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Feltmaking is still practised by nomadic peoples in Central Asia and northern parts of East Asia, where rugs, tents and clothing are regularly made. Mehmet girgic is a master Craftmen in Felt Making in Istanbul and we make our workshops in his Studio by himself or his assistants. History of Felts in Turkey,Felts have not been well preserved in Turkey as they were considered of little cultural significance.
Felt is a non-woven cloth that is produced by matting, condensing and pressing woollen fibres.
Mehmet Girgic is a master Craftmen in Felt Making in Istanbul and we make our workshops in his Studio by himself or his assistants called Theresa May O'Brien. In the lesson you will make the whole stages of a Felt making process and by the evening, you will be able to finish 1 item like a hat, bag, shoe, a scarf or a design that you choose.. Please send us an e-mail if you are interested in participating our classes as individual or a student group.
Mystical craft guilds, known as ahi, in Ottoman Turkey oversaw the production and quality of felt and the behavior of its makers.
Many Turkish baths (hamamlar) had designated areas dedicated to felt production, as their extreme heat and moisture provided an ideal environment for feltmaking, especially during the winter months. In a hybrid of the two methods of patterning felt previously mentioned, Anatolian craftsmen use partially felted fabric of varying colors called “pre-felt” to cut the patterns that form the decorative elements of the carpet, resulting in a more clearly defined design than ala khiz. Next, the rug is unrolled, the edges are trimmed, and the pattern is adjusted before it is placed in a steaming machine for the fulling.
In the neighboring province of Erzurum similar red caps are worn in the villages, and in the northwestern province of Kirklareli you will come across men wearing maroon felt fezzes.
Turkish Paper marbling is a method of aqueous surface design, which can roduce patterns similar to marble or other stone, hence the name.
2 - 5 Guest ,65 Euro ,6 - more ,45 Euro ,1 Guest ,80 Euro ,Lesson Includes.,These are private events and runs upon request. Gum Tragacant is obtained from trunk of a thorny plant growing naturally in Anatolian, Persian and Turkestan mountians and called “gaven”.
CONTEMPORARY create design fabric marbling paper technique designs on paper, glass or on silk fabrics .hakan hacibekiroglu,Our teacher that is shown in our pictures is Ms. Turkish Paper marbling is a method of aqueous surface design, which can roduce patterns similar to marble or other stone, hence the name. This decorative material has been used to cover a variety of surfaces for several centuries. CONTEMPORARY create design fabric marbling paper technique designs on paper, glass or on silk fabrics . Marbled paper, called ebru in Turkish, was used extensively in the binding of books and within the calligraphic panels in Turkey.
Ebru technique consists of sprinkling colours containing a few drops of ox-gall on to the surface of the bath sized with kitre (gum tragacanth) in a trough. After the 1550's, booklovers in Europe prized ebru, which came to be known as ‘Turkish papers’. If this image belongs to you or is your intellectual property, please submit a copyright notification instead of reporting it. We encourage users to report abusive images and help us moderate the content on We Heart It. Above, a fascinating 1867 map by William Hughes featuring the world according to ancient Greek astronomers, poets, historians and geographers. So far, maps were mainly based on an aggregation of facts, without any scientific treatment of geography. Ptolemy, the Greek mathematician, astronomer, geographer and astrologer, gathered new information and corrected old errors and gave ancient geography its final shape, until the explorations of Columbus and Vasco De Gama. The city of Cattigara, located here in the bottom right corner of the map, is cited by Ptolemy as the southernmost known point.
The credit of being the first scientific cartographer has generally assigned to the Greek Anaximander of Miletus (610-547 B.
We are not definitely informed as to just the course of improvement or advancement in early scientific map making among the Greeks, yet not a few names are known to us of those who made it a matter of special endeavor, as they specifically stated, to improve the work of their predecessors. The Greeks developed another idea: the distinction between civilized people and barbarians. Until the late sixth century BCE, the Greeks conceptualized the world as a series of concentric circles. As previously mentioned, many early maps, especially those prior to the advent of mass production printing techniques, are known only through descriptions or references in the literature (having either perished or disappeared).
All this is also evident in the history of cartography (a modern term created via a combination of Greek chartes, a€?charta€™, and graphein, a€?writea€™ or a€?drawa€™), that is, the study of maps as a special form of communicating geographic knowledge. It must be said at the outset that we have little contemporary evidence for Greco-Roman maps. It is nonetheless the case that many modern school atlases could not (and cannot) resist the temptation to reconstruct ancient maps by combining modern knowledge about the shape of the eartha€™s landmass with data from ancient texts. While some types of felt are very soft, some are tough enough to form construction materials. Some of these are traditional items, such as the classic yurt, while others are designed for the tourist market, such as decorated slippers.
