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Jan Bohuslav Sobota died on May 2nd of 2012 and this is my remembrance of this fine man who was a friend and mentor to me.
Each autumn, salmon return to the rivers of their birth a€“ there to spawn and once again trigger a renewal of the eternal passion play. Salmon that do eventually arrive at their destinations must once again compete a€“ this time for mates and to fight for access to the precious and very limited gravels. The profligate expenditure of life and extravagant wealth of biology is there everywhere to behold, as Death dances lightly among the gathering throngs of fish, picking and choosing from among them; who from their number shall successfully spawn and who shall just be food for the gathering predators and scavengers. Spend a day in silence, walking among the spawning salmon, as they dig spawning redds, jockey for position and slash at competitors with those gaping, snaggletoothed, hooked jaws. Jan Bohuslav Sobota has died, while half a world away; I was preparing these etchings of Spawned Salmon and dedicating them to Jan, the lover of fish.
The book you hold in your hands has evolved from my simply giving these etchings a second life in book form, to my using them as a vehicle for honoring a friendship of three decades.
In 1985, Jan and I had been corresponding for some months without ever meeting a€“ all quite distant and correct. A short bit of background on Jan Sobota to begin, but fear not; Ia€™ll soon be spinning anecdotes and thoughts on books as art a€“ celebrating Jana€™s life of course, telling a few stories out of school, but also straying into the personal and speculative in search of the meaning to be derived from the life and death of a friend. Jana€™s father was a serious bibliophile and collector of fine books, who nurtured that same love of books in his son a€“ an appreciation that steadily grew, until he was apprenticed to master bookbinder Karel A ilinger in PlzeA?. The pivotal event in Jana€™s early life as a book artist was the posthumous retrospective exhibition of fellow Pilsener, Josef VA?chal in 1969. Jan supported a family, sponsored workshops, exhibited widely, did conservation work on rare historic books, ran a gallery a€“ and on it went. What Jan did for contemporary bookbinding, was to act as a bridge between the traditionally trained masters of the past and innovators of the present. America was a great place to be a book artist in the early 1980a€™s precisely because it was an active zone of hybridization and hotbed of creativity. An instructive contrast to the anything-goes US scene was the icy reception I got when I showed a wooden box containing loose sheets of poetry and etchings to a Prague publisher.
Neither Jan nor I had much interest in the book-like objects that often sneak into the museums as book arts a€“ the carved and glued together things that sorta, kinda have a bookish aspect to them a€“ rough-looking a€“ perhaps chain-sawed Oaken boards or granite slabs, slathered in tar and lashed together with jute; but lacking text. When Jana€™s books went beyond function, conservation or decoration, they were subtle statements about binding and the place of books, knowledge and art, as well as statements about the dignity inhering in the handcrafted - with a good dose humor. There are others who know their conservation and those, whose scientific contributions are far greater, but few of them are also artists at heart. It can sound so pedestrian, these eternal compromises between art and craft, yet what Jan represented was not at all common. There is an inflection point at which exceptional craft begins to make the transition to art and it is closely associated with surmounting the limitations inhering to the discipline. Visiting with Jan in his workshop you quickly realized, that he did what a professional must, but ultimately, he just loved messing about with books. A curiously protean hybrid of artist and craftsman, ancient and modern, one cannot think of Jan without seeing an unabashed Czech patriot in a foreign land.
Early on in their stay in Cleveland, the Sobotas experienced the quintessential American disaster. Even after their medical debts were retired, money was still an issue for a family of immigrants with three kids a€“ two with special needs. Later on, when they were living in Texas, the massacre at Waco opened Jana€™s eyes to yet another difficult side of his adopted home. In 1979, I apprenticed with Jindra Schmidt, an engraver of stamps and currency, living in Prague. Schmidt had engraved stamps for Bulgaria, Iraq, Ethiopia, Albania, Guinea, Vietnam and Libya.
In 1992, Jindra Schmidt was honored for his contributions and depicted on the last stamp of a united Czechoslovakia, before it split into Czech and Slovak republics a€“ a fitting tribute.
Unlike most children of immigrants, my destiny remained connected to that of my parentsa€™ homeland. My vocation as artist clarified itself in Prague while learning the increasingly obsolete skills of steel engraving. My first book was indeed, modeled after VA?chal, even to the extent of its diabolical subject matter.
Jan showed me a great deal in the following years about the tradition of books as the meeting place of art, craft and ideas a€“ where printmaking intergrades seamlessly with the worlds of language, typography and illustration. One can like these things just fine and admire them from an uncomprehending distance, or you can become engaged. The book you hold was to have been a simple reprint of the Spawned Salmon a€“ something fun for Jan to work his magic upon.
Nice sentimental reminiscences, but there is still the matter of getting the work accomplished and out before the public, organizing exhibitions, printing catalogs and paying for transatlantic flights.
The Prague show was reconfigured and curated by Jana€?s longtime friend, Ilja A edo, for exhibition at the West Bohemian Museum in PlzeA?. Quite predictably, I like seeing the kind of work I do honored a€“ the wood engravings and etchings made to shine in the context of crisply printed type and an excellent binding.
Ia€™ve heard printmakers lament that the surest way to devalue prints is to add excellent poetry, sensitive typography and a bang-up binding a€“ and then live to see the whole thing sell for half the price of just the unbound prints. Therea€™s nothing quite like seventeenth century Bohemia, the dead center of Europe, for particularly thorough violence a€“ with the Bubonic Plague stepping in afterwards as mop-up crew.
The chapel at Sedlec was rebuilt after the major blood-letting of the thirty-years war as a memento mori a€“ reminder of death. What can you say about the mounds of dead, the ruined lives, destroyed nations and misery multiplied by millions that isna€™t trite or self-evident? But then I pan over to other fields a€“ not the kind where the grass is composting my fellow man, but to fields of endeavor where the ferment is of ideas recombining into ever more refined ways of thinking. I once lived at the Golem house in Prague a€“ at Meislova ulice, number 8, in the old Jewish ghetto.
Horoscopes might seem a curious basis on which to select ministers and diplomats, but it is also more common than youa€™d think. Picture the scene before you: Ita€™s a late night in Prague, before the Marlboro man dominated every street corner, even before the neon of casinos and the vulgarity of Golden Arches assaulted the nightwalkersa€™ eyes at all hours a€“ back when darkness, oh yes, that beautiful comforting velvety, all-enveloping and blessed dark, broken only by the moon, stars and late night taxis, still ruled the streets after the sun went down. The Golem was a mythic being of Jewish folklore, created from clay and quickened by the Shem, a magical stone engraved with an ancient Hebraic inscription, inserted into Golema€™s forehead.
The maternal tongues of these small nations have miraculously survived all the invasions, floods, plagues and foreign occupiers to this day a€“ a gift preserved and delivered to them across the generations. Minority languages, on the other hand, carry an emotional load that can scarcely be exaggerated. Ishi and his sister were the last of the Yahi tribe to survive the genocidal colonization of California.
Those whose language and culture are not threatened can never know the burden under which the carriers of small minority languages labor a€“ nor how those in exile bring up their children to preserve that which is beyond their capacities to save. Jan was all about preserving traditions and the kind of ancestral knowledge that today is mostly enshrined in books.
Today, the stories of our tribes are less and less passed on as oral tradition and most often read to us from the childrena€™s books wea€™ve learned to treasure a€“ illustrated by fine artists and produced with care for the highly discriminating purchasers of childrena€™s books a€“ for grandparents. A?epelA?k employed binders and typesetters to present complete suites of his work and in this too, he introduced me to a new world.
Later in Prague I missed my flight back, due to the World Trade Center bombing and was delayed by a week. The difficult thing to bear in acknowledging my teachers, models, heroes, suppliers and inspirations, is that these masters of the crafts and industries surrounding and supporting the book arts are mostly deceased.
The fruit we seek is not fast food, but laden with full-bodied flavors, attained by slow natural processes. All of us come from grandfathers who once were wheelwrights, cobblers or instrument makers; men with a profound love of wood and leather, who knew the working qualities of every kind of obscure tree growing in their countryside a€“ men who knew when to reach for elm or hickory a€“ as well as for goat, dog or even fish-skins. Jan spoke fondly of his grandmother, who baked bread every week of the year to feed an entire estate a€“ farm hands, livery people, gentry, trainers and hod-carriers alike. Working consciously is the ultimate goal a€“ and that is the legacy youa€™ll find evidently contained within and upon the boards of every book bound by Jan Bohuslav Sobota. The etchings you see here first came to life as illustrations for the wedding anniversary announcements of MA­la and Jaroslav KynA?l.
Jan Bohuslav Sobota died on May 2nd of 2012 and this is my remembrance of this fine man who was a friend and mentor to me.A  He was an exceptional bookbinder, teacher and promoter of the book arts, but also an exile who successfully returned home after years abroad.
Frozen Fiefdom - AFFIDAVIT OF ANNA KATHRYN SANDERS, Former ALASKA STATE TROOPER, and MY OLDER SISTERA A Fortunately, someone's curious questions reminded me that I still have much more information to publish, including this Affidavit.
If some self-proclaimed prophet suddenly arose and began drawing crowds with stirring messages, healing the sick, raising the dead, bringing fire from heaven, and revealing knowledge of your personal secrets - would you believe in him or her? Answer: A They will remain until God's people are all unified, mature Christians--which, of course, will be at the end of time. Answer: A God warns us of false Christs and false prophets who will be so extremely convincing that they will deceive all except the very elect of God.
Answer: A In Study Guide 23, we discovered that Jesus gives a six-point description of His end-time church.
Answer: A Since a prophet is sometimes called a seer (someone who can see into the future), the eyes would best represent the gift of prophecy. Because God normally sends prophets to His church only when it is keeping His commandments. The way to make the gift of prophecy meaningful is to study it for yourself and follow it prayerfully so Jesus can guide and preserve you and prepare you for His coming. Description: This highly significant map of the world eluded examination by modern scholars for nearly four hundred years until its re-discovery in 1901 by the Jesuit historian, Joseph Fisher, in the library of Prince von Waldburg zu Wolfegg-Waldsee at the Castle of Wolfegg, WA?rttemberg Germany. It had long been suspected that Martin WaldseemA?ller, a professor of cosmography at the school in St. The purpose of this little book is to write a description of the world map, which we have designed both as a globe and as a projection [tam in solido quam plano]. Martin WaldseemA?llera€™s Universalis Cosmographia secundum Ptholomei Traditionem et Americi Vespucci aliorum Lustrationes [A Map of the World According to the Tradition of Ptolemy and the Voyages of Amerigo Vespucci] was designed on a single cordiform projection and engraved on twelve wooden blocks (21 x 30 inches each; 54 x 96 inches overall) at Strasburg and printed at St. In Plate IX of the map, numbering the plates from left to right, the top row first, WaldseemA?ller re-asserts that he is particularly delineating the lands discovered by Vespucci. A general delineation of the various lands and islands, including some of which the ancients make no mention, discovered lately between 1497 and 1504 in four voyages over the seas, two by Fernando of Castile, and two by Manuel of Portugal, most serene monarchs, with Amerigo Vespucci as one of the navigators and officers of the fleet; and especially a delineation of many places hitherto unknown. Vespucci claimed that on his first voyage he made discoveries along the coasts of Honduras and the Gulf of Mexico. In describing the general appearance of the world, it has seemed best to put down the discoveries of the ancients, and to add what has since been discovered by the moderns, for instance, the land of Cathay, so that those who are interested in such matters and wish to find out various things, may gain their wishes and be grateful to us for our labor, when they see nearly everything that has been discovered here and there, or recently explored, carefully and clearly brought together, so as to be seen at a glance.
This mapa€™s greatest claim to immortality, however, is contained in the simple word of seven letters, America, the earliest known use of that name to describe the newly found fourth part of the world, placed on the southern continent (present-day South America) of the world map only by WaldseemA?ller.
More than four years had elapsed since Amerigo Vespucci announced what he claimed to be the discovery of an entirely new continent, and as yet that new continent had no satisfactory name. In the first years of the new century, a group of scholars decided to produce a revised edition of the Cosmography of Ptolemy (#119) to meet the urgent need for new maps, according to the new discoveries.
