you can opt for a basic PDF download for just $4.75. Share book reviews and ratings with Sex lies and Bipolar, and even join a book club on Goodreads. Some side effects are temporary, or can be overcome by adjusting the dose or changing medications in consultation with the clinician. This doctor treats my body, she isn’t one of those that trips around my beautifully bipolar mind trying to figure out what the hell is going on and how the hell to fix it.
I told her that I planned on talking to my psychiatrist (the guy who does trip around my beautifully bipolar mind) on Wednesday about switching to something else. Sometimes it isn’t just a bad day, but the worst day ever and we literally want to die.
She is an active member with the local Jaycee chapter and spends her spare time involved in community projects. Children who will eventually develop schizophrenia begin school at a level of functioning that is a full grade behind their peers, with the gap increasing by the time they finish high school. These "basic symptoms" are detected only by the person with schizophrenia, and can't be detected by others. Accurate diagnosis of this disorder requires assessment by a qualified practitioner trained in psychiatric diagnosis and evidence-based treatment. Computerized diagnosis is less accurate when done by patients (because they often lack insight).
Often the negative symptoms steadily become more prominent during the course of Schizophrenia.
Their subtle impairments in thinking are often the first symptoms of schizophrenia, and they persist throughout the course of the disorder.
Unlike hallucinations or schizotypal perceptual distortions, basic symptom perceptual observations are not regarded as real but are immediately recognized as a sensory or subjective problem. However much of this disability can be prevented if individuals with schizophrenia stay on their antipsychotic medication. Instead, the poor functioning in schizophrenia is primarily due to its: (1) emotional and motivational deficits (called the "negative symptoms" or "deficit syndrome"), and (2) cognitive deficits (especially impaired verbal memory, processing speed and attention). Kraepelin (1919) observed that there was "a weakening of those emotional activities which permanently form the mainsprings of volition".
These negative symptoms include: loss of emotions (blunted or flattened affect), loss of emotional expression, loss of motivation (avolition), loss of social communication (alogia), loss of the drive to be social (increased social withdrawal) and neglect of personal hygiene and dress. A few research studies have found that combination therapy with antipsychotic plus antidepressant medication is an effective treatment for the negative symptoms of schizophrenia (with a Number Needed To Treat [NNT] =3 which is a robust clinical finding).
However, individuals with Schizophrenia often have a number of (non-diagnostic) neurological abnormalities.
Schizotypal, Schizoid, or Paranoid Personality Disorder may sometimes precede the onset of Schizophrenia.
The existence of a substantial discordance rate in monozygotic twins also indicates the importance of environmental factors. Usually it takes years before individuals can accept that they have Schizophrenia and need medication.
Unfortunately, even on antipsychotic medication, most individuals with Schizophrenia can't return to gainful employment due to the emotional, motivational, and cognitive deficits caused by this illness. Whenever possible, the patient's family should be included and supported in the patient's therapy. The more psychotic the patient, the greater is the need for family involvement in treatment.


Most individuals with Schizophrenia qualify for government (or insurance) disability pensions.
There are many dishonest recovery claims made about vitamins or treatments that "cure Schizophrenia". In 1969-70, Swedish military conscripts (49,321 males representing >97% of the country's male population aged 18-20) were followed for 35 years. Over 35 years, those who had used cannabis more than 50 times at the beginning of the study had 3.7 times the normal rate of developing schizophrenia.
Usually the prognosis is poor because of the rapid development of "negative" symptoms, particularly flattening of affect and loss of volition. The catatonic phenomena may be combined with a dream-like (oneiroid) state with vivid scenic hallucinations. Some schizophrenic symptoms, either "positive" or "negative", must still be present but they no longer dominate the clinical picture.
Research has shown that these 5 themes are basic dimensions of personality disorders and other mental disorders. Agreeable, cooperative individuals are sympathetic, warm, kind, altruistic, empathetic, and polite.
