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Click through for a separate page of photographs of the construction of the 4th Avenue Subway. It's a long ride from 95th Street to Pacific Street on the R line, and the rolling stock on the line (a mixture of R-46, R-68, and R-160 types) all have obstructed front windows. In 1968, major changes came to the 6th Avenue line as part of the so-called Chrystie Street Connection project.
Essentially, the Manhattan Bridge had been built with two pairs of tracks, the "north side" and the "south side". So it was decided to rearrange the Manhattan connections; the south side of the bridge would be connected to the BMT Broadway Subway at Canal Street and the connection to the Nassau Street line would be severed. To accommodate all of this new traffic to be flowing along 6th Avenue, the express tracks between West 4th Street and 34th Street were constructed. The 63rd Street tunnel was designed to connect the IND 6th Avenue and BMT Broadway lines at their northern ends to the 2nd Avenue subway and further into Queens. Despite there being a connection from 63rd Street also to the BMT Broadway subway, no regular service from the Broadway line has been operated. The 63rd Street tunnel was designed in conjunction with the 2nd Avenue Subway and both were expected to be built simultaneously beginning in the 1970s.
The 63rd Street Tunnel is also playing a large role in the LIRR's grand plan to bring trains into Grand Central Terminal.
Extensive rehabilitation of eight miles of the existing 63rd Street tunnels, including new signals and track crossovers. Extending both levels of the 63rd Street tunnel 1300 feet and joining the upper level to existing subway lines by means of new ramps; the lower level, belonging to the LIRR, was extended as MTA proceeded with plans to connect this tunnel to the LIRR's Main Line and Port Washington Branch. Widening the main Queens Boulevard corridor line between 33rd and 36th Street to six tracks, two of which being ramps entering below the main line and rising to switches west of 36th Street station, allowing trains to access either local or express tracks. Constructing diversion tunnels to allow existing subway services to continue operating without interruption. Tunneling 20 feet under the Northern Boulevard subway, and underpinning, the existing Northern Boulevard roadway, buildings and express tracks. Providing up to 90-foot wide temporary roadway surfaces to allow automobiles to operate unimpeded. Integration of two four-story, 8,000 square foot ventilation buildings located at 29th Street and 39th Street. The 63rd Street line continues east under 41 Avenue, crossing 20 feet under the Northern Boulevard subway; each track turns northeasterly and climbs a ramp between newly designated local and express tracks west of 36th Street station.
MTA's service plan was designed to increase total train capacity between Queens and Manhattan by about 20%. This station was constructed as part of the larger "Chrystie Street" connection project, since a new terminal at the end of the 6th Avenue line would be required for the new services. 57th Street served as a terminal station until 1988, when the 63rd Street line was connected to it at the north.
The station has a massive mezzanine which connects to many Rockefeller Center buildings outside the fare control. The long passageway to Fifth Avenue (and the #7 train) features brown glazed brick with various color sections. Discontiguous mezzanines exist at both the north and south end of this complex, providing a transfer at both ends. There are numerous exits and passageways including a direct entrance to the shopping center that has variously been known as Gimbels, A&S Plaza, and Manhattan Mall. The PATH and subway stations share the same entrance from the street, with the PATH platforms being accessed via an underpass below the subway platform and track. A common entrance to the subway and PATH, with separate fare controls, is at the 14th street end.
Transfer to the BMT Canarsie line is made from the south end of the IND 6th Avenue platforms. Two track levels, four tracks and two island platforms on each level, with a full-length mezzanine between the two levels (not above). The station, which doesn't actually have an exit to 4th St., is probably so-called to differentiate it from the planned IND second system South 4th St. The mezzanine now houses a large NYCT office complex at the north end; closed stairways from the lower level platforms reveal the "shortened" mezzanine above.
The tile adornment is standard IND; both track levels have dark green tile stripes with an even darker green border. This new southern extension of Sixth Avenue is extra wide to fit the cunning interchange between the 6th and 8th Avenue lines.
There has long been a transfer to the downtown local train of the IRT East Side's Bleecker Street station, via a glass-walled passageway.
The four tracks at 2nd Avenue were originally, but not now, the same four as at Broadway-Lafayette.
Rumor has it that the walls along the platforms are designed to be removed, for conversion into two island platforms; space for two tracks which would have been used by The Second Avenue Subway is said to be behind the walls.
After Grand Street, the trains from the IND 6th Avenue Subway cross the Manhattan Bridge and arrive at DeKalb Avenue station. Overview: With millions of downloads NYC Subway MTA Map gives you all the subway know-how to get around the city that never sleeps. The Mall was also the point of access or transfer to the Chambers Street (served by A and C trains) and World Trade Center (served by E trains) Metropolitan Transportation Authority Subway lines and at the PATH (Port Authority Trans-Hudson Railroad) rapid transit line to New Jersey.  Both stations reopened with temporary yet fully operational facilities in November 2003.
With an impressive roster of about 80 stores, The Mall was made up of many popular typical mall retailers, including Sam Goody, The Limited, Express, Structure, Warner Bros.
The rest of his very interesting photo set featuring photos taken all over Manhattan (including more of the World Trade Center) from the 1980s can be seen here.  Thanks a lot for the submissions! I was reading an article on this mall on Wikipedia and it said that a major expansion was to take place, with possibly a Macy’s and Target as anchors. Iwas in Jersey city 2 saturdays prier to that day & took path in the wrong direction ending up at WTC instead of Journal SQ. I belive it was by the entrance in the very top photograph, the one with the pink sign, i found an old directory picture on Flickr, which i copied to my computer, it had a huge store next to tower 2, i wish i remembered the website, just enter world trade center mall, it should come up on Yahoo!
The majority of people on the internet are probably too young to know anything about the history of the WTC, but the political infighting that occurred before its construction ultimately (albeit unintentionally), resulted in the success of the retail portion. The fighting went on for years, but eventually a deal was reached that NJ would take on renovations of a dilapidated old private rail line that ran under the Hudson (which became PATH) and NY would build a vast underground subway transfer station at the WTC to accommodate it.
Thinking today about my years working in 2 WTC in the late 80s, early 90s and all the time I spent walking, meandering, lunching, snacking, rushing, worrying, laughing and just people watching in that concourse. So to the person who commented about the Borders in the mall, I believe that it was a two story Borders, according to the mall directory.
