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The three dominant world wide manufacturers are the Siemens Mobility, Bombardier Transportation and GE Transportation. In addition to the above, there are numerous component manufacturers serving the above customers plus sometimes trying to enter end products markets themselves too. The largest truly world wide manufacturer of the rail vehicles is Siemens Mobility through its network of daughter companies, cooperations and subcontractors. The most famous Siemens products are undoubtedly its super high speed Inter City Express and Velaro trains found in just about every corner of the earth.
Also in this sectionSiemens AG Mobility page provides knowledge of many state of the art Siemens manufactured EMUs and Locomotives. Bombardier is a worldwide manufacturer of railroad rolling stock for heavy professional uses. Stadler Rail is a large Swiss manufacturer best known for its large selection of highly popular EMUs and DMUs. Bombardier is a large international manufacturer known best for its rail vehicles and airplanes. The product portfolio ranges from the Zefiro super high speed trains to freight diesels and local EMUs to passenger coaches. In Europe you can find Bombardier TRAXX locomotive family members _anywhere_ where the gauge is 1435 mm. The super high speed and high speed segments are covered with Reginas and now also Zefiros in China and Italy.
The three largest manufacturers are constantly challenged by a number of smaller, yet often very large volume manufacturers.
Numerous quite strong local rolling stock manufacturers exist too in the shadows of the larger ones.
In competitive and political environment the bankruptcies, running out of orders and restructuring happen relatively often. Russia has been in the middle of a railroad modernization for years, along with the society as a whole. For this segment we will later provide a page including Transmasholding, NEVZ and Siemens-Sinara, Ural Locomotives plus possibly some more players. GE is the leading manufacturer for the time and has acquired a dominant market share with its policy of providing an exceptionally good customer care for after sales. We all know Japan for Shinkansen trains and the country's interesting designs for its narrow gauge networks. Much less known but quite successful both technologically and in their sales to developing countries are the Korean manufacturers. Regional here means that a company is concentrating mainly on its home market or nearby countries. CAF, short for Construcciones y Auxiliar de Ferrocarriles, is one of the two stronger Spanish train manufacturers (other being Talgo). Current production includes all classes of EMUs from high speed to local use, metros and trams.
One of the interesting features of CAF is that company has been quite active delivering products to Nordic countries too, these are countries with extremely demanding climates: CAF Oaris to Flytoget of Norway, Metro M400 to Helsinki, Finland and trams to SL of Stockholm, Sweden are some of the latest.
Class Sm4 is also an example of well working cooperation between different manufacturer's production lines, as all units were produced either at Fiat-Ferroviaria or Alstom. The famed French manufacturer Alstom excelled in 1980s with the creation of current line of TGV super high speed trains.
Other interesting models by Alstom are AGV super high speed EMUs now operating under NTV in Italy, and Pendolino EMUs through Alstom buying Fiat Ferroviaria a few years ago. Talgo from Spain is best known for being talented and innovative manufacturer of special made lightweight coaches. Steelwheel and its predecessor Saalasti are well known for purspose built adapted solution for railroading niche areas. The most common sold articles today seems to be robot bears, by which the company means various quite strong remote controlled locomotives, without or with a cab. The factory is located in Kuusankoski, just a stones throw North of Kouvola in Southern Finland. Voith used to be a diesel-hydraulic component manufacturer only, but after several decades of operations has now taken quite successful steps for a diesel-hydraulic loco builder. Vossloh is one of the traditional large diesel locomotive manufacturers with turnover around 1,5 billion euros.
Spanish operation is famous for huge diesel-electric road diesels that seem to be quite popular in Europe. At Innotrans 2012 Vossloh also showed many other innovative product lines besides diesel locomotives. Above a typical North American passenger locomotive for today, the EMD F59PHI for the Amtrak California. After EMD regained its independence from GM in early 2000s the most successful models in the North American markets have been the SD70ACe and SD70M-2.
Next Generation (all markets): Hybrid locomotive, probably on a different platform from the previous, since the current model has little room for batteries.
ASEA AB (Allmanna Svenska Elektriska Aktiebolaget) was a midsized Swedish manufacturer especially for electric locomotives and EMUs.
In 1988 ASEA merged with Swiss BBC, Brown, Boveri & Cie, and the companies bacame known as ABB. This section will include all too many manufacturers as the railroad rolling stock manufacturing is as complex as life itself. Transtech Oy was a medium sized Finnish manufacturer for mainly coaching stock, trams and special equipment.