But the writings of the seventeenth-century Turkish travel writer Evliya Celebi record many practical uses for felt. The craftsman placed his felt on raised platforms and exerted pressure by pounding his chest on the fleece in order to achieve the necessary shrinkage.
Once the pre-felt elements are laid in position on the reed mat, they are covered evenly with the background fleece using a forked tool of cherry wood called a cubuk .
One of their most interesting products is the stiff felt cloak known as kepenek worn by shepherds.
In Hakkari in southeast Turkey people wear slippers known as refik, harik or herik, sewn from layers of felt and wool.
Betul is our professional Artist that is graduated from Mimar Sinan University department of fine Arts in Istanbul.
The patterns are the result of color floated on either plain water or a viscous solution known as size, and then carefully transferred to a sheet of paper (or other surfaces such as fabric). The sap coming out of scratches made on the branches dries up later and solidifies in bone white colored pieces . The patterns are the result of color floated on either plain water or a viscous solution known as size, and then carefully transferred to a sheet of paper (or other surfaces such as fabric). It is often employed as a writing surface for calligraphy, and especially book covers and endpapers in bookbinding and stationery.
By carefully laying the paper over the bath, the floating picture on top of it is readily transferred to the paper; thus, each ebru is a one of a kind print. Many specimens in their collections and in the several album amicorum books are visible today in various museums.
But please keep in mind that reporting images that are not abusive is against our terms of service and can get your account blocked.
This map includes nine maps on a single sheet, each illustrating the geographical views entertained at different periods and as expressed by prominent authorities of the time. No snow is there, nor heavy storm, nor ever rain, but ever does Ocean send up blasts of the shrill-blowing West Wind that they may give cooling to men. Here we see that the world is divided into three continents, Europe, Asia and Libya [Africa], and that the western countries of the Mediterranean have gained some form and proportion. It is worth noting the superiority of the Ptolemaic system which would come to dominate European cartographic presentation until the discovery of America. There has been considerable debate about the true location of Cattigara, certainly Magellan and the other great navigators failed to identify it, with some attaching the name to Hanoi or South China and others placing it on the shores of South America. Originally, barbaros simply meant a€?babblera€™ and was used to indicate everybody who did not speak Greek.


Greece was surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea (with large islands like Sicily, Italy, and Cyprus); the Mediterranean was surrounded by the three continents, and behind the continents was the Ocean, which surrounded the world disk.
Maps are generally two-dimensional representations, often to scale, of portions of the earth's surface.
In the modern world, the nature of communications allows original texts and graphics to be preserved, transmitted and accessed for extended periods of time.
Felt can be of any colour, and made into any shape or size.Traditional Turkish Felt Making,Felt is a non-woven cloth that is produced by matting, condensing and pressing woollen fibres.
In the palace at Bitlis, lemons and oranges were preserved in winter by wrapping them in felt; and, in Amasya, near Tokat, felt was used as a strainer for mulberry, grape, and quince juices.
The story of Saint Clement and Saint Christopher relates that while fleeing from persecution, the men packed their sandals with wool to prevent blisters. In the Western world, felt is widely used as a medium for expression in textile art as well as design, where it has significance as an ecological textile. The last hamamlar that produced felt were in Konya and Urfa; by the last quarter of the twentieth century, many hand-felting processes were replaced by machines. Additional layers of fleece follow, each sprinkled with water through a long-fibered straw brush before being rolled in the reed mat, wrapped in plastic, and sent to a mechanical “kicking” machine for hardening, the first stage of the shrinkage process. Every twenty minutes, the rug is removed and re-rolled both inside out and back to front to ensure even felting. These distinctive garments protect the wearer from heat in summer and from cold and wet in winter.
She is professional in Ottoman Calligraphy - Tile Design & Turkish Motives - Ottoman Paper Marbling.Turkish Marbling - Ebru Lessons in Istanbul.
In bru art, you can draw flower figures that are traditional from the Ottoman period BUT the things that you can capable of by using Ebru art is unlimited.
To obtain beautiful ebru results, one needs to have a light hand, refined taste, and an open mind to the unexpected patterns forming on the water.
Of course, the world of the ancient Greeks centered in the Mediterranean and the Americas were yet to be discovered. Beyond Oceanus in the north, are the Cimmerii, an ancient people of the far north of Europe, described by Homer as the people living in perpetual darkness.