Martin WaldseemA?ller, a native of Freiburg in the Breisgau and appointed Professor of Geography at St. Toward the South Pole are situated the southern part of Africa, recently discovered, and the islands of Zanzibar, Java Minor, and Seula. The name appeared in Halmal, a semi-divine mythical forefather or ancestor of the Amelungen, or royal tribe of the Ostrogoths, which was called A–mlunger. Returning to the map, it is curious to note that while the name America appeared on the new continent (South America) of the new hemisphere on the world map, WaldseemA?ller did not choose to use it on the small inset map of the western hemisphere, where South America is labeled Terra Incognita. By selecting the name America for a major portion of the new discoveries, WaldseemA?ller was not unaware of the contributions of Columbus and intended no denial of the credit properly due him. Plate I, in the upper left-hand corner, contains an inscription that explains WaldseemA?llera€™s ideas as to the location of the lands discovered by Vespucci and Columbus. Many have regarded as an invention the words of a famous poet [Virgil] that a€?beyond the stars lies a land, beyond the path of the year and the sun, where Atlas, who supports the heavens, revolves on his shoulders the axis of the world, set with gleaming starsa€?, but now finally it proves clearly to be true. Instead of a€?19 degreesa€? he should have written a€?29 degreesa€? which, when added to the 23 degrees of the tropic, would have made the a€?52 degreesa€? given in the a€?thirda€? voyage as Amerigo Vespuccia€™s farthest south. The remarkable geographical features of the WaldseemA?ller map are, however, more important than the giving of a name to one of them. These close approximations to geographical actualities were natural corollaries of Amerigoa€™s great a€?discoverya€™ of a a€?fourth part of the worlda€?. WaldseemA?ller places a land to the west of Isabella Insula [Cuba], as do many of the other mapmakers of his time, La Cosa, Cantino, Ruysch and Caveri (#305, #308, #313, #307). To the south, the long attenuated form given to both Terra Ulteria€? Incognita and to America, the west coasts of which are, as it were, rolled back to indicate WaldseemA?llera€™s lack of knowledge of these areas. Leaving the New World discoveries, one cannot help but notice the striking resemblance between WaldseemA?llera€™s a€?Old Worlda€? outline and that presented by Henricus Martellus Germanus in his map of 1490 (#256). Although many of the ancients were interested in marking out the circle of the land, things remained unknown to them in no slight degree; for instance, in the west, America, named after its discoverer, which is to be reckoned a fourth part of the world. In addition to Caveri, Martellus and Ptolemy, other sources synthesized by WaldseemA?ller include the narratives of Marco Polo, whose data concerning the geography of eastern China and the adjacent islands, though already known to the world in the map of Fra Mauro (#249), the Catalan Atlas (#235) and in globes such as those of Behaim (#258), are now for the first time embodied in a popular printed sheet map; and the Northmen, whose explorations in Mare Glaciale and in the neighborhood of Greenland were known from the maps of Claudius Clavus and those of Donnus Nickolaus Germanus. Thus, derived chiefly from Caveria€™s map (#307), itself based in many particulars upon the Cantino world map of 1502 (#308), the WaldseemA?ller production of 1507 transmitted the features of both to an impressive list of succeeding maps, globes and globe gores reaching to 1520 and well beyond.
Of the same year as the map itself, and displaying its features, was the previously alluded to printed globe issued by WaldseemA?ller, known today only by two sets of globe gores on uncut sheets. WaldseemA?ller, himself, continued his cartographic production beginning with a revised edition of Ptolemya€™s Geographia (eventually published by others), which included a Supplement composed of 20 maps claimed by some scholars to be a€?the first modern atlas of the worlda€™. The regression of WaldseemA?ller to the Columbian conception of Cuba as a part of the continent of Asia was without question confusing to those who saw the map of 1516 with its specific legend. One can hardly overemphasize the significance in cartographic history, therefore, of the printed WaldseemA?ller productions of 1507 - world map, insets, and globe gores.
The name America (applied to present-day Brazil) appeared for what is believed the first time on Martin WaldseemA?ller's 1507 world map a€” the so-called Baptismal Certificate of the New World. AMERICA, we learn as schoolchildren, was named in honor of Amerigo Vespucci a€” for his discovery of the mainland of the New World.
Traditional history lessons about the discovery of America also raise questions about the meaning of discovery itself. And yet, despite the issue of who discovered America, we are still confronted with the awesome fact that it was the voyages of Columbus, and not earlier ones, that changed the course of world history. Carew is resurrecting the ideas of Jules Marcou, a prominent French geologist who while studying North America argued, as did other 19th-century writers, that the name America was brought back to Europe from the New World; and that Vespucci had changed his name to reflect the name of his discovery. Like Marcou, Carew wants us to believe that America was not named after Vespucci, but vice versa; that Vespucci had, so to speak, re-named himself after his discovery, gilding his given name by modifying it to reflect the significance of his discovery. Some scholars believe Vespucci was named after Saint Emeric, son of the first king of Hungary. As was the custom of the Florentine nobility, Vespucci received an education that featured special instruction in the sciences connected with navigation a€” natural philosophy, astronomy, and cosmography a€” in which he excelled. During the first half of the 20th century, scholars discovered further evidence that clears away the cloud of misunderstanding and ignorance by which Vespucci has long been obscured.
The voyage completed by Vespucci between May 1499 and June 1500 as navigator of an expedition of four ships sent from Spain under the command of Alonso de Hojeda is certainly authentic. Under Portuguese auspices he completed a second expedition, which set sail from Lisbon on May 31, 1501. Vespucci not only explored unknown regions but also invented a system of computing exact longitude and arrived at a figure computing the earth's equational circumference only fifty miles short of the correct measurement. The new geography included in its appendix WaldseemA?ller's large, stunning map of the world, on which the New World is boldly labeled AMERICA a€” in the middle of present-day Brazil.
The baptismal passage in the Cosmographiae Introductio has commonly been read as argument, in which the authors said that they were naming the newly discovered continent in honor of Vespucci and saw no reason for objections. Even though the Latinization of Americus fits a pattern, why did the cosmographers not employ Albericus (hence the assumption that "Alberigo" was Vespucci's authentic Christian name), the Latinization that had already been used for Amerigo's name as the author of the Mundus Novus? Did America get its name through oral tradition when those who had sailed with Columbus or Vespucci circulated stories that gold was to be found in the Amerrique Mountains of Nicaragua?
The coast at the foot of the Amerrique Mountains that faces the Caribbean Sea is called the Mosquito Coast, named for the Mosquito Indians, who live there still. The Caribs, traveling far from their Carib or Cariay coast, could see the Amerriques in the distance, and these mountains for them could have signified the mainland. Rodney Broomea€™s recent book, Terra Incognita: The True Story of How America Got Its Name (2001), in which he argues for the Amerike theory, is a very good read, but ultimately lacks the hard evidence to support the authora€™s claim.
An early version of this essay appeared in The American Voice (1988) and a section in Encounters (1991).
In late May 2003, the Library of Congress completed the purchase of the only surviving copy of the first image of the outline of the continents of the world as we know them todaya€” Martin Waldseemullera€™s monumental 1507 world map. Martin Waldseemuller, the primary cartographer of the map, was a sixteenth-century scholar, humanist, cleric, and cartographer who had joined the small intellectual circle, the Gymnasium Vosagense, organized in Saint-DieI?, France. Thus, in northeast France was born the famous 1507 world map, entitled Universalis cosmographia secunda Ptholemei traditionem et Americi Vespucci aliorum que lustrationes (A drawing of the whole earth following the tradition of Ptolemy and the travels of Amerigo Vespucci and others). While it has been suggested that Waldseemuller incorrectly dismissed Christopher Columbusa€™s great achievement in history by the selection of the name America for the Western Hemisphere, it is evident that the information that Waldseemuller and his colleagues had at their disposal recognized Columbus's previous voyages of exploration and discovery.
By 1513, when Waldseemuller and the Saint-DieI? scholars published the new edition of Ptolemy's Geographiae, and by 1516, when his famous Carta Marina was printed, Waldseemuller had removed the name America from his maps, perhaps suggesting that even he had second thoughts in honoring Vespucci exclusively for his understanding of the New World. A reported one thousand copies of the 1507 map were printed, which was a sizeable print run in those days. The Library of Congress's Geography and Map Division acquired in 1903 the facsimiles made of the 1507 and 1516 maps. Library of Congress and specialists in the Library were encouraged to investigate the opportunity.
The 1507 world map is now the centerpiece of the outstanding cartographic collections of the Library of Congress, as it would be for any world class cartographic collection. The Librarya€™s acquisition of the Waldseemuller map represents an important moment to renew serious research into this exceptional map, to determine the sources which made possible its creation, and to investigate its contemporary impact and acceptance.
Through agreement with Prince Waldburg-Wolfegg and the government of Germany, the 1507 world map by Martin Waldseemuller is to be placed on permanent display in the Library of Congressa€™s Great Hall area in the Thomas Jefferson Building.
DESCRIPTION: The existence of sets of gores for making into a globe had been surmised for some time from the discussion in WaldseemA?llera€™s CosmographiA¦ Introductio.
That which adds special significance to this young Germana€™s representations of the new lands, so far as a study of globes is concerned, is the repeated recurrence of his particular outlines or contours in the globe maps of the first quarter of the century, produced by such cartographers as Johann SchA¶ner of NA?rnberg (#328), and by those of his school.
In a little tract, printed in Strassburg in the year 1509, there appears to be a reference to a globe which may be that constructed by WaldseemA?ller. The twelve such gores, measuring 18 x 34.5 cm, corresponding very closely to those described by WaldseemA?ller were for a long time in the Hauslab-Leichtenstein collection and are now in the University of Minnesota, Minneapolis.
The world outline is a simplified reduction of WaldseemA?llera€™s large map of 1507 (#310) with relatively few names but (when mounted) sufficient for illustrative purposes. Martin WaldseemA?ller, theologian and cosmographer, and Matthias Ringmann, a humanist poet, were brought to the monastery of St.
Although it is likely that the simple globe gores, their model or a€?Marquettea€? of the New World view, would have been available with each issue of the Cosmographiae, the large 12 sheet wall-map, would have been too expensive to be sold as widely. Considerable speculation, misinformation and some misunderstanding has surrounded these globe gores and the large world map.
Well, I could use a good war is the line that came into my head but I didna€™t say so because I could tell she would start into me like a whole slew of hens. He didna€™t say anything, even though he was all mouth, but I could tell a channel between us had opened. I needed to eat something, but I didna€™t have any money, so I thought about slipping in and making cereal, but the kids always make the apartment smell like mustard and artificial grapes.
I didna€™t want Antares to know I was looking for him, so I bought a skywriter, started twirling it through the square, which is how Kate said I would find him. The first week I spent with the tubes Antares lent me, I might as well have been working with a toothbrush.
The thing about making love with Kate was that she knew how to run her fingers behind my neck and hold my head to her as she kissed me, like you think a man would do, but that men never do because it seems like something they should do and cana€™t live up to doing, so nobody ever does it except men in old movies, and Kate.
Before I saw Antares again, he came to me in a dream where he was a door, or the absence of a door, so it was like talking into a hole in a room that opened up. When I saw Antares that day, it shouldna€™t have surprised me, but it was 12A° in the sun and I wasna€™t sure which side of it I was on. I raised out of my seat and tried to get off the bus, which was stuck behind a funeral procession.
I got off the bus feeling wired and shaky, like the last thing in the world I need is to hear a kid playing flute. I was thirteen when I walked out the front door like every high school kid has wet dreams about doing when theya€™re not thinking about how to score. So I kept going because by then Ia€™d worked up steam and I didna€™t care about suspension or graduation or even my music collection, which wasna€™t a tremendous collection, but it wasna€™t until the bus was pulling out of Chauquahana that I realized I was going to miss that. I pushed my palm against the wall, pulled back against his hand, pushed in until my hand began to sweat. Name of a weapon of the God of War, ita€™s a star in the constellation Scorpius, same one Ia€™m in.