LinLin, that’s awesome that you have a mall directory of the WTC Mall, can you upload it here on Labelscar or at least write down the list of all the shops? I grew up about four blocks away from the WTC, so the mall was a prime hang out location for me and my friends when we were teenagers (I was 17 in 2001 when they were destroyed).
They began evacuating us halfway up the long escalators after we exited the PATH train that day. It’s almost the 10th Anniversary of the darkest day in American History, doesn’t matter what religion you are, please pray for the victims families and thank our military that day, I know I will! Hi Jim, I recently came across your post regarding my dad, Bruce Eagleson, who was over seeing the redevelopment of the WTC mall at the time of 9-11. You are correct, he was the general manager of Westfield Meriden prior to being promoted to oversee a number of malls on the East Coast including the WTC project.
I am excited to see Westfield return to the WTC site and finish what Westfield and my dad started 13 years ago.
I can well remember me and my dad going to the mall back in 2001 of august and my dad getting me a plush tazmanian devil doll from the Warner bros studio store located across the strawberry clothing store which i still have to this day and i will never sell it, although it’s sad i never kept the receipt i still have a memory from that store my favorite plush taz, i was only 9 years old at the time now turning 19 this October i will always look back to 2001 and will always remember my dad buying me that plush doll for my tenth birthday, my dad always bought early birthday gifts for me.
When the new retail hubs planned for the area surrounding the World Trade Center site finally come on line, New York brokers say they have the potential to be among the highest producing retail venues in the country.
After undergoing upgrades in the 1990s, the old World Trade Center mall, located on the concourse level below the Twin Towers, produced $900 per sq.
In the past decade, downtown’s residential base has grown more than 50 percent, to 56,000 people, and is expected to reach 60,000 by 2013, according to a recent report from the Alliance for Downtown New York, the organization that manages the Lower Manhattan Business Improvement District (BID).
What’s more, the area has seen a steady inflow of new businesses, from Conde Nast’s 1 million-sq.-ft. Currently, the piece of the puzzle that’s already moving ahead is the renovation and expansion of the retail complex at the Brookfield Office Properties-owned World Financial Center.
The Fulton Street Transit Center is scheduled to come on line in 2014, and will feature approximately 70,000 sq. Unlike the former World Trade Center mall, the new retail complex in the works will include street front retail.
Finally, the Westfield Group plans to open the initial phases of the new World Trade Center retail complex in early 2015.
The brokers say retailers are already starting to think about making commitments at the upcoming retail venues downtown.
That’s why apparel retailers in particular still need more convincing to sign leases downtown, says Roseman. The challenges urban retail presents for developers and retailers depend on the location of the stores, the availability of mass transportation, trade area population and store product.
For urban retail to be successful, there must not be any disparity between function and urban space, said G.
Daniel Shallit, Sports Authority’s director or real estate for the northeast region, said that regardless of a store’s location—whether in a suburban mall or an urban vertical location—Sports Authority needs parking because “you can’t buy a treadmill and take it on the bus or train.” The company has tackled the challenge by offering more soft goods in urban locations and focusing on equipment sales in suburban stores. Even when a store is accessible by public transportation, having a few parking spaces can’t hurt. Operating a traditional store in an urban setting is often a mistake, said Patrick Smith, vice president of real estate for BJ’s Wholesale Club. The key to creating a successful urban store is flexibility in operation and design, said Michael J.
For Shop Rite, the challenge of moving into urban areas has not been so much about creating smaller stores, as about learning to be creative with the spaces that are available, said Dennis Bachman, senior real estate representative for Wakefern Food Corp., which operates Shop Rite. In the end, the integration of urban retail is a complex undertaking with a lot of moving pieces, and the biggest problem with it could be that it takes too long to accomplish, according to Rose. New York area retail executives see high-end properties and discount retailers active in market during climate of bifurcation.
Shopping Center Business recently held its annual New York Roundtable, hosted by law firm Goulston & Storrs. Stephen Stephanou: Of the urban areas in the United States, there’s nothing that’s more exciting and dynamic than New York City because of the finance business, the garment business, the retail business and the entertainment business.
SCB: As a public company, how does Acadia look at New York and the surrounding areas and boroughs, as far as retail opportunity? Christopher Conlon: Acadia Realty Trust chose to focus on an aggressive program to recycle and invest new capital into the urban markets.
SCB: Andy [Schulman] and Sam [Polese], how do you, as owners, look at retail opportunities today and as you move forward? Samuel Polese: At the end of the day, tourism drives a lot of what’s going on in Manhattan. Schulman: In Flatiron, you had all of those vacancies and now all of a sudden there are no vacancies. Kampler: When REI opens next month in the Puck Building, we’re going to see a continued southern movement of the retail.
SCB: With the World Trade Center and World Financial Center, is retail starting to come back to Downtown?
Schuster: The challenge of downtown is, because it was built early on in New York’s growth, the streets are narrow. Plourde: The interest level from aspirational retailers and luxury retailers is higher than ever before at the World Financial Center. Marshall Felenstein: If you look at this morning’s newspaper, Wall Street jobs are going down right now at a heavy level. Matthew Harding: In the suburbs, companies such as Lauren’s are really looking at the New York market as a core market also.
Richard Brunelli: In northern and central New Jersey, probably 50 percent of the residents commute to New York. In college I majored in design, and I spent half a year studying at the University of London.
In fact, I formed such a warm attachment to that valuable tool that at the end of my stay, just before I left the city, I went to my local Underground station and got a brand new Tube map, and when I returned home to New York I had it framed.
When you come back to your own city after six months away, you look at everything with new eyes.
I remember thinking that the New York subway map was the opposite of the Beck map: huge in size, unruly in look, cluttered, and very nonintuitive. Even as a designer, however, if I ever thought of creating my own subway map I must have quickly dismissed the idea. Now, fast-forward to one night years later when I was taking an out-of-town client to dinner at a downtown restaurant.
When I decided to try making a new map as a weekend project (ha!), the first thing I considered was the size.
First, I took a paper version of the official Metropolitan Transit Authority (MTA) map (a version of which is shown in Figure 5-3), cut it up with scissors, and put it back together in a more efficient way (literally with Scotch tape), just to see the possibilities.