They find it easy to think in symbols and abstractions (hence excel in mathematical, logical or geometric thinking). Extraverted, enthusiastic people are talkative, bold, energetic, emotionally positive, and sociable. Individuals with an optimal level of courage are stable and calm; they do not emotionally over-react to stress. Consideration should be given to the immediate presenting problem and the patient’s prior response to pharmacotherapy, including efficacy and side effects.
This includes being provided with information on the risks and benefits of both taking and not taking medications.
The rapid-dissolving forms of some atypical antipsychotic medications may have benefits for treatment in emergency situations because it is easier to confirm compliance. The combination of haloperidol 5 mg IM with lorazepam 2 mg IM has been shown to be more effective than haloperidol alone. Not least that it was a flop at the box office, and then through word of mouth became the all time video best seller.
Andy is innocent and refuses to give in to his position, whereas ‘Red’ has become institutionalised to the point that he not only discounts the notion, but moreover, it frightens him to death.
Continuation versus discontinuation of lithium in recurrent bipolar illness: a naturalistic study.
She was diagnosed with bipolar disorder while in her mid twenties and is part of the fight against stigma.
Onset of schizophrenia can occur in childhood or adolescence, typically after the age of 5. Life-long treatment with antipsychotic medication is essential for recovery from Schizophrenia. For those males entering the army at age 18-20 that reported using cannabis more than 50 times; there was a twofold increase in the rate of lung cancer. Human behavior is governed by conscience - an inner sense of what is right or wrong - which guides conscientious behavior. They often excel in literature, music composition or performance, or in the visual or performing arts. Whereas reserved, quiet people (introverts) are aloof and lack the exuberance, energy, and activity of the talkative, assertive extraverts. Individuals with too much courage, and not enough fear, become reckless, and this usually leads to failure.
Prove positive that my book, form modest beginnings, might sell by the shed load, once word gets out. One instinctively wants to align with Andy and when one is in the Euphoric phase its easy to be positive. I talked to her about the anxiety-ridden situations I had encountered since last month when I saw her. This was not due to a medical or substance use disorder, or major depressive or manic episode. The psychotic symptoms seen in schizophrenia are often episodic; whereas the cognitive impairments are continuous. The mean premorbid IQ is 93.6 in people who develop schizophrenia, compared with a population mean of 100 (SD 15). Thus this research would suggest that legalizing cannabis could triple the incidence of schizophrenia in regular cannabis smokers.
It should be noted that most lung cancer occurs after age 60; thus this twofold increase probably underestimates the lifetime cancer risk from smoking cannabis. Conscientious, careful, responsible people follow the rules, conform to norms, think before acting, and control their impulses. The problem is that the positive feelings are not so much directed at a brighter future, but they tell you that you are in fact not ill, and that you’re fine and it’s everyone else who has an issue. The high unemployment rates seen in schizophrenia are usually due to these cognitive impairments.
Higher IQ may be protective in schizophrenia, perhaps by increasing active cognitive reserve. They set clear goals and pursue them with determination; they are reliable and hard-working. Individuals that are conventional and uncreative are conforming and prefer dealing with either people or things rather than ideas. Thus they over-react emotionally to stress, and their fear or despair usually leads to failure. Whereas in the Dysthymic phase you feel just like ‘Red’, unable to see a way out of the misery, and just plain scared. She told me that even people without anxiety disorder would have experienced stress in those situations.
I experience symptoms many people who have panic attacks experience – shaking, sweating, upset stomach, trouble speaking, labored breathing, etc, etc.
My body always feels slow and sluggish, like the tar in my brain now surrounds my body as I try to get through the day. Thus this research would suggest that legalizing cannabis could double the incidence of lung cancer in regular cannabis smokers. Unconscientious, careless, irresponsible people are disorderly, frivolous, and undependable. They have narrow, commonplace interests, and they prefer the plain and obvious over the complex and subtle.
My entire life I have struggled with my enemy and I will never understand why it turns against me. In contrast to the chaotic, undercontrolled life of individuals with Antisocial Personality Disorder, is the highly ordered, overcontrolled life of individuals with Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder. Individuals with Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder are overly conscientious, perfectionistic, scrupulous and meticulous.



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