Youa€™re an archer, a Sagittarius, only youa€™re the arrow, a spark popped out of the fire. No, just that youa€™re protesting for the environment, and I can see you in a crowd of people like a forest. The thing about the rockstar kids was how they were all still playing characters in their own lives. They had a hangout in the forest where somebody had made a pit by pulling some rocks into a circle big enough to sit around.
The wilderness, Mickey said, is a place you can go without any Twizzlers, so when somebody brings them in ita€™s like they invented them.
I dona€™t know, if the wilderness came with a sofa, I think thata€™d be pretty rad, Chris added. Ia€™m fine, you can sell it like twice a month or something, you just have to stay hydrated.
How do you love someone so much you get jammed in the arm by a noob who practically breaks the needle off in your vein, and you cana€™t feel anything but the swell of your heart aching into the bruise? No, but youa€™re gonna let me come back and belt one out next Saturday night and audition properlike. A woman in a purple dress that plunged to the whitewater of the polar caps took the stage and the lights dimmed again. The song she had chosen was not the right one for this crowd, but MelanieE?s a€?Brand New Keya€? did have enough rhythm to get them clapping along. When the third singer approached the stage, a wave of applause moved over the crowd like gossip. You want to stick a fondue forkful of ColemanE?s fuel down your ripe throat for the show of it, go ahead.
To admit youa€™re not in control and meet it with both fists hanging by your side is pretty brave.
Kate was wearing black coconut perfume and the rockstar kids were looking especially bright-eyed under their Lucky Charms dye jobs.
There they encounter resident trout and bass a€“ even sunfish, chubs and dace, all keyed into the increasingly plentiful and highly nutritious bounty of salmon eggs. Situated 90A km south-west of Prague at the confluence of four rivers, PlzeA? is first recorded in writings from the tenth century. That vision was about innovation and creativity within the context of an historical tradition. This is what youa€™ll see in a Sobota binding a€“ exceptional attention paid to context and relationships, using materials and technical means that do indeed function and last. He knew his work was valuable and documented it fastidiously a€“ confident that it would be last. There was, however, nothing about his nationalism that demeaned anybody elsea€™s traditions or origins. That smallish incident within the parade of American fringe politics elicited an insanely violent level of suppression. Masaryk a€“ and the cute little girl with a bouquet of flowers, is my mother Eva, at the age of three. Schmidta€™s income from the federal mint far exceeded anybody elsea€™s in the extended family and supported a network of cars, cottages and rent-controlled flats. Schmidt, as he preferred to be called, was a man of conservative demeanor who preferred polite and reserved forms of speech and address. While visiting their unassuming engraver and extending my tourist visa 30 days at a time, I was quietly becoming qualified for life as a counterfeiter a€“ a vocation within which, one is set for life, however it may eventually turn out. Jan allowed several binders to have their way with it a€“ amo boxes for slipcases with shell casings for hinges and so forth.
This next incarnation of our exhibit in PlzeA? was all just a bit more prosaic and provincial.
Is it the binding we consider and exhibit a€“ or is the binding there to conserve a text, which is ultimately the point? There are also binders to whom everything else is merely the text block, who care little if it is an offset trade edition or a book made by hand. The tales therein recorded reflected the accreted wisdom and wit of a people as they retold them across the highlands in modest log cottages after the harvest was in. The way of working belongs to the Sobota vision I addressed earlier a€“ the honor and soul to be found in conscientiously made handcrafts. I dona€™t feel that accomplished or ready to assume their mantle and yet with every generation that is what must happen. Gravels, with just the right flow of fresh water running up through stones of the right size are but a tiny portion of the riverbed.A  The salmon must struggle past cities and sewer pipes, farms and irrigation systems, dams and turbines, fishermen and waterfalls a€“ just to reach the streams of their birth. The perfecting of God's end-time church is not possible if any of these five gifts is missing. Although a prophet's message may sometimes edify the public, the primary purpose of prophecy is to serve the church. Here are the brief details:a€?a€?God Calls a Young Womana€?God's end-time church began to form in the early 1840s and desperately needed guidance. However, you can know that she (1) meets the tests of a prophet, (2) did the work of a prophet, and that (3) God's true end-time church must have a prophet. Further, He clearly states that spiritual prosperity hinges upon believing His prophets (2 Chronicles 20:20). When a church does not have a prophet to counsel, guide, and lead it back to Jesus and the Bible, the people will flounder in a disoriented manner (Psalms 74:9) and eventually perish. In 1 Corinthians 12:28 it is listed as second in importance of all the gifts, while the gift of tongues is listed last. Here are the brief details:God Calls a Young WomanGod's end-time church began to form in the early 1840s and desperately needed guidance.
Fisher found the only known remaining copy of this map securely bound up in an old book bearing the bookplate of the 16th century German mathematician and geographer Johannes SchA¶ner.
Die, located in the Vosges Mountains of France, had made a map of the world in the year 1507. Die in a an original issue of about 1,000 copies (a thousand copies represented a large edition for this time, immediately preceding post-Columbian world maps, such as Juan de la Cosaa€™s, Cantinoa€™s and Caveria€™s (#305 thru #309 - were all manuscript maps). All this we have carefully drawn on the map, to furnish true and precise geographical knowledge.
A Florentine cosmographer, he sailed in 1497 with a commission appointed by Ferdinand and Isabella to investigate reports that Columbusa€™ administration of Hispaniola was inept.
He also credited himself with three other voyages by 1503, when he made his last, an investigation of the coast of Brazil for Portugal. Taken together, these inset hemispheres form the most comprehensive and most nearly correct representation of the world displayed on any map known to have been constructed up to the year of 1507. Besides this world map, WaldseemA?ller also introduced the name America in two other media, in the previously mentioned Cosmographia Introductio and on his globe (thought by some scholars to be the so-called Hausslab-Linchoten globe (#311), both also produced in the year 1507). It happened that in the Vosges Mountains in the little town of Saint-Die, there was a college under the patronage of the studious Duke Renaud (Rene) II of Vaudemon, of Lorraine, the titular a€?King of Jerusalem and Sicilya€?, who was there resident. On Plate V (the Caribbean area) of his map, WaldseemA?ller wrote: These islands were discovered by Columbus, an admiral of Genoa, at the command of the King of Spain.
For there is a land, discovered by Columbus, a captain of the King of Castile, and by Americus Vespucius, both men of very great ability, which, though in great part lies beneath a€?the path of the year and of the suna€? and between the tropics, nevertheless extends about 19 degrees beyond the Tropic of Capricorn toward the Antarctic Pole, a€?beyond the path of the year and the suna€?.
Since Columbus never explored as far south as the equator, the words a€?it proves clearly to be truea€? are clothed with meaning only in the light of Amerigoa€™s voyages into the southern hemisphere, not at all in the light of the a€?firsta€? of the a€?four voyagesa€?, from which the dispute ultimately arose as to which could claim priority upon the shore of the new continent, Columbus or Amerigo Vespucci; for that a€?firsta€? voyage, like all the voyages of Columbus, was entirely north of the equator.
In addition to the previously mentioned accuracy and a€?noveltya€™ of the hemispheric insets, and the picturing of the new southern continent, with its surprisingly correct general contour, the inset map presents a portion of the northern continent as well, and the two are correctly joined together by a narrow isthmus. One is tempted to loose sight of this revolutionary advance over the previously dominating world conception of Ptolemy in focusing all the attention to the single feature that has made WaldseemA?llera€™s map so famous, the first appearance thereon of the name America. This area may represent the coast of China copied from Marco Polo, and placed here in the belief that the new discoveries were in and near Asia. In extending the South American coast to 50 degrees South (high-lighted by the implantation of a Portuguese flag), WaldseemA?ller avoids committing himself as to the possibility of a passage by sea around this new continent by continuing its land to the edge of, and actually into, the map frame (compare this abrupt treatment with his depiction of Africa, where he is willing to go outside of the preset form of his map frame in order to accommodate the full extension of the continent and thus substantiate the Portuguese proof of a passage to the Far East). As can be seen on the accompanying comparison illustration, except for the southern half of Africa, in both projection and general geographical contours the Old World of WaldseemA?llera€™s 1507 map seems to have been virtually copied from Martellus. Another is, to the south, a part of Africa, which begins about seven degrees this side of Capricornus and stretches in a broad expanse to the south, beyond the torrid zone and the Tropic of Egocerus (Capricornus). At least twice Henricus Glareanus copied WaldseemA?llera€™s world map and insets in manuscript.
Two maps in this Supplement show the New World discoveries, Tabula Terre Nove and Orbis Typus Universalis.
In his great and very important world map of 1516, WaldseemA?ller showed the landmass abutting upon the western border of the map, as in the two above mentioned maps, but here gives it the name Terra de Cuba Asie Partis.
The representation in these of the American continents separated from Asia by a broad ocean in the midst of which lay the island of Japan was a splendid synthesis based upon such known particulars as the narrative of Marco Polo, the voyages of the Portuguese to North America by way of the Atlantic and to India by way of the Cape of Good Hope, the discoveries of South America by Vespucci and Cabral, the Spanish discoveries in the West Indies and the Caribbean, and above all, perhaps, the notable manuscript maps of La Cosa, Cantino, and Caveri.
The only known surviving copy was purchased, in 2003, by the Library of Congress for $10 million. Further, other discoveries of America have been credited to the Irish who had sailed to a land they called Iargalon, the land beyond the sunset, and to the Phoenicians who purportedly came here before the Norse.
Specifically, Marcou introduced the name of an Indian tribe and of a district in Nicaragua called Amerrique, and asserted that this district a€” rich in gold a€” had been visited by both Columbus and Vespucci, who then made this name known in Europe. To define it Carew echoes Marcou, who quotes from his correspondence with Augustus Le Plongeon. He has been wrongfully portrayed as a crafty opportunist ever since the mid-16th century when Bartholomew de Las Casas accused him of being a liar and a thief who stole the glory that belonged to Columbus. Around 1490 he was sent to Spain by his employers, the famous Italian family of Medici, to join their business in fitting out ships. At the beginning of 1505 he was summoned to the court of Spain for a private consultation, and, as a man of experience, was engaged to work for the famous Casa de Contratacion de las Indias (Commercial House for the West Indies), which had been founded two years before in Seville. The first or traditional series consists of the widely published letters, dated 1504, purportedly written by him.
After a halt at the Cape Verde Islands, the expedition traveled southwestward, reached the coast of Brazil, and certainly sailed as far south as the RA­o de la Plata, which Vespucci was the first European to discover.
It was, however, not his many solid accomplishments but an apparent error made by a group of scholars living in St.
This map is the first known map, printed or manuscript, to use the name America, and also the first to depict clearly a separate western hemisphere, with the Pacific as a separate ocean. But, as etymologist Joy Rea has suggested, it could also be read as explanation, in which they indicate that they have heard the New World was called America, and the only explanation lay in Vespucci's name.
Their substitution of Americus for the well-known Latinization Albericus might mean that they wanted a Latinization that would fit and explain the name America which they had already heard applied to the New World. The Indians in the Caribbean did have a word for the mainland, given in the LexicografA­a Antillana (Antillean Dictionary, 1931) as babeque and defined as the name that Columbus understood the Indians to say when they were pointing to a land beyond Haiti and Cuba. It constitutes an incredible Anglicization of the New World a€” and would, for obvious reasons, infuriate Carew.
He purportedly gave one of the islands he explored to a friend, another to his barber, and also promised some Italian friars that they could be bishops.
However, even if the name America were known in Bristol in 1497, Hudd has taken a majestic leap to suggest Ameryk's name as its origin. That map has been referred to in various circles as America's birth certificate, and for good reasona€”it is the first document on which the name America appears. He was born near Freiburg, Germany, sometime in the 1470s, and died in the canon house at Saint-DieI? in 1522. That map, printed on twelve separate sheets from wood block plates, when assembled would measure more than 4 1a?„2 feet by 8 feet in dimension.