It was one thing to reduce the size, but another thing to realize that the way the data was presented was not the best way to present it. What was it about New York City and its subway that historically made it so difficult to map clearly and efficiently? Of course, in addition to the map designed by George Salomon that had been my father’s subway map, I studied carefully the map designed by Massimo Vignelli (see Figure 5-4), which the MTA used from 1972 until 1979, when it was replaced by the Tauranac-Hertz MTA map (which, 30 years later, still prevails).
As I conducted my research, I started to realize that New York City had its own unique set of challenges that made its subway system impossible to accurately and clearly map using just a diagrammatic method, as other cities like London, Paris, and Tokyo had done.
The narrow geography of the principal thoroughfare, Manhattan Island, which has 17 separate subway lines running up and down Midtown alone in a width of six city blocks.
The unique system of many of the subway lines running local, then express, then local again along their routes. Its formative history, with the current system evolving from three separate and competing subway systems (the IRT, BMT, and IND) that were poorly coordinated to work as a whole system. The KickMap, shown in Figure 5-5, is based on a combination of ideas I selectively borrowed from many earlier maps (some dating back to the 19th century) and my own innovations. One of the issues I have with some previous versions of the New York subway map is that I have a hard time believing that the designers ever actually rode the subway as an integral part of their lives in the city.
On the Vignelli map, this portion of the L is depicted as a straight line (see Figure 5-6[a]). Conversely, I sometimes made stylistic simplifications to the geography in order to help riders.
While I felt that it was important to show certain shapes aboveground, I also felt that it was important to leave out certain pieces of belowground information. The belowground geography is important, but it’s more vital for the users to understand which belowground lines will take them where they want to go. In 1967, the MTA moved past the tricolor theme used on the Salomon and earlier maps and began to use individual colors to illustrate individual lines. The Tauranac-Hertz (current MTA) map attempted to simplify things by collapsing multiple subway lines onto one graphic line, but this actually made understanding the subway system more complicated, as now you had to read the text next to each and every station to learn whether a specific line stopped there or not; see Figure 5-10(c). I believe that taken together, these decisions highlight the innovations that make the KickMap more useable than those that came before it. So, after creating my first comprehensive map that met my initial challenges (Figure 5-5), I decided to refine it and incorporate all of my learning.
The street grid — I wanted to present the structure of the streets without interfering with the subway info wherever I could. Beaches — I thought green spaces were important, and that New Yorkers should be able to find their way to beaches by subway rather than by car. Bridges and tunnels — One of my goals for this project was to come up with a tool that would encourage people to take the subway instead of a car. For the same humanistic reason, I included certain celebrated landmarks — the Statue of Liberty, Ellis Island, and the Brooklyn Bridge. The current MTA subway map includes some neighborhood names, but they are just dark blue words that compete with the station names and do little to describe the areas. I believe that separating functions is an important key to any useful visualization or tool.
Another benefit of the layered approach was that it allowed me to custom-tailor the map to the user interface later. Also, I do love the simple and elegant aesthetic of Beck’s Underground map, and keeping the night map’s form simple pays homage to it!
Ultimately, I do think the KickMap accomplished most of my goals: to make the subway lines and their connections as clear as possible for easier navigation, and to provide users with a clear representation of where they are once they exit a station so that the subway feels familiar and welcoming to all. All of the choices I made were aimed at trying to make the user experience as seamless and pleasant as possible. I’d be interested to know what New Yorkers think of this design, the issue of MTA rejection and how successful the mobile apps are as an indicator value.
I have been a fan of the KickMap for years and I really enjoyed and appreciate this article. One thought I have had is that as display technology improves, we should eventually be able to post system maps at the stations that reflect the appropriate services based on time-of-day, maybe with dashed lines indicating pending service changes. Alex– the Roman city of London covered only a small amount of area compared to the medieval London which was built over it and has burned down and been rebuilt at least once. Have you made an updated map to include the recent changes (removal of the V & W, change of the M route)? But the web site for KickMap doesn’t even allow for contacting the vendor to ask about availability of such. So you deliberately chose to f*ck every person who doesn’t choose to own an Apple product? The KickMap is much, much nicer, even than the current MTA map (which was recently revised). I, too, appreciated the discussion here, especially regarding the distinct differences between the NYC subway and the London Tube.
The NYC maps shown here are all basically geographically based with some changes made for clarity or simplicity. I ask because if this is not being released under a CC license in vector form it is just a resume piece and not a serious attempt to replace the current map of the subway system. Every New Yorker I know wrestles with trying to remember where the stairs are at this station or the other–should I walk to the front of the train to get out at West 4th? I think if you do update it, you should include the names of more streets than only those that run along subway lines. In Astoria, you see 31st St., but there is no indication of which way the streets run and that there are avenues that run perpendicular to them.
It is possible to deduce certain geographical conventions by looking at the other lines, but it takes some effort and deductive power. Maps such as these should not be confused with geographical maps, it is not what they are for. If people had a clear subway map and a real map to hand no one would ever get lost in New York again. Ground was broken on March 12, 1936, and service between 47th-50th Streets and West 4th Street (lower level) began December 15, 1940.

This relatively short stretch of new subway from the Manhattan Bridge to the Houston Street subway east of Broadway-Lafayette station had far-reaching implications to service throughout the system, but most directly to the IND 6th Avenue and to the BMT lines that crossed the Manhattan Bridge. When constructed, the Manhattan end of the north side tracks fed the BMT Broadway Subway via Canal Street, and the south side tracks fed the BMT Nassau Loop north of Chambers Street.