The three important seas, the Mediterranean Sea, the Red Sea and the Black Sea divide the three continents and the Caspian Sea is noted. He determined latitudes and longitudes based on astronomical observations and developed trigonometry. His map of the World in about AD 160, as well as his two maps of Asia and Europe may be somewhat difficult to understand at first glance, but upon closer examination, correspond to many actual locations and yield some of their secrets. Be as it may, the Ptolemaic model retained a great deal of influence well into the 16th century until Portuguese and Dutch navigators more fully explored the region.
While there is not a detailed description extant of the maps he is reputed to have made, we know that he accepted the so-called Homeric idea, that the earth has the form of a circular disc, and is surrounded by the Ocean Stream, an idea generally approved by the Ionic School of Philosophers.
After the Greek victory in the Persian wars (492-479), the word became pejorative: a barbarian was not only unable to speak Greek, but was inferior as well. Here, one could encounter strange monsters: Homera€™s Odyssey mentions a great variety of them. In the present work, reconstruction of maps no longer extant are used in place of originals or assumed originals. The pre-modern world, on the other hand, had only a series of copies to work with, made over the centuries on organic material. In Erzerum, where winters were long and houses built of stone, felt and canvas treated with beeswax served as insulation under the roof.
At the end of their journey, the movement and sweat had turned the wool into felt socks.Feltmaking is still practised by nomadic peoples in Central Asia and northern parts of East Asia, where rugs, tents and clothing are regularly made. When an apprentice was ready to open his own shop, the masters were invited to a juried event, at which the apprentice demonstrated the making of a shepherd’s coat, prepared a meal for the judges, and gave a bar of olive oil soap to all in attendance. Today, in the wool bazaar of Konya, fleece is washed in vast pools of water, aided by a mechanized, rake-like fork that agitates the fibers, before they are rinsed and hung to dry. Here it is turned and pounded for three hours, or “kicked” by the feltmakers, who rhythmically roll the felt forward with their right foot and backward with their left, hands on their knees for pressure. This process continues for six hours, which causes shrinkage of forty percent and makes the felt impervious to moisture.
Indoors, plain felt blankets made of white wool are spread over cushions for sitting on in winter, and felt mats are laid over both seats and beds.
MARBLING APPLIED TO PAPER PATTERNS,Marbling is similar to cooking; it is impossible to give the exact recipe.
Turkish Paper marbling is a method of aqueous surface design, which can produce patterns similar to marble or other stone, hence the name. Europe Asia and Africa (Libya) however were known, leading prominent geographers of the ancient world to adopt the three-part world model a€“ a system that would remain in use until the era of Martin WaldseemA?ller in the early 16th century (Book IV, #310). It is not improbable that we have an allusion to the work of Anaximander in the History of Herodotus (484-400?
At that moment, the two ideas had already been combined: the center of the world was inhabited by civilized Greeks, the periphery by barbarians. The edges of the continents were inhabited by savage, monstrous barbarians, the opposites of the civilized Greeks in the middle of the earth. The reconstructions of such maps appear in the correct chronology of the originals, irrespective of the date of the reconstruction. The process was almost manageable for texts, multiple copies of which could be created by copyist teams working fro dictation. Felt can be of any colour, and made into any shape or size.Many cultures have legends as to the origins of feltmaking. In Bursa, during the month of July, the snow sellers brought ice wrapped in felt to the cities on mules. The Surname (Book of Festivities) of Murad Ill, a manuscript of text and miniature paintings, commemorates the circumcision of Crown Prince Mehmet in Istanbul in 1582.
Carding—the aligning and separating of fibers—was originally done by hand, but is now accomplished by a machine with large steel teeth, that combs the fibers as they are fed through.
While it is a dwindling tradition, feltmaking workshops in Konyo, Afyon, Tire, Balikesir, Urfa, and Mardin still produce shepherd’s cloaks and carpets. Colourfully embroidered felt saddle cloths are spread beneath horses saddles to soak up the sweat. This decorative material has been used to cover a variety of surfaces for several centuries. Turkish is a very rich country in respect of such natural dyes.Any kind of earth may be first translated into mud then filtered and crushed to from a dye.
C.), was the first to attempt a representation of the curved surface of the earth on a plane in accord with geometrical rules.
All reconstructions are, to a greater or lesser degree, the product of the compiler and the technology of his times. But it was not feasible for graphics, the copying of which inevitably led to increasing distortion. There is no evidence for the use of such forms of representation in ancient maps, and this book deliberately presents no such reconstructions. They also transported ice in felt bags for the court kitchens, harem, and Grand Vizier in Istanbul.