However, the group also had acquired a recent French translation of the important work Insuper aquattor Amerigo Vespuccii navigationes, Amerigo Vespucci's letter detailing his purported four voyages across the Atlantic Ocean to America between 1497 and 1504. Instead, in the 1513 atlas the name America does not appear anyplace in the volume, and the place of America is referred to as Terra Incognita (Unknown land). This single surviving copy of the map exists because it was kept in a portfolio by Johannes SchoI?ner (1477-1547), a German globe maker, who probably had acquired a copy of the map for his own cartographic work. Throughout the twentieth century the Library continued to express interest in and a desire to acquire the 1507 map, when, if ever, it was made available for sale. Through the combined efforts of several Library of Congress specialists, and many other members of the Library's staff over an 11 year period, the map has made its way to the Library of Congress.
The map serves as a departure point in the development of the American cartographic collection in addition to its revered position in early modern cartographic history. The mapa€™s well announced acquisition provides us an extraordinary opportunity to appreciate the earliest of early depictions of our modern world. The Library of Congress is proud to have obtained this unique treasure and is anxious to have this great cartographic document receive the public acclaim and the critical scholarly inspection that it so rightly merits.
This call for further scholarship on the map, its impact, and the sources used to produce it is not meant to suggest that previous scholarship is lacking.
Both the globe and the large world map were doubtless printed in large numbers and widely distributed. It is this reference that the Prince of Liechtenstein, as noted above, has taken as a reference to the gore map, a copy of which is in his collection. Although a text on WaldseemA?llera€™s later wallmap, the Carta Marina (1516), says that 1,000 copies of the 1507 wall-map were made, it is unlikely that this number were issued, given the survival rate of the one bound copy now in the Library of Congress.a€? The globe map and book had an enormous influence on other geographers, notably Appian, SchA¶ner and Fries, and advanced the science of globe-making and map making particularly in Germany and the Low Countries. The Kraus-Bavarian State Library copy -- in 1960 at Sothebya€™s in London, a set of the gores was offered bound into a Ptolemy atlas of 1486. The Offenburg copy -- following the publicity regarding the acquisition of the copy above by the Bavarian State library in 1992, in 1993 two researchers, Dr. The present example was discovered in February 2003 when the owner, on reading an article in the Frankfurter Algemeinen Zeitung on the Munich copy, realized he owned a similar map amongst his large collection of books and ephemera. To present the various strands of information relating to the genesis, execution and influences of the WaldseemA?ller gores, the following timeline brings together the principal events in the lives of WaldseemA?ller, Ringmann, Vespucci and their circles.
He actually prepared a serum that was designed to retard the aging process of the connective tissues of the body.
The only authentic information we have on this subject is found in the great book of God, the Bible. If we can answer it correctly, all the other questions about death and the soul will open up like flowers in the sun. Is it possible that man has a mortal body but an immortal soul living in the tabernacle of flesh? This firmly establishes that the soul is definitely not immortal by nature, or it could not experience death. Most of us have heard about the a€?soul that never diesa€? from our earliest years of childhood. Read Genesis 3:1-4, a€?Now the serpent was more subtile than any beast of the field which the Lord God had made. The Creator had declared that sin would bring death, but Satan said the opposite, a€?You will not really die.a€? That was the first great-granddaddy lie that was ever told, and the one who told it has been trying to uphold it ever since. The dust returns to the earth from which it was taken, and the spirit returns to God who gave it. We understand very well that the physical components of the body are the very same as the earth itself. When Solomon described the spirit returning to God, he had to be referring to the breath, because that was what God gave in the beginning, and therefore, it was the only thing that could now a€?returna€? to the One who gave it. This breath or spirit is the special, life-giving power of God which makes the body a functioning organism. He a€?breathed into his nostrils the breath of life, and man became a living soula€? (Genesis 2:7). Jesus said to His disciples, a€?Our friend Lazarus sleepeth; but I go, that I may awake him out of sleep. Surely he would have begged not to return, had he truly been enjoying the rewards of the righteous. Never once do we find any of the exciting descriptions of life after death which mark the modern version of the doctrine. Just suppose for a moment that the same forceful statements were made to assert consciousness after death. Not only does the Bible contain no such statement, but it repeatedly declares the opposite! Millions have literally submitted their lives to the control of demons believing that they were being advised by loving relatives.
The two previous verses give us the words, a€?For the Lord himself shall descend from heaven with a shout, with the voice of the archangel, and with the trump of God: and the dead in Christ shall rise first. Is it reassuring to believe that unsaved relatives are suffering the torment of unquenchable fire?
Whether they went to sleep 1,000 years ago, or five minutes before Jesus appears, it will seem as only a fraction of a second. Some were blown to bits in explosions, others were burned up in fires, and many went down into the depths of the sea. There are many things, such as television and computers, which are mysteries to the average person who benefits from them, but that doesna€™t keep us from believing in them. There are a few ambiguous texts which can be understood only as they are viewed in the light of all the other verses on the subject. And Jesus said unto him, Verily I say unto thee, To day shalt thou be with me in paradisea€? (Luke 23:42, 43). It certainly sounds as though Jesus and the thief would go that very day into Goda€™s presence.
If He had not yet gone to heaven, how could He have assured the thief three days earlier that they would go there together that same day?
We have to be aware that the original manuscripts of the Bible were written in one continuous line of script.
Then the sentence would read, a€?Verily I say unto thee today, Thou shalt be with me in paradise.a€? This would bring the record into perfect harmony with all the rest of the Bible. 20121 Kings 8:28 -- But please listen to my prayer and my request, because I am your servant.
I just loaded the rice into my satchel, which she was looking at because it had a skull and bones and said POISON on the side. The deer was tinged at the tips with auburn, so it mighta€™ve been a fire I have to burn off, like karma. It was so much effort for me to stay on and for her to pedal, I shoulda€™ve just jumped off and walked, but she was laughing the whole time like she was made of glass and breaking, so I held on, holding my legs out of the way of the wheel. I had fallen asleep in Katea€™s bed with her hand tucked between my legs like kids do, because ita€™s warm. Kate teaches flute lessons to rich kids whose parents are practically salivating all over themselves to invite their friends to the Philharmonic and brag how they recognized little Magnusa€™s gift when he was playing recorder in his crib. Ia€™d seen it on a calendar of discount hotels, and there was something about the mountains in the backdrop of the a€?biggest little city in the worlda€? that I knew would look nice on a person, very steady and sedate.
I was sitting in Geometry class and never has there been such a terrible useless fact as learning that no matter how you stretch sides AB and and AC of an isosceles triangle, they will always remain of equal length. How you had to ride over it to cross the bridge and at sundown the light shone in the Sunsphere like copper. I felt like my hand was an ear pressed against the wall, which was sounding something I could almost make out.
Kate was sure, but she knew if she told him, hea€™d start thinking of his bumper stickers as blazons. I get honked at less on the holy days, but not as seldom as youa€™d think considering the town is cinched tight with the rhinestone buckle of the Bible belt. He was walking the other way, arms swinging side to side like they rocked him and he was the anchor ship of his own row. Every time they discussed bringing a sofa they could leave in the woods, but they always forgot.
I got so I started practicing in the morning before IE?d eaten so I didnE?t throw up food IE?d gone to the trouble of making.
It reminded me of a coat I saw in a museum oncea€”belonged to a Native American chief, made entirely of feathers.
I knew it didna€™t matter if I lied, and honesty really is the best policy six times out of ten. When Reno broke into a€?Some people say IE?ve done alright for a girl,a€? she drew enough hoots not to hang her head when she strode back to her stool, yellow flicker feathers at her earlobes turning like wings.
Every part of her was shinya€”lips glossed like a piece of hard candy, dress glinting with zirconium mirrors, heels polished as a stockbroker. AntaresE?s comment surprised me so much, I wondered afterward if he said it inside my head or out. Nobody was around to see me, which was chancy, but it would have been more dangerous to have Kate there.
Just like that, I knew I could drop the weight of the past like a coat, forgive Mama everything and the whole goddamned world we were born into, wash us off in a wave of flames, let the current carry us to another shore. This widely beloved stamp was re-issued in 2000 and mother continues to receive philatelic fan mail to this day.
He died the day I was composing a colophon for the Spawned Salmon with words of praise for his lifea€™s work. Your ultimate destiny just might be tied directly to your ability to distinguish between true and false prophets. So, in harmony with His promise of Amos 3:7, God then called a young woman named Ellen Harmon to be His prophetess. It is so perceptive and relevant that it was once plagiarized by the minister of education of a certain nation, who published it under his own name.
She said on the subject of intelligence that a person's IQ could be increased--long before experts agreed.
And they meet the Bible standard for visions as outlined in the answer to question seven of this Study Guide. These verses verify that when God's people disregard His commandments, He sends no prophet.
This volume contained twelve sheets, each 21 x 30 inches, which when laid together disclosed a large map of the world 4 feet 6 inches by 8 feet, which was designated by one of its own inscriptions a carta marina, dated on its own face 1516, and bore the name of Martin WaldseemA?ller as author.
Henry Harrisse had made this conjecture in his Discovery of North America, which he published when the world was celebrating the 400th anniversary of the discovery of America.
As farmers usually mark off and divide their farms by boundary lines, so it has been our endeavor to mark the chief countries of the world by the emblems of their rulers.
While certainly not the only large world map produced during this dynamic era of exploration, the Universalis Cosmographia was one of the first large engraved and printed maps to depict the recent Spanish and Portuguese discoveries of the Mundus Novus.
Much of what Vespucci claimed to have seen on this and other voyages was later called into question by both his contemporaries and, later, by historians.
He wrote a letter describing his third voyage that was circulated throughout Europe as a tract called Mundus Novus [The New World], and later was included by WaldseemA?ller in his Cosmographia Introductio (the Solderini letter, see illustration below). To avoid confusion hereafter the main portion of the map will be referred to as the a€?world mapa€?, designating the two small representations of the eastern and western hemispheres, placed above the world map, as the a€?insetsa€?. The term used by some of the map-makers, Land of Brasil, was confusing, for Brasil was the name of an imaginary island located somewhere in the Atlantic, according to popular belief, when there had been no thought of a continent. Walter Lud, Secretary to the Duke, and a wealthy man, had established a printing press at St. And at the mouth of the Orinoco River is the following: All this is sweet water, a statement based upon the well-known story of Columbusa€™ discovery of the fresh water of the Orinoco River (there is the same reference found on the Bartholomew Columbus map (#304) which has Mar de aqua dolce along the northeastern shores of South America). In other words, on his 1507 map, WaldseemA?ller unmistakably showed that in his own mind he ascribed proof of the existence of the new continent to the Portuguese voyage of Amerigo (the a€?thirda€? of the a€?four voyagesa€?), and that Columbus never detoured from his conviction that he had actually reached the shores of Asia (accepting the longitudinally shortened world of Ptolemy, et al), and that it was the acceptance of Amerigoa€™s proof of its existence more so than Amerigoa€™s supposed priority which caused him to name the new continent America. However, as can be seen above on Plate I of the world map, the two continents are inexplicably separated by a hypothetical strait, connecting the two great oceans.
Contarini (#308) and Ruysch (#313) distinctly record their belief on their maps that the contemporary explorers had reached China, as does the Columbus map and the letter of Columbus explanatory of his fourth voyage record the same view (#303, #304). Curiously enough, though, while accepting the Portuguese delineation of the New World and South Africa, WaldseemA?ller reverts to the Ptolemaic conception of North Africa and Asia as refined and expressed by Martellus, rejecting the more accurate rendering of contemporaries such as Caveri.
A third instance, in the east, is the land of Cathay, and all of southern India beyond 180 degrees of longitude. The transmission of the Cantino-Caveri concept through the members of this notable group created one of the mainstreams of interest in the history of cartography.
Thus this ingenious geographer not only preserved the geographical concepts of WaldseemA?ller, but also carried the representation of hemispheres a step further by the experimental construction in 1510 of the first known maps of the northern and southern hemispheres on a circumpolar projection. The world picture in the maps and globe of 1507 - the representation, that is, of an American landmass widely separated from the Asian coast with Japan lying between the two - had become the accepted canon in geographic theory and cartographic expression. The new picture compiled from these varied elements and presented to the literate world in printed form became a factor of the highest importance in developing a new concept of the earth and its divisions, rendering obsolete the Ptolemaic geography that had been accepted and revered since the second century of the Christian era. In 2005, this treasured map was inscribed in UNESCO's Memory of the World Register, and is the first document in the United States to be so honored.