The last expansion of the product line of Transtech was for the trams of Helsinki, the capital of Finland.
Victoria Station, eastern side (the former London, Chatham and Dover Railway Station frontage), c. The European Tribune is a forum for thoughtful dialogue of European and international issues. Last year, I took ET readers on a tour of industrial history, covering the bumpy road of electric locomotive development towards a handful of families with aircraft-style modularity produced by Europe's main manufacturers. Modular local multiple unit families indeed emerged already from the early nineties, and rail passengers in Europe might have noticed that certain shapes (and train interiors) are ubiquitous today. In practice, the distinction between railcar and multiple unit has become ever less significant, and modern railcars tend to belong into modular families with 2(-3-4-5)-car multiple units.
Industrial development is usually evolutionary, that is: even new classes of products tend to emerge as adaptations of existing designs. Passenger coaches: fitting them with a (steam) motor was how the very first railcars were born, and this idea of cost-saving development persisted (later with gasoline, diesel, electric motors).
BR class 423 3498 left the spectacular portal of Shakespeare Tunnel in Dover, UK, on 11 May 1996.
Buses: the idea is to replace the lightweight mass-produced (and thus cheap) rival's rubber tyres with steel wheels. Long-distance multiple units: their more elaborate designs were sometimes adapted for regional sisters, or the express DMUs and EMUs themselves were refurbished in old age. All of the pioneering ideas were also obviously meant to save costs by using standard parts.
Many multiple units have distributed traction, that is, more than one car has underfloor motors and driven wheelsets. Thus it came that the swing to a general preference of multiple units in recent decades originated (and developed to its fullest) in highly urbanised areas.
In 1982, the one-time state railway BR grouped its passenger services in the area into the Network SouthEast sector, with semi-autonomous management. NSE's purchases, mostly from BREL (a British maker that went up successively in ABB, ADtranz and currently Bombardier) also pioneered a high degree of modularity.
Urbanisation made multiple units fashionable, but it wasn't in itself a reason for re-inventing the technology.
Note that all of the above listed innovations are conductive to modular construction: they allow for variability to meet customer wishes regarding train length, motorisation, seat arrangement, climatic conditions, and even platform height, with off-the-shelf parts.
New DMUs with the above innovations and conscious modularity emerged in the middle of the nineties, on a very small sub-market: regional semi-private (local government owned) railways operating branchlines in Germany and Switzerland.
Due to the comfort difference relative to conventional DMUs, the first few new-technology prototypes were an instant success with passengers, so all major producers rushed onto this market (also hoping for bigger orders once rail privatisation rolls on). In 1996, Talbot, an Aachen, Germany based traditional factory then just acquired by Bombardier, presented its own prototype for a new regional DMU: the TALENT (Talbot leichter Nahverkehrstriebwagen = Talbot light local transport railcar[sic!]). The TALENT prototype during its first test in regular traffic, on the bridge near Bareveld, Netherlands on 12 April 1997.
The first of the new lightweight modular families to get an EMU version (1998) was not that of one of the then four (now three) Europe-based rail tech giants, but that of a newcomer: Swiss maker Stadler. Readers would be justified to eye the above shiny new high-tech modular wonders in corporate image with suspicion. The designs themselves weren't fine-tuned: this can result in anything from annoying carbody swings through software breakdowns to braking problems. Carbody lightness was pushed to the extreme, resulting in very complex structures designed close to strength limits, thus one sloppy welding can lead to critical weakening, not to mention susceptibility to felt vibrations (again annoying the passenger).

It is great that a modular platform makes hundreds of variants possible without any need for further development – but all the variants still need to be tested to be approved, and types proliferate just when the EU and national authorities are getting serious about strict application of approval rules. The Alstom Coradia Continentals just started regular service when I photographed the one shown above the fold, months behind schedule due to the tests.