An extension northward past 47th-50th Street under 6th Avenue was also constructed, and a station situated at 57th Street to terminate some of these new services. There were grandiose plans to construct a new Queens Super-Express line for the tunnel traffic, but fiscal tightening had the tunnel instead connected into the IND Queens Boulevard Line just southwest of 36th Street in Queens. There have been some instances of construction projects related to the Queens Boulevard junction requiring shuttle operation servicing the tunnel's stations from the Broadway line, terminating at 34th St. As a result, the 63rd Street Tunnel and the 6th Avenue line is intricately interwoven with the plans for the 2nd Avenue subway. The 63rd Street tunnel junction will allow 2nd Avenue and 6th Avenue trains to head to Queens Boulevard, and Broadway trains to head north along 2nd Avenue. Behind the platform wall on each level is a second track from the Broadway line intended for future connection to the 2nd Avenue line. At Grand Street, there may or may not have been provision made for two additional tracks along the outside of Grand Street Station to serve as 2nd Avenue Subway. When this first extension, to 2nd Av and 96th street, is completed, the Q-Broadway Express will be extended from its current terminal at 57th St and 7th Av, across 63rd Street to a new transfer point with the F train at Lexington and 63rd, and thence to the new terminal. As built, the 63rd Street Tunnel consists of two levels, the upper level serving the subway lines as described above, and an as-yet-unused lower level designed for future LIRR use. Parsons-Brinkerhoff began design of the 63rd Street Connector in 1992; construction finally began in July 1994 after the Federal Transit Administration (FTA) concluded a Full Funding Grant Agreement with the MTA. The Connector's work was performed mostly outside of business hours and on weekends, over seven years, in order not to disrupt existing subway service. It created an additional weekday local train, the V, to replace the F train in the 53rd Street tunnel, and shifted the F train permanently to the 63rd Street tunnel. There is a low crossover at the eastern end of the platform which gives us a view of the trains. Provision for the extension from 47th-50th Street to 57th Street was built into the 53rd Street junctions during the original construction of those segments of the line. The Broadway and 6th Avenue subways cross in an "X" pattern following their respective streets, with the midpoint of the "X" at about 32nd Street.
At the north end there is a single mezzanine with stairs and elevators to the Broadway platforms on the west and the 6th Avenue platforms on the east. Another unusual and complex station, 14th Street on the 6th Avenue line ties together the pre-existing PATH subway (1908) and the BMT Canarsie line (1924) running crosstown on 14th Street.
Stairways from each platform lead 28 steps down to an intermediate mezzanine, then down to the Canarsie Line's island platform.
Since the fare control areas all lead directly to the upper level (8th Avenue) platforms, passengers for 6th Avenue trains walk a short distance along the upper platforms to the stairs down to the mezzanine, and thence to the lower level platforms. Rumor has it that there used to be direct exits to the street from this middle level mezzanine.
In 2012, a transfer opened to the uptown local platform, along with new stairway, escalators, and elevators.
South exit is up 18 steps, a bend in the passageway then 14 more steps and a ramp to the fare control. When it opened in 1967 only a few riders got on or off here; the modest entrances were in keeping with this light traffic. South of the station where the tracks curve onto Manhattan Bridge are the original trackways from the BMT Broadway station at Canal Street. With it’s sleek and stylish design, this FREE app by the award-winning Mapway will be just the ticket.
There may be occasions when this isn’t available due to technical reasons outside of our control. I visited the Mall one time in my life, on June 15, 2001, and I’m trying to remember what it looked like. Somehow, the planes were taken by the people riding the planes, the terrorists were detained, and life went on like normal.
I think the paragraph was made up because I could never see a Macy’s work so close to the flagship store only a few miles away. I even saw some footage on some documentary on the History Channel that clearly shows the Borders store in 5 WTC. I still vividly remember the feeling of walking down into the mall via the Vesey Street entrance.
I was in NYC visiting some of my family’s old haunts (I was born there and lived there until I was 5) in 2001 and we visited the WTC on either July 10th or 11th. I sometimes feel embarrassed that many of my strongest and fondest memories of the WTC involve trying on dresses at the Express and smelling the soaps at Crabtree & Evelyn.
It was a lovely trip especially walking around Times Square, Rockefeller Center, and looking at the swaying of the Empire State Building.
Thanks for posting these as this was my last good memory of the WTC before I went outside and saw what was happening.
The challenge is that the developers involved in the projects have to get the merchandising mix and layout right to realize the area’s full potential. Previously, the complex lacked synergy between the retail venues located at the Winter Garden and those that were positioned in side corridors, according to Robin Abrams, principal and executive vice president with The Lansco Corp., a New York City-based real estate services firm. Abrams says Westfield and the PA are already starting preliminary talks with potential retail tenants for the space. At issue is the fact that opening dates for all three complexes are still a few years away. At the same time, companies such as Walgreens are taking huge chunks of space in the area in recognition of the renaissance that’s about to take place. While retailers will still look to Fifth Avenue and Soho to open their initial locations in New York City, downtown will serve as a strong choice for third or fourth or fifth stores that will be far enough from the flagships not to cannibalize sales, he and the other brokers say.
However, Shallit added, Sports Authority does best when located near transit hubs so that commuters taking mass transportation can notice the stores and return on weekends. When the Skyview Center in Flushing, Queens, which is located near mass transit, offered free parking last summer, it attracted 2,500 visitors each week and 6,000 people on the weekends, according to Larry Rose, principal with RK Realty Advisors.
While the retail sector in New York, New Jersey and Connecticut is doing well, some attendees pointed to a bifurcation of the market, with high end retailers and discounters being the most active tenants. This year, I believe there will be more than 50 million tourists coming to the United States.
We own a building, 929 to 933 [Broadway], and we’ve watched the rents escalate $100 a foot in 6 months. The north end of the Flatiron District has really activated, which was also activated by Union Square.
There’s a lack of availability and congestion elsewhere and seemingly bargain prices, compared to other parts of the city. We’re not going to know exactly how this shakes out until the next 6 to maybe even 18 months go by.
There’s 90 million square feet of office space down there and when the World Trade Center comes online, that’s another 10 million square feet. We look at downtown, we see the activity and we know that it’s no longer just a daytime place. Once all the construction settles down, the dust goes away and the two transportation centers come online, you will have a wonderful underground concourse. Stephen [Stephanou] and I were talking when we first walked in about the luxury part of the world here in New York City.
Like Chris mentioned, we’re seeing a lot more international investors saying, ‘Where do we need to focus in New York?’ Across the board, the interest level has been very high in transit-oriented markets. Harry Beck’s map of the London Underground makes a complex system appear simple and elegant. I went anywhere and everywhere with ease and got the most that I could out of that great city.
I realized that this map was in many ways a barrier to using our great subway system — the opposite of the Tube map, whose simplicity was a key to understanding and using the Underground.