By the time we are adults it lingers vaguely in most of us, along with images of wave-tossed caravels and forests peopled with naked cannibals. They were of course preceded by the pre-historic Asian forebears of Native Americans, who migrated across some ice-bridge in the Bering Straits or over the stepping stones of the Aleutian Islands. The 1497 voyage by John Cabot to the Labrador coast of Newfoundland constitutes yet another discovery of the American mainland, which led to an early 20th-century account of the naming of America, recently revived, that claims the New World was named after an Englishman (Welshman, actually) called Richard Amerike. To rob people or countries of their names is to set in motion a psychic disturbance which can in turn create a permanent crisis of identity. Vespucci was probably in Seville in 1492 when Columbus was preparing for his first historic voyage, as well as in 1493 when Columbus returned. In 1508 the house appointed him piloto mayor (pilot major, or chief navigator), a post of great responsibility, which included the examination of the pilots' and ships' masters' licenses for voyages. Pohl's biography, Amerigo Vespucci, Pilot Major (1944), and GermA?n Arciniegas's Amerigo and the New World (1955; tr. Addressed to his patron, Lorenzo de' Medici, the Mundus Novus (New World) a€” the title alone revolutionizing the European conception of the cosmos a€” was translated from the Italian into Latin, and originally printed in Vienna; the other letter, addressed to the gonfaloniere (chief magistrate) of Florence, Piero Soderini, was a more elaborate work.
Since Vespucci took part as navigator, he certainly cannot have been inexperienced; however, it seems unlikely that he had made a previous voyage, though this matter remains unresolved. In all likelihood the ships took a quick run still farther south, along the coast of Patagonia to the Golfo de San JuliA n or beyond. The entire New World portion of the map roughly represents South America, and when later mapmakers added North America, they retained the original name; in 1538, the great geographer Gerard Mercator gave the name America to all of the western hemisphere on his mappamundi. In ignoring the possible intention of these words as explanation, most scholars have ignored the simple fact that place names usually originate informally in the spoken word and first circulate that way, not in the printed word.
Why did they ignore the common law in the naming of new lands: the use of the last names of explorers and the first names of royalty? It is almost certain that Columbus first heard the name of the mountains pronounced by a Carib.
Las Casas believed for a while that this must be Jamaica, but later decided it was the name for the mainland. No proof exists to substantiate his claim that Cabot actually honored the Welshman by naming America after him. It is also the first map to depict a separate and full Western Hemisphere and the first map to represent the Pacific Ocean as a separate body of water.
The large map is an early sixteenth-century masterpiece, containing a full map of the world, two inset maps showing separately the Western and Eastern Hemispheres, illustrations of Ptolemy and Vespucci, images of the various winds, and extensive explanatory notes about selected regions of the world.
In that work, Vespucci concluded that the lands reached by Columbus in 1492, and explored by Columbus and others over the ensuing two decades, was indeed a segment of the world, a new continent, unknown to Europe. In the1516 Carta Marina, South America is called Terra Nova (New World), and North America is named Cuba, and is shown to be part of Asia.
That portfolio contained not only the unique copy of the 1507 world map, but also a unique copy of WaldseemuI?ller's 1516 large wall map (the Carta Marina) and copies of SchoI?ner's terrestrial (1515) and celestial (1517) globe gores.
In 1999, Prince Waldburg-Wolfegg notified the Library that the German national government and the Baden-WuI?rttemberg state government had granted permission for a limited export license.
The map provides a meaningful link between our treasured late medieval-early Renaissance cartographic collection (which includes one of the richest holdings of Ptolemy atlases in the world) and the modem cartographic age unfolding as a result of the explorations of Columbus and other discoverers in the late fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries. Major segments of this world map have not received the concentrated scrutiny that the American segments have received. WaldseemA?ller states in a legend on his marine chart of 1516 (#328.1) that he had printed his map of 1507 in one thousand copies, but only one of which is now known to exist. WaldseemA?ller and Ringmann started work on a new edition of Ptolemy's Geographia that was to combine Ptolemaic maps with a new set of modern maps. By 1890, it had been acquired by the Prince of Liechtenstein and studies by Gallois dated it to 1507 following the realization that it was the lost globe described in the St.
References to accurate factual information are principally taken from 19th century sources, much of the 20th century work on the subject being a reiteration of earlier work by Humboldt, Da€™Avezac-Macaya, Fischer, Varnhagen and Harisse. Unfortunately, the learned doctor died at the age of 64, just 86 years short of the goal he had set for himself and for all mankind. Here are unfolded the answers to questions which have troubled the hearts of men and women down through the ages. Perhaps the a€?reala€? person is not the body at all but the undying soul-entity dwelling within the mortal body.
Since the word a€?immortala€? means a€?not subject to death,a€? there could be no question of death for a soul possessing an innate immortality. How upsetting it is to learn that in all the 1700 biblical occurrences of the words a€?soula€? and a€?spirita€? not once are they referred to as being immortal or undying. And he said unto the woman, Yea, hath God said, Ye shall not eat of every tree of the garden? That original sermon on natural immortality has been repeated many times through the years, often by preachers and theologians who ought to know better. When it is buried, the body reverts to the chemical elements of the ground from which the Creator took it in the beginning.
Job said, a€?All the while my breath is in me, and the spirit of God is in my nostrilsa€? (Job 27:3). In the Bible, except in poetical or allegorical usage, the soul does not go in and out of the body; neither does it have an independent existence outside of the body. If the man after Goda€™s own heart had not received his reward 1,000 years after death, what about all the other good people who had lived and died up to that time? The amazing answer is found in 2 Peter 2:9, a€?The Lord knoweth how to deliver the godly out of temptations, and to reserve the unjust unto the day of judgment to be punished.a€? There it is! And many of them that sleep in the dust of the earth shall awake, some to everlasting life, and some to shame and everlasting contempta€? (Daniel 12:1, 2). Later, He stood by the rock-hewn sepulchre of His friend and cried out, a€?Lazarus, come forth!a€? He did not say, a€?Lazarus, come down.a€? Lazarus was not up in heaven, nor was he anywhere else, except inside the walls of his tomb. A resumption of earthly life would have been worse than the horror of hell in comparison to ninety-six hours in Paradise. He boldly contradicted God when he said to Eve, a€?Ye shall NOT surely die.a€? When death did follow, Satan tried to make the survivors believe it was only an illusion. Only those who have fortified their minds with the truths of the Bible will be able to stand against this type of attack.
While he and his wife were living in an isolated mission station, their three-year-old daughter was struck down by a fatal tropical fever.
It means a€?in this way.a€? By that little word Paul precluded every other way of being with the Lord.
Is there solace in the picture of loved ones looking down from heaven upon the heart-breaking circumstances of those left behind?
The righteous will receive the gift of immortality, but it will all happen a€?In a moment, in the twinkling of an eye, at the last trump: for the trumpet shall sound, and the dead shall be raised incorruptible, and we shall be changed.
Will it be any problem for the mighty Creator of life to bring back every soul and restore each personality?
If most of us are baffled by the complexity of common electronics, we should not expect to grasp the secrets of resurrection power.
In the same vein, we find the great apostle to the Gentiles anticipating his departing this life, a€?For I am now ready to be offered, and the time of my departure is at hand.
I knew shea€™d be good for me, which she started being as soon as she got me up to her apartment. I pulled in back of myself as far as I could and looked across the crystal desert of the parking lot. She wasna€™t home but leaves her door unlocked for situations like this, and she almost always has tuna fish, the good kind, with oil.
She said it so often I thought it was her way of telling me things were going to be hard, and it took me more years than it should have to realize it was a line in the song.
Plus, I figured I was about the biggest little girl in the world, so me and that name took up with each other like an old couple who buy each other cough drops and dona€™t have their own socks. I stood up and walked right out, which probably even I thought I was doing for a breather, go to the weight room and tip the machine for a Coke, but once I got out, I felt the sheer absurdity of it all. Something about a river makes a town flow through you, and you can ride off on the rainbow current with some boozy grubfish. She fought the look of naA?vety on her, had her lip pierced, painted black wings around her eyes.
She asked herself, folding another sheet of colored paper onto the burn pile of Cancer crabs.
The thing was, it was February and we were getting a glimpse of the spring to come, but we still had the rest of the month and all of March left. Thata€™s what paradise is, like when you really need a drink and the liquor is right there.
My stomach clenched when the bar reached my back palate, but I found a little arc in the reflex where it becomes involuntary.
It jumped out of my hand twenty-seven times, but on the twenty-eighth, I breathed deep and it stayed awhile.
I stitched the smaller feathers onto larger feathers and the larger feathers onto patches of cloth. They werena€™t two individuals playing it out, but artists thrumming on the heart of a Siamese people. Shawn was riding the silverplated eagle up the crystalcoated stairs, drying glasses off and shaking rocks into my whiskey, like diamonds, hea€™d say smiling every once in awhile.
You donE?t rewire a reflex to become a circus freak, collect a few ahs and rounds of applause.
When she appealed to them with a€?If I Were Your Woman,a€? the crowd slammed their mugs against the bar and smacked their thighs and shouted out promises of what they would do if she were theirs.
Antares had no interest in Colleen or J.TE?s business plan or Whipgloss, who was apparently a regular act with a not unwarranted following. If Ia€™d left it there, they would have met and burned me up, but I pulled it out, satisfied, for maybe the first time. When the backup singers rose and fanned around her like a cloak, it was like a sunrise of music ordaining this dark little basement bar, a gleaming catch pulled fresh from the ocean. I burst into song thena€”one of mine instead of a covera€”the air around me like it would never stop breathing, and me a horse standing in the mountains hitched to a frost-burned, empty cart.
Frances knows I wasna€™t raised with the social niceties of skipping off to get somebody a clean spoon. The engraving was masterfully done by Schmidta€™s long-dead colleague, Bohumil Heinz (1894-1940). The state security apparatus was surely aware of my presence, but if they kept tabs on me, I never knew. Crystal balls, palm reading, leaf deciphering, astrology, and talking with the supposed spirits of the dead are not God's ways of communicating with people. She said in 1905 that cancer is a germ (or virus), which medical science began to endorse only in the 1950s. God knows when prophets are needed to wake people up, warn them, and turn them to Jesus and His Word. Jesus solemnly warns His end-time church of the danger of blindness and urges them to anoint their eyes with heavenly eyesalve so they will be able to see (Revelation 3:17, 18). There were twelve other sheets of the same size in the book, making another world map but containing no authora€™s name or date.
And (to begin with our own continent) in the middle of Europe we have placed the eagles of the Roman Empire (which rule the Kings of Europe) and with the key (which is the symbol of the Holy Father), we have enclosed almost the whole of Europe, which acknowledges the Roman Church.
In that letter, Vespucci proposed that the new lands ought to be called a a€?New World, because none of those countries were known to our ancestors . In the western hemisphere inset the two Americas are shown as a continuous landmass firmly joined together by an isthmus, unlike the representation in the world map where the two continents are inexplicably separated by a strait. Die that he prepared the treatise Cosmographia Introductio, which presented this description of itself: An Introduction to Cosmography, together with some principles of Geometry necessary to the purpose. Both the inset and the world map illustrate another important feature, the representation of a great ocean even broader than the Atlantic, between the New World and Asia. However, this view is not supported on the WaldseemA?ller map either by the place-names found in the area of the new discoveries, or by the overall visual image presented by the placement of the new discoveries as totally separated by some distance from Asia. One difference being that the WaldseemA?ller map is basically a a€?land mapa€™ and the interiors are somewhat filled-in, whereas the Caveri chart is basically a portolano, or nautical chart, with little or no interior detail. This Ptolemaic basis results in giving the map an extremely exaggerated representation of the eastern extension of Asia; in fact, the landmass of the Old World, alone, extends through some 230 degrees of longitude.
All these we have added to the earlier known places, so that those who are fond of things of this sort may gaze upon all that is known to us of the present day, and may approve of out painstaking labors. In 1512 appeared, far away in Cracow, Poland, in the Introductio in Ptholomei Cosmographia of Johannes de Stobnicza, the inset hemispheres of the 1507 map, copied and reprinted by the Polish scholar without reference to their source (#319). From it evolved, indeed, today's concept of the geographical divisions of the continents and islands, and of the great waters that form our earth.
