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During the first few months of their lives, foals are highly susceptible to bacterial infections and toxins because of their immature immune system. Last summer, I was part of a research group at the Western College of Veterinary Medicine (WCVM) that’s working to gain a better understanding of why young foals often die of respiratory distress and lung failure. The two conditions cause fluid and white blood cells to accumulate in the lungs and reduce their function.
In horses, studies have found that ALI and ARDS can result from direct injury of the lung tissue — such as pneumonia or aspiration — or from indirect injury such as sepsis or trauma. Although ALI and ARDS have been recognized in veterinary medicine, little research has been done to describe the type of inflammation that occurs and the changes that take place in the lungs of septic foals. Although ALI and ARDS have been studied and defined in human medicine, these definitions cannot be strictly applied to all species, including horses. One theory is that the differences in immune response in horses may prevent the extreme lung damage that occurs in humans, adds Anderson.
My contribution to the project is to examine lung samples from 19 septic foals and six healthy foals between one day and 60 days of age. By staining these tissue samples, we can visualize the physical changes in the lungs as well as factors contributing to the inflammatory process. The paranasal sinuses are tissue-lined cavities in the skull, located behind the nose and eyes. Most diseases of the paranasal sinuses cause pus-containing or bloody discharge from one nostril.

Using an endoscope, the veterinarian can observe pus-containing material, a mass, or blood in the nasal passage originating from higher up in the head. Primary sinusitis, or inflammation of the sinuses, occurs after an upper respiratory tract infection that has involved the paranasal sinuses. One example would be a lack adequate maternal antibody transfer from the dam’s colostrum — resulting in an immuno-compromised foal that’s susceptible to bacterial infection. Stacy Anderson, an equine veterinarian and surgeon who is working on her PhD program at the WCVM. I analyze the stained tissue sections and grade them to determine the degree and characteristics of inflammation seen in the lungs of affected compared to unaffected foals.
They are divided into a number of different compartments that are interconnected to the nasal passages and to each other in various ways.
Swelling on one side of the face, excessive tears from one eye, and noise when the horse inhales are common signs of disorders of the sinuses. They are typically found in horses less than 1 year old, but can also be seen in those greater than 9 years old.
Other examples include bacterial inhalation, ingestion or access through the umbilical cord which can spread to the lungs. With sedation and local anesthesia, the veterinarian can obtain a sample from the sinus of a standing horse.
Baljit Singh, a professor in the WCVM’s Department of Veterinary Biomedical Sciences and the college’s associate dean of research.

Fluid can be sampled from the maxillary or frontal sinuses for bacterial culture, drug sensitivity testing, and microscopic examination.
An expanding hematoma can cause damage to the surrounding bone but rarely causes facial distortion.
The first molar, fourth premolar, and third premolar (from more to less likely) are the most likely to develop tooth root abscesses. Signs of secondary sinusitis closely resemble those of primary sinusitis, including 1-sided nasal discharge and facial deformity.
Horses with extensive masses may have reduced airflow through the affected nasal passage and bad breath. Treatment of primary sinusitis involves rinsing (lavage) of the sinus cavity and antibiotic therapy based the results of bacterial culture and drug sensitivity testing. In most instances, the veterinarian can see the lesion extending into the nasal passages on endoscopic examination, and the extent of the mass can be determined with x-rays.

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08.02.2016, author: admin

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