In the Western world, felt is widely used as a medium for expression in textile art as well as design, where it has significance as an ecological textile.Traditional Turkish Felt Workshop by Mehmet Girgic,mehmet girgic is a master Craftmen in Felt Making in Istanbul and we make our workshops in his Studio by himself or his assistants. The imperial celebration lasted for fifty two days and nights and included a procession of the Istanbul guilds. Felt was once an indispensable part of daily life, also used to make saddle bags, shoes, headgear, mats, prayer rugs, and many other garments and household objects in various colors. It is often employed as a writing surface for calligraphy, and especially book covers and endpapers in bookbinding and stationery.


This mapa€™s most intriguing element is the southward extension of land running along the eastern edge of the map and extending beyond the border. Sherman, for issued as plate 26 in Sheldon and Companya€™s An Atlas of Classical Geography in 1867. Therefore, reconstructions are used here only to illustrate the general geographic concepts of the period in which the lost original map was made.
Copies of copies of copies must generally have been very different from the vanished original, hence the scarcity of scholarly, illustrations transmitted from the ancient world. There is even a temptation to go beyond reconstructions and invent a€” that is, falsify a€” maps from the ancient world.
Evliya also describes the clothing of the men making canons in the arsenal, who wore felt clothing to save their bodies from the “blazes of hell.”hakan hacibekiroglu,Mystical craft guilds, known as ahi, in Ottoman Turkey oversaw the production and quality of felt and the behavior of its makers. The manuscript states, ”The felt makers were dressed in bizarre and fearsome costumes with robes and turbans made (made both inside and out) of colored felt. In the eastern province of Agri you can still see men wearing the traditional kullik, a conical brown or white felt cap made from lamb’s wool. Part of its appeal is that each print is a unique monoprint.hakan hacibekiroglu,Need a break from the hustle and bustle of tourist life in Istanbul? It is often employed as a writing surface fo calligraphy, and especially book covers and endpapers in bookbinding and stationery. Contemporary artists in the Islamic world draw on the heritage of calligraphy to use calligraphic inscriptions or abstractions in their work.LEARN the secrets of creating the rich patterns of handmade marble paper . Interestingly, several variations developed in time, giving us types such as gelgit, tarakli, hatip, bulbul yuvasi, cicekli (respectively come-and-go, combed, preacher, nightingale's nest, flowered, etc.) An attempt has been made here to show some of its principal patterns, with samples by the master marblers of this century chosen from our collection. This landmass reflects speculation, inspired by Ptolemy, that the Indian Ocean was landlocked. Nevertheless, reconstructions of maps which are known to have existed, and which have been made a long time after the missing originals, can be of great interest and utility to scholars. Every generation or so, a new a€?discoverya€™ of such a map is announced, only to be exposed as either a hoax designed to embarrass an individual scholar or scholars in general, or an attempt to make money from an unsuspecting public. Come take an art class with the remarkable Turkish artist Betul !LEARN the secrets of creating the rich patterns of handmade marble paper .
The density of the gummed water and the relationships between the water and the dye, the dye and the tensioning agent (gall), the quantity of gall in the dye are all very important.
Part of its appeal is that each print is a unique monoprint.Need a break from the hustle and bustle of tourist life in Istanbul? EXPERIENCE the sensuous flow of Ottoman Calligraphy,CONTEMPORARY create designs with Turkish patternts on tiles,Our teacher that is shown in the pictures are Mrs. Eratosthenes also calculated the circumference of the Earth using simple geometric relationships.
It was believed that this landmass extended far southwards before turning westward and connecting with eastern Africa. In a few words I shall declare the size of each division and of what nature it is as regards outline.a€? It is, however, interesting to observe that the father of historical geography and of history nowhere records his idea of a properly constructed map, and further that the circular form, which he condemned, is one that found wide acceptance even to the close of the middle ages. The possibilities include those for which specific information is available to the compiler and those that are described or merely referred to in the literature.
Though the exploits of Vasco de Gama and Magellan had proven that the Indian Ocean was not fully land locked, it was believed that a large tract of land, possibly even America, attached to Asia west of Malaya.
Of a different order, but also of interest, are those maps made in comparatively recent times that are designed to illustrate the geographical ideas of a particular person or group in the past but are suggested by no known maps. Ottoman - Turkish Calligraphy, also known as Arabic calligraphy, is the art of writing, and by extension, of bookmaking. Thus the Great Promontory or Dragona€™s Tail that appeared on many maps of this region well into the 16th century. Strabo based his map on the knowledge of the Roman expeditions in many parts of the known world.