A black African discovery of America, it has been argued, took place around 3,000 years ago, and influenced the development of Mayan, Aztec, and Inca civilizations.
The naming of America, then, becomes essential to a full understanding of our history and cultural values a€” ourselves a€” especially when considered in terms of the range of theories about the origin of the name.
Subsequently, according to Marcou's account, Vespucci changed his Christian name from Alberico to Amerigo. Amalrich, which literally meant work ruler, or designator of tasks, might be freely translated as master workman. Moreover, as a reflection of national pride, a theory native to Hungary argues that the European explorers of the New World (or their priests) named it after this popular saint, in the old tradition of bestowing place names in honor of saints. He also had to prepare the official map of newly discovered lands and of the routes to them (for the royal survey), interpreting and coordinating all data that the captains were obliged to furnish.
Harriet de OnA­s) are among the best efforts that dispel the shadows to which he was relegated by those who maligned his fame. In the voyage of 1499a€“1500, Vespucci would seem to have left Hojeda after reaching the coast of what is now Guyana (Carew's homeland). His published letters had fallen into the hands of these German scholars, among whom was the young cartographer Martin WaldseemA?ller.
WaldseemA?ller's 1507 map, lost to scholars until 1901 when it was found in a German castle, is now reckoned to be the first to show the name, and the earliest record of its use.
Moreover, to read the passage in the Cosmographiae Introductio as explanation lends credence to the theory, argued by Carew, Marcou, and others, that the early European explorers called the new continent Amerrique or, perhaps, another name with a similar pronunciation.
Their ignoring it, Rea claims, further supports the idea that they were trying to force an explanation and that the only one they could think of was a Latinization of Vespucci's first name.
Columbus, who met the Indians of this coast, presumably heard the name Amerrique from them: he was looking for gold and the Indians gave him some, telling him he could get more to the west in the mountains there.
Amerrique, therefore, must derive from a Carib word, possibly one of the Carib culture words a€” not a word in the Mayan language, which was not spoken in Nicaragua, though it almost resembles in sound the Quiche Mayan iq' amaq'el meaning perpetual wind. The purchase of the map concluded a nearly century long effort to secure for the Library of Congress that very special cartographic document revealing new European thinking about the world nearly 500 years ago.
Waldseemullera€™s 1507 map was a bold statement that rationalized the modern world in light of the exciting news arriving in Europe as a result of explorations sponsored by Spain, Portugal, and othersa€”not only across the Atlantic Ocean, but around the African coast and into the Indian Ocean. Because of Vespucci's recognition of that startling revelation, he was thus honored by the use of his name for the newly discovered continent. Sometime later in history, the family of Prince Waldburg-Wolfegg acquired and retained Schoner's portfolio in their castle in Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany, where it remained unknown to scholars until the beginning of the twentieth century when its extraordinary contents were revealed.
Having obtained this license, which allowed this German national treasure to come to the Library of Congress, the Prince pursued an agreement to sell the 1507 map to the Library. Although it is likely that the simple globe gores, their model or a€?marquettea€™ of the New World view, would have been available with each issue of the Cosmographiae, the large 12 sheet wall-map, would have been too expensive to be sold as widely. They were provided with at least six printed editions and certainly several manuscript versions of the Geographia. The notoriety and mystery that has surrounded both the globe, map and large wall-map has often concentrated on the naming of America, but in truth, given that they named South America after Vespucci, who had sailed furthest around it, it is not unreasonable. Vera Sack found a third example of the gores inserted into a copy of Aristotle published in Freiburg in 1541. Piercing through the froth of human emotion and superstition, it will bring satisfying assurance for those who fear the future and who wonder what happens to the soul five minutes after death. We need not puzzle over this point, because it is concisely settled by a number of Bible texts. At least ten other verses affirm exactly the same thing: the soul is not naturally immortal.
And the woman said unto the serpent, We may eat of the fruit of the trees of the garden: But of the fruit of the tree which is in the midst of the garden, God hath said, Ye shall not eat of it, neither shall ye touch it, lest ye die. A few years ago the Readera€™s Digest featured an article entitled a€?There Is No Death,a€? by one of Americaa€™s most popular Protestant ministers. Now, it doesna€™t take a high degree of intelligence to know that Job was describing the same thing by the words a€?breatha€? and a€?spirita€? Man has only breath in his nostrils.
The electric current flowing into that bulb represents the breath of life which God put into the body, and the light itself will represent the soul which man became after the breath joined the body.
At that moment man a€?became a living soul.a€? If the soul came to be as a result of that union, when does the soul cease to be? And nowhere in the Bible are we told that any soul survives the body, or continues to exist without a body. David had long ago departed this life, and though often wayward, had received the assurance of forgiveness and salvation. In simple, direct language Jesus declared that no one would be rewarded until the resurrection takes place at His second coming. Howbeit Jesus spake of his death: but they thought that he had spoken of taking of rest in sleep.
In response to the call of Jesus, he awoke from his sleep of death and walked out into the sunlight. Certainly our Lord would never have been guilty of playing such a trick on His friend Lazarus. So soundly does he sleep that he is totally unaware of the stealthy approach of an attacker.
Passing over the explicit verses given by numerous inspired authors, which tell the truth about death, multitudes blindly follow empty traditions learned from parents or pastor. David repeats the same timeless truth, a€?The dead praise not the Lord, neither any that go down into silencea€? (Psalm 115:17).
They have the witness of their own senses that they have actually conversed with departed loved ones. But on the basis of the infallible Word of God we can categorically reject them as being the spirits of the dead.
By impersonating those who died, Satan has persuaded millions that he was right and God was wrong. And cana€™t you see how easily Satan can even start controlling the lives of Christians who have not understood the true Bible teaching about death? Obviously each soul would already have a determined fate, and the farce of some make-believe final judgment would be totally meaningless.
When he described the coming of Jesus and the resurrection of the saints as being the manner and means of being with the Lord, he automatically excluded all other means of doing it. No wonder Paul was so specific in describing the second advent of Jesus and resurrection as the only way anyone can be with the Lord after death and, incidentally, as the only way to be comforted at their departure. For this corruptible must put on incorruption, and this mortal must put on immortalitya€? (1 Corinthians 15:52, 53).


Nevertheless, we can have complete faith that God can and will restore life to all the dead.
At first glance it seems that Jesus was telling the dying criminal that he would go to heaven on the very same day he died. John said the tree of life was located a€?in the midst of the paradise of Goda€? (Revelation 2:7).
In 1611 when the King James Version was translated, scholars separated the words, inserted punctuation marks, and divided the script into verses and chapters.
This land was made for you and me to escape from or to, but the mountains have just been there all along. The thing that killed me though, the clincher, was how before I climbed on, she packed my rice into the saddlebags and started singing this song, all wavery with pauses while she made it up, patting the bags like thighs she was weighing out.
He was wrapping my questions in something cool and close, like a suitcase full of dry white beans.
Like their parents condense twenty-seven years of suppressed creative energy into one terrifically off-handed name.
So I made myself a peanut butter and tuna sandwich, which sounded pretty good because I was running low on protein, and it didna€™t taste half bad for the first couple of bites.
It didna€™t even occur to me to write Antares until about the fourth day, and then I wasna€™t sure how to spell it or what I wanted exactly. Come here, he walked over to a building and put my hand against the brick wall, his hand on top of mine. The only thing just about Chris was his angera€”because his mother left them and his dad was a workaholic, because everyone had their own lives to live and no one paid attention to anyone elsea€”Mother Nature was just the representative. It had caught a sheet of newsprint and was tugging it into the telephone wires like an obstinate child. On the twenty-ninth I noticed how my nasal passage was getting crushed but if I breathed slow, air could get around it. Nobody making you, and nobody gonna pat your backside either, even if it is as sweet as white flour. It was a Wednesday night, so there werena€™t many people in the place, but it was nice and dark and had a purple couch. I sat for long enough to think probably Shawn wasna€™t the best person to know about time passing, so I got up and started looking for a greaser in the bowels of the place.
You might could tell if you werenE?t so busy getting that hard cold proof down your gullet.
I got three lady singers in the joint who are going to try their best to bring this place to its knees. Before the woman, who called herself Colleen Parker, took her seat, she volunteered herself.
The thing is, your house burning down is just like anything else, all you can do is say no.
They were dressed to the nine-inch heels, pouting because he wouldnE?t comp all their drinks but made them nudge and flirt for them like the other customers. She said some part of me was going to rest when I found him, and some part was going to grow up. The speakers were backed up against the stage, but there was a sweet spot if I turned a little to the left and leaned back to get my spine straight and line my vocal chords up.
Everything is just so wonderful and everybody so creative, but suspending judgment long enough to actually look at some artwork and then giving it a chance isna€™t so bankrupt, is it?
Human body parts are again flying and the Baron is at his best defeating Turks and evading friendly fire from buffoonish generals. Farmers would occasionally find their possessions and take them as souvenirs, unaware that the last Indians still lived in their midst.
Damn the cost; ita€™s who we are and the last material vestiges of soulful encounters with our elders a€“ onea€™s whose stories are slipping inexorably away, thinned by each passing year and generation.
Their kids were grown and they were by then slipping into that last, reflective phase of life a€“ done competing.
The Scriptures teach plainly that all who become involved with such things are an abomination (Deuteronomy 18:12). She had been injured in an accident at age nine and had to quit school with only three years of formal education.
She also directed people's attention to the Bible prophecies for the end time--especially Jesus' three-point message for the world today (Revelation 14:6-14)--and urged that they share these messages of hope quickly and worldwide. So when God's remnant church for the end time emerged keeping His commandments, it was time for a prophet. The greater part of Africa and a part of Asia we have distinguished by crescents, which are the emblems of the Sultan of Babylonia, the Lord of all Egypt, and of a part of Asia.
To the east of the continent in the inset is the Atlantic, to the west is another great sea with the island Zipangri [Japan, Marco Poloa€™s Zipangu] nearly in the middle of it but closer to the American continent than to the Asian. Mundus Novus [New World] and Terra Incognita [Unknown Land] were less real names than descriptions, though for many years these last two terms were quite prevalent on maps showing new discoveries. The duke and several professors in the college used this press in their geographical project. The decision to display a large expanse of ocean west of the New World discoveries was, of course, pure conjecture on the part of WaldseemA?ller since, in 1507, the discoveries of Balboa and Magellan were still a few years off in the future. On the other hand, navigators unknown to modern historians, may have sailed along the coast of Florida at this time.
This lack of any substantive modification, of the Far East especially, is understandable in light of the scarcity of verifiable reports from this region and the focus of popular attention on both Africa and the New World. This one request we have to make, that those who are inexperienced and unacquainted with cosmography shall not condemn all this before they have learned that it will surely be clearer to them later on, when they have come to understand it. To question the origin of America's name is to question the nature of not only our history lessons but our very identity as Americans. The records of Scandinavian expeditions to America are found in sagas a€” their historic cores encrusted with additions made by every storyteller who had ever repeated them. The two men eventually became friends; Columbus later wrote that he trusted Vespucci and held him in high esteem. Vespucci, who obtained Spanish citizenship, held this position until his death in Seville in 1512. Nonetheless, both biographers disagree about the authenticity of his two published letters, key documents in a dramatic controversy: Arciniegas accepts them as genuine, whereas Pohl rejects them as forgeries.
In the first series of documents, four voyages by Vespucci are described; in the second, only two. Turning south, he is believed to have discovered the mouth of the Amazon River and explored the coast of present-day Brazil.