As we waited for the train, he confided to me that New York’s subway intimidated him. I had my own design agency and my own staff, each of us with our own computer loaded with a copy of the greatest and most elegant graphic design tool available. Since the New York City subway system has about twice as many stations as London’s, I decided to give myself twice as much space as the Tube map takes. I studied subway maps, New York City street maps, and transit maps from all over the world that I had collected on my travels. Because New York City’s subway generally follows its gridded street routes, there is a strong psychological link between the subway and the aboveground topography that is not found in a medieval city like London.
I believe that this unique combination makes my map easier to use than most of the preceding efforts.
This makes the aboveground geography not only an intuitive starting point, but also an integral part of the user’s experience.
There’s a disconnect between many of the decisions they made and the reality of the subway. The Hertz map (Figure 5-6[c]) shows both Metropolitan and Bushwick Avenues, but the line resembles nothing so much as a wet noodle as it half-heartedly depicts the route. A portion of the L line in Brooklyn as depicted by (a) the Vignelli map, (b) the KickMap, and (c) the Tauranac-Hertz map. For example, Queens Boulevard, a major thoroughfare in Queens, was originally five different farm roads, and as a result it jigs and jogs a bit as it makes its way from the Queensboro Bridge east across the borough. The trade-off along Queens Boulevard as depicted by (a) the Vignelli map, (b) the KickMap, and (c) the current MTA map. A would-be rider walking along in Midtown or Murray Hill needs to know which street to go to for a subway entrance. There are several places where the subway tunnels cross and overlap each other beneath the surface. I tried to reduce that noise by cleanly separating the lines on the map so they don’t overlap. I reused the spectral colors on the trunk lines, highlighting an elegance and reality inherent in the system that Tauranac-Hertz understood, but kept it clear by representing each route with its own graphic line. The crucial idea here was that the map should be quickly scannable, rather than just readable. I highlighted these locations by placing a small red square next to the station name, indicating to riders who need to turn around which stations to avoid if they don’t want to have to leave the station, cross the street, and re-enter the station on the opposite side.
I did the same thing with my map: I created a version (shown in Figure 5-11) into which I put every feature that I might possibly want. My version of a test mule for the map: I put lots of information in and then edited it down. You’ll notice that the mule map includes a lot more streets and street names than the final design. My mule map included municipal swimming pools as well, but ultimately I decided to remove them. For this reason, I decided to leave out all the car bridges and tunnels (except for the iconic Brooklyn Bridge). This is an important aspect of New York: it is a city made up of neighborhoods, and native New Yorkers think of the city in those terms. This allowed me to turn the neighborhoods on and off to determine what really needed to be there and to make several variations of the subway map with and without them. The big maps that hang in the stations, for instance, should show you the neighborhoods, but the one in the subway car that riders reference to make quick decisions, like whether to get off at the next station, need not. Clearly I’m striking a chord, as over 250,000 people (and counting) have now downloaded copies of the KickMap from iTunes. I wanted to put the Empire State Building in there, but it would have cluttered up Midtown, and my goal all along was that it really had to be a simple and functional subway map! Modern London is hugely larger than than either, with the the tube extending to its fringes. Can’t imagine the MTA powers-that-be would be willing even to consider such a radical change, but 1s and 3s and Ns and Rs do nothing to help identify where the lines actually GO to someone unfamiliar with the system. I agree with most of the tradeoffs you made, and absolutely love the neighborhoods (the real reason I bought it). I often use the current map while riding the subway to orient myself and find things other than trains and stations. I think it is very difficult to say with any degree of certainty about the success or failure of a map – either London or New York – as they are more often than not confused in the users mind which doesn’t help the eye. Based on the same logic as schematic maps used by electricians they are about giving the necessary information only, and are not supposed to be about place’, but about connections. The hybrid subway maps are still far too big – and not geographically accurate enough for a lot of people. This track map will illustrate the Manhattan Bridge connections prior to the Chrystie Street work. Connections were also made allowing trains from Brooklyn on the Williamsburg bridge to access the 6th Avenue subway, providing a lot more potential for service to midtown.
The connection between the 63rd Street Tunnel and the IND Queens Boulevard subway line was completed in 2001.
When the upper 2nd Avenue line is completed, its initial operation will involve an extension of a service from the Broadway line. The lower level was built with bellmouths at either end (and in fact the Queens bellmouths were extended a short distance as part of the Queens Boulevard subway junction construction). The MTA spent a grand total of $645 million on the project, with the FTA's Section 5309 New Start program supplying $306.1 million and the MTA the remainder.
The F now operates as an express between 21 Street-Queensbridge and Roosevelt Boulevard stations, but can be easily diverted to the local track if needed.
Between the tracks there is a low curtain wall between the two tracks with alternating niches for transit workers. The 63rd Street cross-river tunnel was in the planning stages and construction on it would begin in the 1970s. The north end of the downtown platform ramps up, and is at a higher elevation than the uptown platform. The 6th Avenue line, built later, passes underneath the Broadway line and the elevation of the tracks shows it; the 6th Avenue line tracks dip way down in the middle of its station, with the ends higher. At the south end, the 6th Avenue and Broadway mezzanines are connected inside the fare-paid area by stairs. The renovations have improved all aspects of the station, although little of the original IND or BMT decor was kept. First, the local tracks were weaved through the complex in between the PATH and BMT in the late 1930s; then the express tracks were built later, in the 1960s. For a station this large it actually has relatively few and small exits to the street; this station was meant as a mass transfer point between the two trunk lines. The center tracks at Broadway-Lafayette were connected to the two tracks of the Chrystie Street Connection coming north from the Grand Street Station and the Manhattan Bridge. There is an extra exit being planned to the street, no details available but a contract has been issued. Also, it said that the mall was to receive a 200,000 square foot expansion, which is legitimate but a Macy’s and Target combined would add up to more than 200,000 square feet.
In fact, it seems so recent in my memory that I sometimes think I could still walk there now if I wanted to. I bought a doll at the Warner Brothers store for my collection and for whatever reason never took it out of the box.
What I wouldn’t give to have one more mindless wander through those seemingly non-descript marble halls! He was working for Westfield, and at the time one of the projects that fell within his region was Westfield’s redevelopment of the WTC mall. Plus, even though the World Trade Center site comes with a great reputation for retail sales, the fact that the new space will be configured differently makes them wonder if the new configuration will work as well as the old one, Abrams says.