In the current system (which may or may not change again into some form of open-access), (subsidized) services are franchises awarded to operators by the regions. However, in most other major EU countries, the regions' rolling stock orders have to fit within national framework agreements, be it because the state railway retained its near-monopoly, or (as in rail privatisation pioneer Great Britain) because rolling stock orders are centralised by leasing companies or the Ministry of Transport itself. Thus, Spain's RENFE has the Civia EMU platform, and just like in olden times, it exerted overall control of the design while including Alstom, Siemens and local partner CAF. In Britain, the very narrow loading gauge (cross section) and ubiquitous high station platforms were natural blocks to standard imports. Even in Germany, until recently, DB insisted on an own platform and involvement of multiple makers in its EMU purchases. Back in 2000, Alstom had its German subsidiary LHB build a radical technology demonstrator, the LIREX. The Coradia Nordic adventure led to the reduced loading gauge (narrower) Coradia Continental, which I showed above the fold. In Poland, for almost two decades, local makers PESA and Newag struggled to survive on very small orders from a cash-strained PKP (mostly for prototypes only). The special placement of power equipment, and rather different carbodies, also mean that double-deck EMUs are hard to integrate into the same modular platform with single-deck ones. Check the Train Blogging index page for a (hopefully) complete list of ET diaries and stories related to railways and trains. There is of course the series of seven narrow gauge Galloping Goose railcars, "developed" in the 1930s by the Rio Grande Southern Railroad in Colorado as it collapsed into bankruptcy. Actually,  it started as a CIMT+ANF project, then the first was eaten by Alstom, the second by Bombardier.
The world's northernmost metro carries 50 million passengers a year over a single forked line of 21.1 kms. I've been accused of being a Marxist, yet while Harpo's my favourite, it's Groucho I'm always quoting. This is for example the case with the Thalys, but the rule would also apply to the now inoperative Fyra connection with Brussels. The rules also stipulate that international connections should not interfere with national arrangements. The Netherlands have made the rules too restrictive, which is not beneficial from a competitive stand point. The Netherlands want to hear from the Court of Justice to what extent it may be restricted. The Authority for Consumers and Markets (ACM) monitors compliance with the rules in the Netherlands. The trains traveling the Low Countries Line, will make frequent stops and possibly also transport domestic passengers. On the majority of the Dutch tracks only the NS is allowed to offer domestic passenger travel.
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Pictures by Ilkka Siissalo, Sanna Siissalo, Gerry Putz, Peider SwissTrip, Hannu Peltola, Timo-Jussi Hamalainen and John McKey.
Vehicles to different markets are typically manufactured locally in most cases while the most demanding implementations often seem to come from Bombardier Kassel works. Although the designs split views, the engineering and durability has always been one of the keys to success for the company. These include, but are not limited to: Alstom, CAF, EMD, General Electric, Stadler Rail, Talgo, Vossloh, Voith, Chinese and Japanese manufacturer.
Typically these are concentrating on a niche product portfolio and actively developing these segments. Some of these even manufacture or remanufacture the most usual larger components to be replaced like prime movers for diesels.
While it according to personnel does not sound anything like the big EMD sound earlier, the locomotive is even more powerful. Now the multiple unit can reuse some of the braking energy, something that can make a big difference in operating economy of the train company. This also means that there are many large manufacturers like General Electric and Caterpillar-EMD.
The success on the closed Japanese markets has been quaranteed, but also abroad the product development made in the Japanese home turf now carries some fruit.
One of these sectors is railroad rolling stock, where the country is now in process of implementing this technology itself and perfecting it to local use and even exports. The story is again the same: with arduous long time product development and some bought technologies the industrious nation has made steady progress. Basically, if you can make your product work in damp and frezing weather of these countries, and in the summer in hot temperatures, it will work anywhere.
Being offered to Worldwide marker the first customer outside Spain will be Flytoget of Norway. As Metro is being extended, these 4 module units will add much needed capacity from year 2016 with line extension. These EMUs are used on regional traffic in Southern Finland where they see a lot of running in cold, ice and snow, in any kind of weather.
Since then TGV sales have been somewhat weaker taking Alstom away from the World limelights. Pendolinos, both tilting and nontilting high speed units, have in recent years been quite successfull in sales all over Europe.
Above the latest model of famous TGV trains, a TGV-2N2 unit 813 is making a stop at Nice Ville of azur colored French Riviera.