This voyage is of fundamental importance in the history of geography in that Vespucci himself became convinced that the lands he had explored were not part of Asia but a New World. Inspired to publish a new geography that would embrace the New World, the group collectively authored a revision of Ptolemy, which included a Latin translation of Vespucci's purported letter to Soderini, as well as a new map of the world drawn by WaldseemA?ller. Hudd opens with a reference to Bristol's 1897 celebration of the 400th anniversary of the discovery of North America by John Cabot (Giovanni Caboto), the Italian navigator and explorer who had sailed for England, laying the groundwork for the later British claim to Canada. The map must have created quite a stir in Europe, since its findings departed considerably from the accepted knowledge of the world at that time, which was based on the second century A.D. It is remarkable that our entire Western Hemisphere was thus named for a living person; Vespucci died in 1512. Yet, cartographic contributions by Johannes Schoner in 1515 and by Peter Apian in 1520 adopted the name America for the Western Hemisphere, and that name became part of accepted usage. The uncovering of the 1507 map in the Wolfegg Castle early last century is thought by many to have been one of the most extraordinary episodes in the history of cartographic scholarship. In late June 2001, Prince Waldburg-Wolfegg and the Library of Congress reached a final agreement on the sale of the map at the price of $10,000,000. Waldseemuller recognized the transition taking place, as the title of his map notes and his placement prominently of images of Ptolemy and Vespucci, next to their worlds, at the top portion of the 1507 world map denotes. In 1949, the Liechtenstein map collection was bought en bloc by the famous New York dealer H.P. The Aristotle formed part of the Grimmelshausen-Gymnasium library given to the Stadtbucherei Offenburg. The great preacher said exactly the same thing that the great deceiver said to Eve, a€?You dona€™t really die at all. Deception on this point opens a door which can flood the life with darkness and actual demon control. James wrote, a€?For as the body without the spirit is dead, so faith without works is dead alsoa€? (James 2:26).
We can see that dead body, perfectly formed and containing the very elements necessary for life. There will be a resurrection and judgment for Goda€™s moral creatures, but life comes only from God, whether it be human or animal. The dead cannot return; neither do they have any post mortem existence in any conscious, living form whatsoever. Accepting the testimony of their eyes and ears above the testimony of the Bible, many have become expert in calling up the spirits in seances.
A few days after the funeral the mother was sitting in her kitchen when the door burst open, and her little daughter ran across the room to fling herself into her mothera€™s arms. Doubtless there are some charlatans who create their own illusions, but we have to recognize that very often the prince of all evil is manipulating the minds of people by his supernatural expertise in deceit. All the pious assurances heard at funerals about loved ones in heaven are simply repetitions of Satana€™s first lie to the human family. He who numbers the hairs of our head and counts the sparrows in the sky will have no difficulty in restoring the identity of each individual. Then in Revelation 22:2 he explained that the tree overarched the river of life, which in turn, flowed out from the throne of God. These men were not inspired, although they generally did a tremendous work in their assigned task. Placing the comma after the word a€?todaya€? is just as true to the original text as placing it before the word. Ia€™m making my way to them on a hobo pilgrimage toward salvation, because I dreamed my soul was inside one of them in a deer. That grocery store clerk was my mother, sure as the mole on my face, springing up like a reprimand that wona€™t be put down, because her concern for me is something I have to carry for some fixed amount of time like my own dead weight.a€?a€?a€?= The Ricea€?a€?The second person I asked about Antares I slept with because it was time.
I couldna€™t tell it was him at first because fur isna€™t something you expect to see on a bastard, which I figured he was. If their own parents had given them names that came with their own personality, maybe they could crawl out from the microscope under which they live. But after about four bites I realized it wasna€™t really that good so I squirted Tabasco on it and washed it down with sour orange juice, which I must have been complaining about in my head because right then Frances walked in and told me to buy my own juice if I wanted the ritzy stuff; she was poor. Harner could tell them about Pythagoras, or drop his kids off at the swimming pool or Vietnam, where my dad had gone and gotten himself killeda€”years before, so I wasna€™t all traumatized or anything, but it did sort of rush together like a washing machine full of insight that all I had in the world was a mother who didna€™t want me to see the bruises she gave herself and a brother who was trying to raise a little girl. Ciara pushed against her hard, leaning with her whole body, digging her fingers in a little. She never felt so alone as after folding another origami scorpion to lay on top of the crowd. Something about his bare head should have made him vulnerable but instead it made him fierce. On the thirtieth try, my mind had a fita€”I should get a gig or write music instead of this useless crapa€”but the picture had hold of me, of being onstage. I want you to make E?em feel welcome, clap hardest for the one you like most, not the one with the biggest titties, E?cause IE?m trying to run me a serious music theater. I figured it was a sure thing sheE?d take the dubious honor of official bar singer, but IE?d give her a run for it nonetheless. Funny I wanted her to hear me now when I wouldnE?t let her come the first night, but I realized I didnE?t need my attention for something else.
That grocery store clerk was my mother, sure as the mole on my face, springing up like a reprimand that wona€™t be put down, because her concern for me is something I have to carry for some fixed amount of time like my own dead weight.= The RiceThe second person I asked about Antares I slept with because it was time. These scraps turned out to be a deck of medieval playing cards - the second oldest such cards known. A book is so much more than the sum of its parts a€“ and yet each of us tends to have our own bailiwick in which we shine and to which we look first. It would keep the Ten Commandments, including the seventh-day Sabbath of the fourth commandment.a€?D. Her health deteriorated until, when called by God at age 17, she weighed only 70 pounds and had been given up to die.a€?a€?She Served 70 Yearsa€?Ellen accepted God's call with the understanding that He would enable her physically and keep her humble. Help God's people understand difficult, unclear, or unnoticed portions of the Bible so that they suddenly come to life for us and bring great joy.a€?D. He sent a prophet (John the Baptist) to prepare people for Jesus' first coming (Mark 1:1-8). Heeding the words of God's prophet will help His end-time remnant people clearly understand the Bible and will prevent uncertainty and confusion. It would keep the Ten Commandments, including the seventh-day Sabbath of the fourth commandment.D.
Her health deteriorated until, when called by God at age 17, she weighed only 70 pounds and had been given up to die.She Served 70 YearsEllen accepted God's call with the understanding that He would enable her physically and keep her humble. Help God's people understand difficult, unclear, or unnoticed portions of the Bible so that they suddenly come to life for us and bring great joy.D. The part of Asia called Asia Minor we have surrounded with a saffron-colored cross joined to a branding iron, which is the symbol of the Sultans of the Turks, who rules Scythia this side of the Imaus, the highest mountains of Asia and Sarmatian Scythia. Westward from that island is to be recognized the eastern coast of Asia, showing Catay, or Cathay, and other identifiable names.
But now the fact that there was a new continent beyond the western ocean had become nearly common knowledge throughout Europe, and there was everywhere a subconscious demand for an adequate name, a universally acceptable name.
In all its forms the underlying meaning was that of work; as for example, the word for work in Hebrew is amal, and in old Norse aml, the consonant sounds of which were retained in the verb moil. In this respect, WaldseemA?ller may have been led by the maps of La Cosa, Caveri, and Cantino to believe that this was at least a possibility, for he depicts a small portion of the northern mainland extending from the narrow strait in Central America to just north of Terra Ulteria€? Incognita [Florida].
Not many interior details are shown to speak of, but a large group of natives is shown at the Cape, and above them, a large vignette of an elephant. As can be seen, Terra Incognita replaces America and it is placed up against a frame that avoids any speculation as to the size or shape of the new continent(s). It appeared in feminine forms in Amelia and Emily; its masculine forms were Amery, Emeric, and Emery. In the face of the spurious charges that he was an ignorant usurper of the merits of others, the fact that Spain entrusted him, a foreigner, with the office of pilot major certainly bolsters his defense. Until the 1930s the documents of the first series were considered from the point of view of the order of the four voyages. On the way back, he reached Trinidad, sighting en route the mouth of the Orinoco River, and then made for Haiti. Unlike Columbus, who, to his death, clung to the idea that he had found the shores of Asia, Vespucci defined what had indeed been found a€” and for this he has been rightfully honored. He clearly never tried to have the New World named after him or to belittle his friend Columbus. Very different spellings for the same Carib word reflect variants that sound little like each other; thus, the variants of the name Carib are Canibe, Galibi, Caniba, Canibal and Caliban. For his achievement Cabot received a handsome pension conferred upon him by the King, from the hands of the Collectors of Customs of the Port of Bristol. In 1479, four Bristol merchants received a royal charter to find another source of fish and trade.
The map sheets have been maintained separated (not joined, with each of the large maps comprised of twelve separate sheets) and that is the probable reason why they survived.
In late May 2003, the Library completed a successful campaign to purchase Waldseemullera€™s 1507 world map, after receiving substantial Congressional and private support to achieve the terms of the contract. 37 (1985), 30-53, is an extensive airing of the date of the printing of the 1507 world map and other Waldseemuller contributions. But how you shall understand the globe and the description of the whole world you will hereafter find out and read.a€? Harrisse thinks it probable that a real globe accompanied and was sold with this little volume. Ringmann, a supporter of Vespucci, had already published in 1505 an edition of Vespuccia€™s Mundus Novus, a vivid description of the New World which became a bestseller around Europe. The mystery of the globe map, its definition of Florida (before it was discovered by the Spanish), the Pacific (before any man had officially seen it), the coast of South America (before anyone had officially sailed along it) and the use of the name The Western Ocean in the Pacific, all suggest that the Portuguese may have been more active west of the Tordesillas Treaty Line before 1505. Kraus, however the globe map was retained and offered by the Prince at a special auction at Parke-Bernet in New York on 24 May 1950. According to the dictionary, the word a€?mortala€? means a€?subject to death,a€? and the word a€?immortala€? means a€?not subject to death.a€? Simply stated then, we are asking whether God created man with a nature that could die or with the power of an endless life. Egyptian pyramid hieroglyphics reveal that the doctrine of a naturally immortal soul was basic to their worship of the sun god. The only protection we will ever have against this insidious danger is to know the truth about death and the soul.
The word a€?spirita€? has a marginal reference which reads, a€?or breath.a€? This is very important.
It only makes sense when we understand that the two words are used interchangeably and mean the same thing.
Suppose a man came before the judge charged with stealing, and the judge said, a€?Put him away for ten years and then we will hear his case.a€? No! Now, according to the popular view of death, this man who knew nothing while he was sleeping, suddenly knows everything as his soul leaves his body. They can give the place, date and hour when they were confronted by dead relatives or friends in exactly the same form as when they lived.
Yet the stage is set for the majority of Catholics and Protestants to be swept away by the final manifestation of Satanic powera€”all because they have been taught a lie about the state of the dead. The portrayal of imaginary, immaterial souls flying away from the body at death is not a source of comfort to grieving relatives. The only difference is that one way brings total harmony in the scriptures and the other brings hopeless contradiction. Like a shadow of algae going to rive me from this stream.a€?a€?The first person I asked about him said Honey, whatchu want to know about Antares for?a€?a€?I dona€™t know that many people, I told her. But even from that distance, I could see his cheekbones were high and carved straight out of his skull. He talked alright, but I could hear him clear as a bell thinking, a€?slice slice slice slicea€? and the visual it came with was like fish gills full of bitters.
I asked her if it would make me cursed because a girl at school said that song was about a whore. When I saw him, our eyes locked and I panicked, wondering what I was going to do now, but he walked right up and said, What? Even if he had to wait a couple maybe agonizing days, at least he wouldna€™t spend them indentured to the terror everybody else had of the cold. It made you wonder what a whole population of people would be like if they never stopped creating themselves, like there was never any obligation to anything but cool. I knew if I swallowed a sword it would quiet the audience for the sound of my voice coming out. But I knew I put it there because I hadna€™t had time to wash my hands in the lettuce bowl. Maybe hea€™d gotten under the fence at his house or broken off the chain; hea€™d gotten loose from his owner anyhow. What I am opening to is right here, including the fear that she might miss me and the fact that I need her and she might not be able to provide.
Like a shadow of algae going to rive me from this stream.The first person I asked about him said Honey, whatchu want to know about Antares for?I dona€™t know that many people, I told her.
These plates have been inked and wiped by hand, employing methods that woulda€™ve been familiar to Rembrandt. Her book on Christian living, Steps to Christ, has been translated into more than 150 languages and dialects. There was no question whatever in the mapmaker's mind, therefore, as to the separate identities of the American and Asian continents. Here the northern coast terminates abruptly with open sea beyond approximately 50 degrees, with Newfoundland being shown as an island far to the east.