They expect to see tenants along the lines of H&M and Zara and Apple at the new World Trade Center mall. Adaptive reuse has proven successful for Burlington Coat Factory, but has also presented several challenges, including the presence of wide old-fashioned and unmovable columns in old buildings prohibiting traditional racetracks.
One market that’s really picked up in the last 12 months is the Flatiron district, which a year ago had six prominent vacancies. People are more interested in hearing about how the sales volumes are equated to the enormous rents they need to pay here.
You have a whole lot of new area opening up, as opposed to Hudson Yards which people are still looking at with binoculars. What happens is shoppers like to shop in lines — retailers like to feed off each other and there are very few pockets.
The connectivity between Westfield and World Financial Center will help create that critical mass of complementary retail between those projects. One of the major reasons that New York is so powerful is the fact that you do have all of the luxury that tenants want and need to be here.
Someone who is an affluent customer with endless disposable income may have zero off of their balance sheet, but it’s still more money than most people can even begin to fathom and more money than they even can spend. A lot of capital on the sidelines is eagerly looking for core, grade A properties in core markets and we’re seeing that throughout the suburbs surrounding New York City. The KickMap is the result of my quest to design a more effective subway map, and ultimately to encourage increased ridership. There’s no numbered grid to provide a frame of reference (like in New York), and moving through the city can be a disorienting experience. The Tube map imparted information so quickly and clearly that it became an indispensable tool and an integral part of my experience. The amount of discipline and mechanical time it would have required for anyone but an experienced draftsman to undertake such an endeavor was unthinkable in that precomputer era. I was surprised: the crime and grime of the 1970s-1990s were virtually gone from the system, and I was proud of our shiny new air-conditioned cars and clean stations.
I realized that now, just one person using a graphic design program like Adobe Illustrator had the power to create his own subway map! I filtered through all the design approaches and eclectically took as much as I could from ideas that had already been implemented (some brilliantly).
There were also some smart aspects of the current MTA map that I wanted to keep, despite finding it on the whole unwieldy because there is so much information crammed onto it.
In the following sections, I’ll discuss my inspirations and innovations in more detail. As part of my design process, I rode the lines and exited the stations at every major intersection with which I was unfamiliar. But when you get out at the Graham Avenue station, for instance, it’s obvious that Metropolitan Avenue and Bushwick Avenue are two major thoroughfares that intersect each other at a right angle.
I chose to carefully draw a stylized but accurate line describing the path as it runs along each major avenue there, believing this to be the best approach because it is the most helpful to riders (Figure 5-6[b]). Recent maps didn’t capture its relationship to the subway because they either ignored it entirely (as in the Vignelli map, shown in Figure 5-7[a]) or obscured it (as in the current MTA map, shown in Figure 5-7[c]).
The Vignelli map obscures the shift by treating it as a straight line, relying on text to convey the road switch, and once again the current MTA map is at best vague and noodley.
It essentially had 26 lines assigned 26 random colors, which didn’t really tell the user anything beyond illustrating the continuity of a given route.

At each station where a line stops, I placed the name of that line inside a dot: this way, users can easily see exactly which trains stop at which stations without having to read a list of lines next to each station name.
But I also wanted to make something any map geek or lover of New York City (like me!) could appreciate. Stylization is fine, but my goal was to take the stylization and make it work so that riders can always understand what’s going on aboveground. I wanted to keep the experience of navigating the subway as clean and easy as possible, without the temptation of using a car, to encourage users to keep riding.
Years later, when I was doing research for the creation of the KickMap, I got to appreciate the beauty of the design of this map. So your point is what, that you know medieval London had completely different roads than Roman Londinium, that modern London is like Medieval London?
True that anything visual that is this high-profile is sure to attract too many cooks into the kitchen. Have you ever heard of an electrician wiring up the wrong socket or junction box in the wrong room because his diagram didn’t give him a sense of where he was? It takes 10 mins to go to Google maps and print out a small extract that serves this purpose. The four-track subway along Houston Street from West Fourth Street to 2nd Avenue, and the two tracks further to East Broadway, was completed earlier, with shuttle service from West 4th Street beginning in January 1936. It was apparent, due to the rising importance of the midtown parts of Manhattan, that the bridge's south side, feeding toward downtown Manhattan, was being underutilized. A new station was built along Chrystie Street at Grand Street, which opened November 28, 1967.
Service changes after the September 11, 2001 destruction of the World Trade Center delayed the opening, and service subsequently began on December 16, 2001, resulting in the service patterns operating now. Phase 2 of the subway project will extend the Broadway-2nd Av service again to a transfer point with the Lexington Av IRT at 125 Street. In the spring of 2006, MTA awarded a contract to extend the LIRR tunnel under Northern Blvd.
The G train was truncated to a new terminal at Court Square; in effect, the G represented passenger carrying capacity to Brooklyn which was redirected to Manhattan.
There is a lot of space along the sides of the tracks in certain places, and at the Manhattan side, the turnouts for The Second Avenue Subway connection are clearly visible. The tracks north of the station run on three levels to form the flying junction at 53rd Street connecting the IND Queens Boulevard line into the 6th and 8th Avenue trunks. Originally, a transferring passenger picked up a paper transfer when leaving the one station, then walked across the street, entered the other station, and dropped the ticket into a collection box. The mezzanines are also connected outside the fare-paid area as well, and it is this area that provides access to the PATH station.
Again, the provision exists on the express level to add platforms if the need arises, but adding in the access to these platforms is going to be a serious engineering project! The first service on the lower level was a shuttle along Houston Street to 2nd Avenue, starting January, 1936, with through service along the 6th Avenue local tracks starting December 1940. The north exit leads to Madison Street and also has a ramp to East Broadway (outside the paid area). The center of the station features round columns with the tile border and white matte finish brick. Today there are portions of the day when the platform is filled end to end with people pressed against the wall and toeing the platform edge. Westfield would probably have added an anchor or something, maybe like Filene’s Basement.
In the distance, you could see the lower Manhattan skyline, the towers standing out in the haze. I got my first junior high school prom dress at Express and applied for my first summer job at the Body Shop (I, perhaps fortunately as I applied over the summer of 2001, did not get it).