In older times rainwater was favorite but because of acide rain in our times it is no longer advisable. They also pulled behind them a figure of a lion fashioned of felt.”Many Turkish baths (hamamlar) had designated areas dedicated to felt production, as their extreme heat and moisture provided an ideal environment for feltmaking, especially during the winter months.
She is professional in Ottoman Calligraphy - Tile Design & Turkish Motives - Ottoman Paper Marbling.
Paper: The ideal paper is the one handmade and having a high absorbtion capacity and acid-free. Now if this basic pattern is handled by parellel lines made by a thin pencil or chip moved back and forth you obtain “the back-and-forth”. Come take an art class with the remarkable Turkish artist Bahar !LEARN the secrets of creating the rich patterns of handmade marble paper .
In order to increasethe absorbtion capaticy and to fix the dye on it(more durable) and alumina solution may be applied on the paper surface.
Carding—the aligning and separating of fibers—was originally done by hand, but is now accomplished by a machine with large steel teeth, that combs the fibers as they are fed through.In a hybrid of the two methods of patterning felt previously mentioned, Anatolian craftsmen use partially felted fabric of varying colors called “pre-felt” to cut the patterns that form the decorative elements of the carpet, resulting in a more clearly defined design than ala khiz.
When a convolute line is applied from the outer circumference towards the centre you obtain a “nightingale nest”.
In the event small colorfull dots are spotted on the back-and-forth or shawl design you get the “sprinkled marbling”.
Upon completion, the pre-felt patterns are firmly felted to the fleece of the background.Next, the rug is unrolled, the edges are trimmed, and the pattern is adjusted before it is placed in a steaming machine for the fulling.
If, instead, you apply larger dots (which means with higher rate of gall contents) you obtain the “prophyry marble” which resemble most to marble.,Nonetheless above patterns may be divesified by selecting one of the above as a basis and making concentric drops of different colors. Its origin might ultimately hark back to China, where a document from the T'ang dynasty (618-907) mentions a process of coloring paper on water with five hues. Mehmet Efendi (the orator of Saint Sophia, deceased in 1973) first formed flower and other patterns, wich were subsequenly called the “Orator pattern” (Hatip ebrusu).
For instance when blue yellow are simultaneously applied and mixed up as much as possible never green comes out.
While it is a dwindling tradition, feltmaking workshops in Konyo, Afyon, Tire, Balikesir, Urfa, and Mardin still produce shepherd’s cloaks and carpets.“The last remaining felt makers are to be found in such Turkish provinces as Afyon, Sanliurfa, Konya, Balikesir, Izmir, Kars and Erzurum. By carefully laying the paper over the bath, the floating picture on top of it is readily transferred to the paper; thus, each ebru is a one of a kind print. The paper is then careflly lifted off the basin without stripping too much the gum off the surface. To obtain beautiful ebru results, one needs to have a light hand, refined taste, and an open mind to the unexpected patterns forming on the water. Patience and a good knowledge of traditional culture are characteristic of ebru masters.After the 1550's, booklovers in Europe prized ebru, which came to be known as ‘Turkish papers’. Many specimens in their collections and in the several album amicorum books are visible today in various museums. Also, early texts dealing with ebru, such as “Discourse on decorating paper in the Turkish manner”, published in 1664 by Athanasius Kircher in Rome, helped to disseminate the knowledge of this kind of marbling art. There is agreement amongst scholars that the so-called Turkish Papers played a colourful influence on the book arts in Europe.MATERIALS USED IN CLASSICAL TURKISH MARBLING Gum tragacath – Dye – Paintbrush – Basin – Water – Paper - Gall Gum Tragacant is obtained from trunk of a thorny plant growing naturally in Anatolian, Persian and Turkestan mountians and called “gaven”. This infinity of colors and shapes quickly formed makes the marbling amazing at and fascinates the spectator (if any). Hikmet BARUTCUGIL,Mimar Sinan University paper marbling, fabric marbling, faux marbling, parrys graining and marbling, marbling paint, contemporary create design fabric marbling paper technique traditional, Turkish Marbling - Ebru Lessons in Istanbul.Turkish Paper marbling is a method of aqueous surface design, which can produce patterns similar to marble or other stone, hence the name. CONTEMPORARY create design fabric marbling paper technique designs on paper, glass or on silk fabrics .Our teacher that is shown in our pictures is Ms.
For instance when blue yellow are simultaneously applied and mixed up as much as possible never green comes out.3.



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