While the shape his Africa resembles reality more so than Martellusa€™, WaldseemA?ller extends the continent to beyond its actual 34 degrees South in a similarly misguided manner as Martellus with WaldseemA?llera€™s Africa reaching an inexplicable 50 degrees plus. Gone, however, is that mysterious strait that had separated North and South America on the 1507 map. But the question concerning the authenticity of these historic letters remains fundamental to the evaluation of Vespucci's achievement. According to the conflicting theory to which Pohl and other modern scholars subscribe, these documents should be regarded as the result of skillful, unauthorized manipulations by entrepreneurs, and the sole authentic papers would be the private letters, so that the verified voyages would be reduced to two. Vespucci thought he had sailed along the coast of the extreme easterly peninsula of Asia, where Ptolemy, the 2nd-century Greek geographer, believed the market of Cattigara to be; so he looked for the tip of this peninsula, calling it Cape Cattigara.
Nonetheless, the name America spread throughout Europe and quickly established itself through sheer force of usage. One of these officials, the senior of the two, who was probably the person who handed over the money to the explorer, was named Richard Ameryk (also written Ap Meryke [Welsh] on one deed, and elsewhere written Amerycke) who seems to have been a leading citizen of Bristol at the time. Not until 1960 did someone find bills of trading records indicating that Richard Amerike was involved in this business.
To us, the 1507 map appears remarkably accurate; but to the world of the early sixteenth century it represented a considerable departure from accepted views regarding the composition of the world.
The portfolio with its great treasure was uncovered and revealed to the world in 1901 by the Jesuit priest Josef Fischer, who was conducting research in the Waldburg collection.
And from that fragile first glimpse of the world, so adequately described by WaldseemuI?ller in 1507, the Library of Congressa€™ cartographic resources provide the historical breadth and cartographic depth to fill in the geographic blanks left by those early cosmographers.
Works that have increased our knowledge about WaldseemuI?ller and the group in Saint-DieI? include: Joseph Fischer and Franz R. They exhibit the Old World, in the main, in accord with the Ptolemaic idea, and the New World with a close resemblance to the Caveri map record (#307), and that of WaldseemA?llera€™s world map of 1507. By April 1507, WaldseemA?ller and Ringmann had completed the booklet, Cosmographiae Introductio, to accompany the globe and wall-map. Such information would have been kept secret by the Portuguese, and it is perhaps here in this globe that the secrets were first drawn up for a wider audience, particularly since Vespuccia€™s allegiance to Portugal changed when he became a Spanish citizen.
The catalogue published a reserve of $50,000, but it failed to sell and was sold privately in 1954 to James Ford Bell for approximately $45,000.
They were offered for sale in 1991, and purchased by the Bavarian State library in Munich for approximately 2 million DM (in excess of $1million). In India, where I lived for years, the Hindus believe strongly in reincarnation and transmi- gration of the soul. The actual root word in the Greek is a€?pneuma,a€? a word which means a€?breatha€? or a€?air.a€? We take our English word a€?pneumoniaa€? from pneuma because it is a disease of the lungs, or of breathing. Obviously, if Jesus had not gone to His Father by the time He was resurrected He could not have ascended on the day He died three days earlier. I asked her how she dealt with stuff like that but she looked at me kind of puzzled like you dona€™t know?
She asked if I felt cursed and I said no, and she said curses dona€™t exist, and besides, I liked being called Roxy-anne like I had my own adjective, and Roxy, like moxie and Rocks, like star.
Something about having to make sandwiches out of ketchup and saltines made Reno unable to count on anything as unreliable as that.
When the tube touched ground in the bottom of my stomach and came barreling back out as a flame of sound, I figured. She was ringing up my rice, which was when she noticed I had about seventeen bags of rice and thata€™s all.
They crashed with my wife Jana and me in Kalamazoo, while taking the a€?orientation coursea€?nearby.
I can confidently report back to my English reader, that Jan would only grow in stature for you, if you could have fully understood the subtlety of his thoughts in his own maternal tongue. A  Plenty of hearsay, and inaccurate facts are presented below in this Affidavit of Anna K. She insisted that her aim and work were to point the church and its members to the Bible--which was to be its creed--and to Jesus' free gift of righteousness. Help God's people understand end-time prophecies which, verified by everyday news events, suddenly take on new meaning.a€?F. Help God's people understand end-time prophecies which, verified by everyday news events, suddenly take on new meaning.F. A red cross symbolizes Prester John (who rules both eastern and southern India and who resides in Biberith); and finally on the fourth division of the earth, discovered by the kings of Castile and Portugal, we have placed the emblems of those sovereigns.
This interpretation is similar to both Cantino and Caveri and helped keep alive the possibility of a northern access to the as yet unnamed Pacific and, of course, the riches of far Cathay.
Over to the left, on Tabula Terra Nove, apparently referring to the Pearl Coast and perhaps to Honduras, we read the surprising inscription: Hec terra cum adiacentib insulis inuenta est per Columbu ianuensem ex mandato Regis Castellae [This land with the adjacent islands was discovered by Columbus of Genoa by order of the King of Castile]. Its appearance undoubtedly ignited a debate in Europe regarding its portrayal of an unknown continent (unknown to Europe and others in the Eastern Hemisphere) between two huge bodies of water, the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, and separated from the classical world of Ptolemy, which had been confined to the continents of Europe, Africa, and Asia.
Shortly after the appearance of the 1507 world map by Waldseemuller, Vespucci was appointed the first Pilot Major in the Spanish House of Trade (the Casa de la ContratacioI?n) in Seville, and in that capacity was responsible for navigational issues and concerns of Spanish shipping to the new western possessions, across the Atlantic.
In 1903 an elaborate set of facsimiles of the 1507 and the 1516 maps accompanied by a scholarly study by Josef Fischer and Franz von Wieser appeared.
The North American region is nameless, but the South American region bears conspicuously the name America.
I had pushed in maybe a millimeter, so I pulled back into his hand, sank in maybe a centimeter before my body dissolved like pixie stix in acid. Perhaps right for those who shouldna€™t have sharp objects, for fear of hurting themselves.
That show was purchased whole by Special Collections at Western Michigan University and constitutes the largest collection of Sobota bindings and the most complete archive of my work. Sanders.A  I wonder how accurate her formal reports were when she was an Alaska State Trooper? Ellen fulfilled every test of a prophet mentioned in this Study Guide.a€?a€?Her Pen Name and Booksa€?Ellen married James White, a clergyman, and wrote under the name Ellen G.
Help God's people sense the certainty of Jesus' soon return and the end of the world.a€?a€?For a deepening love for Jesus, a vibrant new excitement about the Bible, and a fresh understanding of Bible prophecies--listen to God's end-time prophet.
Without the help of a prophet, many will be lost through backsliding, sleeping spiritually, and being too busy.
If I fail to listen to and test prophets, I am not basing my faith upon the Bible, which mandates doing so. Ellen fulfilled every test of a prophet mentioned in this Study Guide.Her Pen Name and BooksEllen married James White, a clergyman, and wrote under the name Ellen G.
Help God's people sense the certainty of Jesus' soon return and the end of the world.For a deepening love for Jesus, a vibrant new excitement about the Bible, and a fresh understanding of Bible prophecies--listen to God's end-time prophet.
And what is to be borne in mind, we have marked with crosses shallow places in the sea where shipwreck may be feared. Gemma Frisius and Sebastian Munster edited versions of the latter, so that the WaldseemA?ller type, or Lusitano-Germanic Group, held the field until the advent of Mercator, Ortelius, and the Dutch school of the mid-16th century. A statement that is in obvious conflict with the thrust of both the graphic productions of 1507 (map and globe) and the text of Introductio CosmographiA¦ referred to earlier - both prepared more or less as a testimony to Amerigo Vespucci. As soon as he was back in Spain, he equipped a fresh expedition with the aim of reaching Asia.
One after another I asked dumb questions like that until he started winding them around this wheel, like the millera€™s daughter spinning straw into gold, I said, which made him smile so wide I fell right through the door. He leaned his body into mine against the wall, holding it there, which made me able to feel the wall again, him. Few people would have cast a second glance at that glued-up mess of moldering old papers before pitching it, nor would they have recognized what they had in hand or known how to restore or sell it. But the Spanish government did not welcome his proposals, and at the end of 1500 Vespucci went into the service of Portugal.
Christa€™s words would have no meaning if we twist them to mean whatever we want to believe. She told me to get on her handlebars and I did because her eyes were the color of twilight if twilight had a gray.
I didna€™t do it on purpose, but once I saw the shock on her face, I started collecting finales.
These folks were a profound blessing to a family facing some truly rough sailing a€“ a Godsend.
Schmidt had worked was signed with warm dedications to him and thus worth real money to collectors. He wanted to see the printmaker in me come to full fruition and I wanted to be worthy of his attentions.
The family has dwelled within sight of the seats of power, pushing copper plates through a press and outlived the Hapsburg Monarchy, First Republic, Nazis and Communists.
The intact packages were still there on their shelves, all duly graded, labeled and priced, awaiting an owner who was never to return. Remember, Jesus says He will bless His end-time church with most-helpful prophetic messages.
The Cosmographiae provided an introduction to the new geography of the world as laid out in the globe and wall-map, and included a Latin translation of Vespuccia€™s four voyages.
Back home, their Czech neighbors would have envied them and accused them of theft or worse, but people here seemed to be pleased as punch to see them prosper a€“ genuinely happy for them. Those items too, kept trickling out the door, until there came a sad, sad day, when the golden eggs were all gone. Her books, read worldwide, give inspired counsel on health, education, temperance, the Christian home, parenting, publishing and writing, assisting the needy, stewardship, evangelism, Christian living, and more. There simply is no soul until, in the resurrection, God restores the breath of life to the body.
At that time they are brought forth to face the judgment, after which punishments and rewards are assigned. I mean amphetamines didnE?t help, but she wouldna€™t have needed them if she made something other than kids. They bashfully admitted their foolishness and went back to making beautiful books a€“ and their American friends were so relieved to see them regain their sanity.
You take time to grieve and then pick yourself up by your bootstraps (by God a€“ get a grip) and get on with it (Rome wasna€™t built in a day you know).
StrejA?ek was still working, but it was all coming to an inevitable end, as he grew shaky of hand and hard of seeing. Job said, a€?So man lieth down, and riseth not: till the heavens be no more, they shall not awake, nor be raised out of their sleep.
Oh that thou wouldest hide me in the grave, that thou wouldest keep me secret, until thy wrath be past, that thou wouldest appoint me a set time, and remember me!
Enriched by my days of being nurtured by Prague, Matkou MA›st (Mother of Cities), I moved on to meet my destiny with art. Life pulls into a station, you wait for the next bus to come along, or you take it where it goes. I mean, Hank and me werena€™t something to be ashamed of, but she knew my being able to sing wasna€™t something she did. A  There's an Unsolved Mystery right there:A  How could I have been "Found" by LAPD or anyone, when I was never "Missing" nor Lost?
A  I assumed she was feeling a bit down over the slumping economy and her own financial position, and wasn't keeping up with personal grooming, and wasn't concerned about her appearance. Grant would like to request the videotapes of the Key West Airport baggage claim during my arrival on that date, so we can all have a review of the appearance of Anna, and me.
Grant, Attorney at Law, Juneau, AK From Wedding Bells to Tales to Tell: The Affidavit of Eric William Swanson, my former spouse AFFIDAVIT OF SHANNON MARIE MCCORMICK, My Former Best Friend THE AFFIDAVIT OF VALERIE BRITTINA ROSE, My daughter, aged 21 THE BEAGLE BRAYS! HELL'S BELLS: THE TELLS OF THE ELVES RING LOUD AND CLEAR IDENTITY THEFT, MISINFORMATION, AND THE GETTING THE INFAMOUS RUNAROUND Double Entendre and DoubleSpeak, Innuendos and Intimidation, Coercion v Common Sense, Komply (with a K) v Knowledge = DDIICCKK; Who's Gunna Call it a Draw? AFFIDAVIT OF ANNA KATHRYN SANDERS, Former ALASKA STATE TROOPER, and MY OLDER SISTERA A Fortunately, someone's curious questions reminded me that I still have much more information to publish, including this Affidavit. A  How about some facts, such as the Officer's name, time, location of the vehicle, etc.



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