It would have been a pleasurable experience for me to visit the Top of the World and the Mall. The company had recently leased the site for a period of 99 years in conjunction with Silverstein Properties. With the completion of the Fulton Street Transit Center in 2014 and the World Trade Center Transportation Station in 2015, average rents downtown might reach $400 per sq. The Metropolitan Transit Authority (MTA) is reportedly searching for a private property manager to handle retail leasing for the complex.
And those stores will also have the potential to become the highest producing stores in their chains.
He noted that he often finds an “intrinsic tension” between a community’s desire for parking and the operator’s ideas. In addition, sometimes the retailer has had to fight for or give up street presence when it’s located on the second level of a facility, Shanahan added.
One recent urban integration of a Shop Rite store in White Plains, NY involved installing equipment in a second-level location which necessitated the use of a crane, the taking out of windows, and getting permits to close down the street, Bachman noted. Even though the Euro is not nearly as strong as it has been, the exchange rate is stable enough that many international tourists and European tourists look upon New York as an exciting place to visit. In New York, in our opportunity fund business, we have a rather large urban development platform, the largest project of which is in downtown Brooklyn called City Point, which is currently under construction. The climate for high streets is incredible right now for retail, especially because space is very tight. While they’re here, they happen to buy everything they see because the dollar is weak against their currencies. Conde Nast is moving its headquarters downtown [Editor’s note: Conde Nast has signed a 1 million-square-foot lease to anchor the office component of the new 1 World Trade Center building when it opens in 2014, bringing an estimated 5,000 employees with the company].
What’s interesting is that before that it was sort of Tribeca and those areas were more of an adult community versus family-oriented.
In the last 18 months, we’ve entered Manhattan, and this comes from meeting with the retailers. I saw a gray New York with red, green, and black lines running all over it like a grid (see Figure 5-1), and hundreds of station names attached (1).
That map (which of course is the acclaimed Beck map seen in Figure 5-2) was brilliantly friendly: simple, bright, functionally colorful, designed to help users easily understand connections between lines, and physically tiny.
The genius of the Beck map is that it makes order out of this random complexity, with the River Thames as the only visual (and geographic) point of reference to the aboveground world. If I needed the map’s information to get to a new location, I would tear out the relevant six-inch square portion from a free map in the station and throw the rest of it in the trash! But in our conversation on the way downtown, I realized that his fear lay in not being able to decipher the complexity of the system: all the lines and connections. In addition, I borrowed liberally from other past efforts that had been discarded or forgotten.
This is why the numerous geographical errors that appear in New York City subway maps (like the Vignelli map infamously placing the 50th Street and Broadway stop west of 8th Avenue instead of east) are so glaring and easy to spot. My stylized approach uses logic to better convey the subway’s relationship to the streets of Queens, which is not clearly apparent on either the Vignelli map or the current MTA map. These colors are memorable and help riders discern which lines will take them in the general direction they want to go. I also decided to consistently place station names on the horizontal for easier reading, like on the London Tube map, instead of cramming them in at arbitrary angles. Instead of relying on a text-heavy, hard-to-read chart at the bottom of a one-size-fits-all map to determine when a certain route is available, a night map should be available to riders (not only on their iPhones, but also in the subway cars).
I want people to be comfortable and even happy when using our unbeatable 24-hour subway system. I have never had any problem reading our current subway map, and with the addition of line maps on nearly every train now, even tourists seem pretty comfortable.
Your use of similar hues for the trunk lines is what I think adds the most to the readability of your map vs.
The Rutgers Street tunnel and the York Street station on the Brooklyn side opened April 9, 1936. To compensate G riders for this loss of direct Queens-Brooklyn service, a free MetroCard transfer was created between the 7, G and the E and V trains at 23rd-Ely Av station, and a moving sidewalk was installed; to mitigate the impact on F riders who normally used the 53rd-Lexington station's free interchange, another free MetroCard transfer was created between the IND 63rd-Lexington Av station and the IRT 59th-Lexington Av station. The station building is a large glass-enclosed space, giving us a view of the island and the tram which is to the south of the subway station. Behind the platform wall on each level is a second track intended for future connection to the proposed Second Ave.
The south third of the mezzanine features high exit turnstiles and has some chained shut slam gate exits. To accommodate the track arrangement in the junction, the southbound platform has the positions of the "express" and "local" tracks reversed. This system, similar to the one at the BMT Franklin Avenue and IND Fulton Street transfer, was routinely abused. There was an exit to street level at 37th St., but no traces exist at street level of this exit. Underneath all of this at a much lower level are the Long Island Rail Road tunnels from Queens to Pennsylvania Station. A long passageway from one end of the complex to another connects the PATH mezzanine at the south with the "shared" mezzanine at the north. The 6th Avenue station received new "34" monogram tablets installed along the trackside walls (these are not mosaics).
Provision was left for the addition of side platforms along the express tracks if the need someday arises. There are numerous buildings with sides ripped out and bare; many have been cosmetically redone over the ages. The track in between the uptown local and express, now used by the connection from the Williamsburg Bridge was original construction, formerly used as a layup track.
I hope they will build the Twin Towers in Jersey City, Brooklyn, Chicago, or somewhere, just bring those two All-American icons back!
That number will likely increase as the World Trade Center Memorial Museum opens next year, says Gene Spiegelman, director in the retail services division of brokerage firm Cushman & Wakefield.
Most people would say that currently we’ve had three fashion [areas] — Madison Avenue, Soho and The Meatpacking District.
You’re seeing a street that seemed to be going the wrong way completely — it was actually the poster child for what was wrong in New York City — it’s now one of the hottest markets and you can’t find space for the right size. That is why you see side streets in Soho performing so well and why we see Fifth Avenue now extending down to 42nd Street. We’ve talked about the tourism, that’s a huge ingredient between The World Trade Memorial Center opening up. What has happened now — and part of it has been driven by some good public schools that have been put there — is many young families living there now.
It’s not like everyone is saying, ‘I’ve got to get there right now.’ But you’re seeing that people are recognizing that there is great demand. A lot of people are waiting to see about these projects and they’re holding off on committing to downtown until they know if they’re going to have a place in one of these developments. Then, you have the person who is either part of the 9.1 percent unemployment rate or they are underemployed.