Here the class BB 27300 number 27360 is coupled to typical double decked coaches awaiting for departure time at Paris Gare du Nord. At the same time it delivered 15 HHP8 electric locomotives, reliability of which has always been much less than desired. Below an example of the latest tilting Pendolino, an ETR-610 aka RABe 503 of SBB, seen in Zurich, Switzerland. Company even survived the Soviet period with aggressive marketing and continues now locomotive, multiple unit, metro, tram and bus building in Czech Republic. These coaches can be found on most continents and Talgo has also been able to attract new customers lately. Most of the equipment today is engineered for use by either large industrial operators or maintenance of the way companies. The design of these machines divides opinions, though basically they share the highly popular shape modernized where Nohab of Sweden left these several decades ago (though the companies obviously have no connection). Ten years later the rolling stock manufacturing in Sweden ceased and the story of the legendary train builder ASEA ended. The previous Adtranz manufactured low floored trams, although modern, have been there a great disappointment, so the city of Helsinki decided to go forward with the manufacturer known to be able to manufacture trams being able to run often steep curves of Helsinki. However, another group of railway rolling stock has much higher potential for modularity in production: multiple units for local service. Still, the move toward modularity was fraught with even stronger contradictions than for electric locomotives. That was because in most local service, advantages and drawbacks relative to the locomotive-hauled alternative (see the beginning of Railjetting into Red Bull Country) balanced out and only cost counted. The prime exhibit is Japan: locomotives were gone from local passenger service by the eighties already.
The latter kicked off a consequent programme of purchasing multiple units only, banishing locomotives from local passenger service by the early nineties. Innovation happened elsewhere: this was the time of the light rail revival in Western Europe. The boom phase was of course followed by consolidation, which saw most of the more exotic technical solutions thrown out. Photo from OEA.This two-car DMU belongs into the LINT family (later renamed Coradia-LINT) produced by French rail giant Alstom's German subsidiary LHB.

However, some families were designed from the start with enough modularity to allow exchanging diesel power packs for electric equipment.
Stadler entered this race as a small company new to train building, survived the initial phase of adventurous but problematic designs, then gobbled up some production capacity Bombardier had to shed when it ate ADtranz. All of the trains mentioned above suffered various problems, some teething, some persistent, at any rate passenger-angering. Bombardier's new generation Talent 2, ordered in four versions, was suffering from all of the problems I mentioned at the same time. This has structural reasons: not only did prototypes emerge there and are the big multinationals concentrated around there (even French Alstom with its subsidiary LHB), but Germany was a consequent pioneer of the recent transformation of local rail services across the EU.
In Germany, the regions have full autonomy to choose vehicles for operators to run, creating a much bigger open market than that of regional semi-private railways a decade earlier.
Now, the attitude of the monopolistic orderers was: modularity is all fine and well, but I want a family designed just for my needs! This DMU, while loosely based on an earlier suburban EMU for Denmark's DSB, included all kinds of funky ideas like single-wheel(!) running gear, roof-mounted traction equipment, flywheels, oval windows, extravagant interior. But that was enough to develop low-floor modular platforms of their own and be on stage when the regions began ordering new trains: only Stadler's FLIRT could dent their market share a little. Even if they are part of families by brand name, most double-deck EMU types are still unique designs.
Daily ridership is around 200.000 - same as the Helsinki tram service (89 kms of passenger service). If European passengers use trains instead of dirty energy as China does, that's how it does. Regulations in our country stipulate that at least 75 percent of the passengers of an international railway should cross the border.
Furthermore, the Committee believes that the Netherlands should not define the Directive any further. Contact the seller- opens in a new window or tab and request a shipping method to your location. This seller offers shipping discounts when you purchase two or more eligible items using the cart. You have read and agree to the Global Shipping Program terms and conditions - opens in a new window or tab.
Import charges previously quoted are subject to change if you increase you maximum bid amount. Known for manufacturing diesel-hydraulic components they tried a diesel locomotives product line of their own, with limited success.
Many had histories as much larger works at the time when localized rail indsutry still ruled.
One of the obstacles was said to have been the money, which is a little hard to believe of a country with abundant oil, gas, all kinds of minerals and other natural resources for exports. For China itself it is miraculous how such a well working super high speed train fleet with rail network can be built from scratch is such a short time! For example, you can easily pics the same quality train lights from all the newest vehicles. Oaris EMUs will be used for traffic between Dramme, Oslo and Gardemoen airport serving area.
For the first time passengers will be able to walk through all 4 units in Helsinki metro making finding a vacant seat much more convenient than hopping between cars at the stations. With a huge Spanish-Finnish loading gauge used and well behaving suspension on higher speeds these EMUs are quiet and comfortable to passengers. However, it still is known as a substantial multiple unit builder for almost solely French operators. To add capacity to already impressive double decked unit, behind it is coupled another double decker. Automotrice de Grande Vitesse is despite its unusual looks quite ordinary mean super high speed electric multiple unit, if anything ordinary in this class can exist.