Now we have grocery-anchored, necessity-based retailers and we are meeting with the grocery stores, Walmart, TJ Maxx, and Kohl’s; they all want to be in Manhattan. Folded, it fit easily into my pocket, to be whipped out at a second’s notice for immediate reference (which I did often!). I often saw tourists struggling with the physical map and felt bad for them, remembering my great experience as a student in London.
I entered all the station names and lines into an Illustrator document, and in two months, voilá! If you didn’t know how the streets intersected and you just saw a sign for one or the other as you came out of the subway, it would be very difficult to figure out what was going on.
Still, I feel that when developing good cross-platform apps becomes easier this won’t be such an issue.
Dragados is procuring four TBM drives for this purpose The Grand Central Terminal portion would be new track construction on the lower level of the terminal, and would not tie in to the existing Metro-North trackage (incompatibility of third-rail types will probably prevent this for the foreseeable future). Future plans call for additional physical improvements to the stations in the Court Square area, to improve passenger comfort and provide ADA access.
Roosevelt Island station is very "Parisien" (a side-platform station with no center columns) and is similar to some of the deep tunnel IRT stations on the West Side. One could easily leave the one station, spend the day in midtown Manhattan, and reenter by the other station on the same one fare.
As the PATH predates the subway by about 32 years, its tracks are closer to the surface of 6th Avenue, with the subway tracks underneath. This slicing through of the IND subway (and of the IRT West Side line as well) helped contribute to the triangular blocks so famous to the Village. South of this station the line divides into two branches to Brooklyn: via tunnel to the IND lines and via bridge to the BMT lines.
Presently the stumps of the express tracks at 2nd Avenue are tied to the local tracks and has a crossover just west of 2nd Avenue. There is a closed center exit which is very narrow and a long closed extreme southern exit. However, all day she complained about forgetting the camera back in the Poconos and not able to take pictures of NYC. There will be clusters of retail around each building in the new World Trade Center complex that will be connected by pedestrian passageways on the concourse level.
The interior of Soho has also been shockingly strong in the last 6 months, like Greene and Mercer Streets. You asked the question, ‘what makes New York unique?’ Well, it’s the density, the income levels and the nature of the economic base. Their costs are high and the sales do not justify, in many areas, the cost of being in New York.
Or they are just nervous, such as a 50-year-old who’s not quite sure how their money is going to sustain itself. But we also did not experience the overbuilding that you have in some markets like Florida, Arizona and parts of California. Ultimately, that benefits not only the system itself, but also all of us who live, work, visit, and breathe here. People get some aspects of a working map right, but it’s hard to create an elegant solution.
I would like a well-designed NYC Subway map app on my phone even if it’s not an iPhone. The LIRR service would provide relief to the Queens Boulevard and Flushing lines for passengers traveling from eastern Queens to Grand Central. The 63rd Street tunnel also provides MTA with additional flexibility in the event of either scheduled or unscheduled closure of either the 60th Street or 53rd Street tunnels.
The south mezzanine (to First Ave.) has an intermediate level, with the fare control 8 steps up from this level, and is open full time.
This makes 2nd Avenue into a terminal station for short runs and it is planned that one route from the upper section of the The Second Avenue Subway line would end here.
He told us he was helping the firefighters and Port Authority Police coordinate the evacuation efforts of the buildings and that he was going to leave soon. We are seeing that the area of Soho from the south around Grant Street has really improved. The barriers to entry couldn’t be higher and population growth in certain selected areas is still occurring. There has not been the pool of retail properties in an assemblage to drive a lot of new retailers [to the area]. That person may become more of a shopper at Target, Kohl’s and TJ Maxx, and the value that started getting Flatiron going to begin with.
I folded it and easily put it in my wallet, and I carried it around and showed it to all my friends.
The Kickmap makes a compelling case for itself as a well-designed and well-thought-out map.
From the upper level platform there are three long escalators and intermediate levels before we reach the fare control. Thus it can be said that the southbound side of the station has the traditional placement of local and express tracks reversed. With the tunnel so lightly trafficked and with no transit crew nearby, there was no expectation of help. We were told by his fellow Westfield employees that he was last seen going up the stairs to the 17th floor where their office was located to grab portable radios to give to the Port Authority and to make sure their office space was cleared.
A lot of [tenants] get priced out of other areas and you have the traffic and you have a young crowd. The foot traffic is still not there but rents have doubled in the last 6 to 9 months and that’s not even talking about Broadway, which is incredibly hot, and central Spring [Street].
There are people that can spend a lot of money.’ It’s sort of like getting people to understand Times Square 10 years ago.
In suburban areas that were never given much hope, we see vacancy rates coming down and urban retailers are doing pretty well in those areas also. They liked its size, but of course nobody wanted to actually use it, because it still had many of the major design issues that made the MTA map difficult to use.
They would have continued to and under the East River as part of the IND Second System lines. In addition, Brookfield will create a glass pavilion that will link West Street to the upcoming transportation hubs via underground pedestrian passageways. Those streets that were never really considered $150 to $200 streets are now coming up, which to me is really incredible.
If you are a retailer offshore or outside of New York and you need to grow your number of stores or grow your revenue, first you’d go to Hong Kong and second, you would go to New York.
At the south end of the fare control are two very long escalators to the lowest intermediate level. Before the mid 1980s they were open and used for laying up trains from time to time, but they were quickly inundated by squatters who domiciled in the nooks and crannies of the tunnel. But there are huge opportunities and you have basically the three central retail venues that are underway. You can count on one hand or less the number of new shopping centers being built in northern and central New Jersey, where you probably have a population of 6 million people. Evidence of the provision for the Second Avenue Subway is found in a lower transverse ceiling across the platforms and the discontiguous mezzanines. Besides the World Financial Center, Brookfield’s modification and expansion of its retail venue and then a rescripting of South Street Seaport that Howard Hughes now has from GGP. You may have a Jack Wills that starts off outside of New York, but for the most part, retailers coming from offshore are using New York as their testing grounds. There’s going to be a point in time, and it’s coming soon, where retailers will run out of room.
After the Borders vacancies are absorbed — the Linens ‘N Things are gone — we’re watching the absorption of all those mid-size boxes. It’s happening quickly and once we’re out of that space I think we’ll begin to build new shopping centers.

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