SBB has already acquired a third batch of these trains to cope with its growing high speed traffic. In Finland Skoda acquired in 2015 60% share of the national train builder Transtech, and continues with their product lines too. Unlike competition from the EMD itself, Electro-Motive supplies the technology inside these beasts, the crew conditions are quite good. At the same time London, Ontario plant has is closing following the fate of the famous La Grande plant, that served the company during its heyday. These locomotives have gained a dominant market share on their home market during the last 3 decades, quite an achievement from a relative newcomer in the field! With this last benefit also constrained by the above mentioned issues, not much room was left for high-tech. The resulting advantages of high acceleration, passenger utilisation of the entire length of the train, and low maximum axleload count most in high-frequency urban service. The designs were to loosely follow a company 'standard look', with the band of the sloped roof edge continuing in a curve down the nose, making the windscreen and front an extension of the roof. With the off-the-shelf products they could market in Germany, the makers could later do business from the Netherlands to Romania, from Norway to Greece (not to mention the USA). Though Stadler's GTW and FLIRT made inroads in Italy, Trenitalia (state railway FS's passenger branch) and new semi-private operators bought most EMUs and DMUs from the Minuetto platform, which is a heavily adapted locally-produced version of Alstom's Coradia-LINT ("Coradia Meridian"). Despite the addition of "Coradia" to the product name, Alstom did the same with the Class 175 DMU and its EMU sisters of the Juniper platform. Most of those were ditched in the first series descendants, suburban and regional EMUs for Sweden.
The third, called Coradia Duplex by Alstom, also had export versions for Luxemburg and, with more significant modifications, for Sweden.
I'd imagine, though not from the same personal experience, the same with neighborhood electric vehicles. I note that China is expanding its railways massively, too, so there is hope that the Americanisation of Chinese passenger transport will be stalled -- though to clean it up, cleaning up the Chinese presently coal-heavy power sector would also be needed.
If you reside in an EU member state besides UK, import VAT on this purchase is not recoverable. One of the interesting feature of many locomotives is their ability for self diagnoses, self repair and if that is not successful they can order service and parts to next larger stop with maintenaance facilites.
In addition to these there are also a bunch of others like MPI, NRE and Bombardier, each specializing in their strong areas. Some of the most famous Chinese manufacturers are China CNR Corp and CSR Corp (merging soon). This modularity helps both customer and manufacturer as spare parts are both abundant and relatively inexpensive.
By now well over thousand Citadis trams have been manufactured, most to specially tailored ends according to local tastes and standard middle modules. This can be seen as one reason why these locomotives have become so popular replacing the older and less formidable sheds (class 66). The challenge from the GE using a clever product life cycle portfolio led to almost total loosing of the markets in the next 3 decades, furthermore aided by constant troubles on the EMD engine, electrical and carelessness of the crew comfort issues. Caterpillar as a new owner has supplied many older diesels with its new refurbishing, latest technology main engine, electronics and cooling modules.
With US market falling in 2009-2010 for all players the GE foresaw this and managed to sell several hundred locomotives of its older model (nothing wrong with it, just the emissions are a bit (not much) different) to China and to ex. Thus, for most of the past century, multiple units for local service were low-tech products with an arrested development. On lines south of London, an additional factor of early multiple-unit-isation was electrification with the third-rail system (as used on the London Underground), which is not conductive to high power uptakes on one spot as required by locomotives. Producers then maintained the 'DB look' in subsequent deliveries for other state and private railways. Siemens could enter the market with the Desiro UK EMUs and DMUs, which have little in common with the original beyond the name. Quite clearly this is a very decisive factor for success for both manufacturer and its customers.
Flytoget also has ambitions for extending its traffic slightly outside core route, so addtional capacity will be needed. This gives additional decades for many classic road locomotives and gives something interesting to see for the rail pros and railfans. For the same area heavy Octeon platform IORE electric locomotives serve in most demanding arctic conditions. In Sweden Coradia Nordic has been very successfull in sales, though not always technically.
There is also a demand in Russia to modernize aging fleet of M62s, and the GE has been keen on trying to enter this huge market as well.
For the next generation GE is developing hybrid locomotive, which was supposed to enter road testing phase sometime in 2010, but so far has insistently refused to show up.

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