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Massive science communication projects should be based on strong and relevant science cases.
Pedro used astronomy as a case study to consider the effect and impact of transnational collaborations with innovative approaches and centralised coordination in science education and public outreach.
The establishment of a centralised coordination body is essential to design, implement, manage and evaluate massive science communication projects (MSCP’s) as well as coordinate volunteers. This centralised coordination body should establish a framework that can be standardised globally to gain economies of scale and scope, but should also be localised to meet local requirements and needs.
Experts in the evaluation of science communication programmes should be included in the global coordination team from the start and provide input to the MSCPs. Crowdfunding campaigns should aim to build awareness among the public, as well as to raise funds.
An additional aspect of the astronomy as a case study project, Universe Awareness, has been the development of a robust framework for the relevant educational resources that incorporates peer review of both scientific accuracy and educational quality. Leiden Physicists have developed a new technique to visualize electrical conductance in sheet-like nano materials. The fascinating properties of graphene—a single layer of carbon atoms—have been widely celebrated. First authors Jaap Kautz and Johannes Jobst design their materials layer by layer, enabling them to programme new properties and explore new physics. LEEP is based on LEEM (low-energy electron microscopy)—a microscopy technique that uses ‘slow’ electrons to probe a surface very accurately.
In fact, the reflectivity turns out to be so sensitive that local potential (voltage) variations can be detected.
The Leiden team has now demonstrated this promising new technique on arguably the simplest Van der Waals material possible.
Jaap Kautz and Johannes Jobst were awarded the 2015 NeVac prize, from the Dutch Vacuum Society, for their research. Using LEEP, the Leiden physicists measure the local conductivity of a sample by looking how waves of changing contrast move through the field of view. Materials that are built up from individual granules exhibit a special phenomenon called ‘jamming’.
Rigid region decomposition, where there are two rigid regions, one (black bonds) overconstrained and the other iso-static (red bonds), separated by a hinge (light green site). In order to simulate a system of little balls, they tied a thousand movable points together with springs. Using this network, the researchers observed three different situations, with a jammed system and a chaotic system at the two extremes. Pebble game results for a jammed packing (top row), a stress-relieved triangular network (middle row) and rigidity percolation (bottom row). These results are generated by an algorithm, but after years of research into jamming, applications can now be envisioned. In the first week of April a delegation from the Faculty of Science of Leiden University visited four universities and the Bogor botanical garden in Indonesia. They visited the Universitas Indonesia in Jakarta, the Institut Teknologi Bandung and Universitas Padjadjaran in Bandung, and also the Bogor Agricultural University and the Bogor Botanical Gardens of the Indonesian Institute of Science. The dean of the Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences of the Universitas Indonesia, Prof.
The delegation travelled to Bandung, about 3 hours driving away from Jakarta, to visit the Institut Teknologi Bandung (ITB) and the Universitas Padjadjaran. The delegation discussed the possibilities of cooperation in the area of research with zebrafish with the dean of the School of Life Sciences and Technology, Prof. The goal of meeting with the Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences was also to identify areas of possible cooperation, and research to support the fight against tuberculosis was identified as one such area.
The delegation also visited the Astronomy Research Division and the Bosscha Observatory, which has a strong historical link with Leiden. In Bogor, the delegation visited the Institut Pertanian Bogor (Bogor Agricultural University), which is the leading university in Indonesia in the field of agriculture. Bogor’s ambitions include attracting international students and publishing articles with international counterparts. As with the Bosscha Observatory, Leiden has a longstanding connection with the Botanical Garden on Bogor. The Leiden Faculty of Science has longstanding cooperation with the Universitas Padjadjaran (UNPAD) in the field of Ethnoscience, research in “jamu” (traditional herbal medicine) and Indigeneous Knowledge Systems.
Administering vaccines with microneedles could become a pain-free alternative to conventional thick injection needles. For about ten years now it has been possible to introduce vaccines into the skin using microneedles, but the methods for doing that are not yet efficient enough. Van der Maaden has received a patent for this approach: microneedles with an acidity-dependent electrical charge. In his research, Van der Maaden took microneedles with a vaccine on their surface as his starting point. Frogs can be located using their croaking and the ripples on the surface of the water caused by their movements.
The sounds were played at various distances, and with half of the tests the researchers simultaneously produced ripples in the water. Leiden experimental physicist Dirk Bouwmeester is responsible for a number of significant breakthroughs in quantum mechanics. Dirk Bouwmeester was in the US when he heard that he had been awarded the Spinoza Prize: ‘I was really amazed.
The European Gaia satellite will be launched into space on 19 December, from a launch base in French Guiana, to make an extremely detailed map of the Milky Way. Gaia – an acronym for Global Astrometric Interferometer for Astrophysics and the name for Mother Earth in Greek mythology – will spend the next five years ‘examining’ one billion stars.
Astronomers expect that the data Gaia sends back to Earth will uncover countless new celestial objects.
Processing the data is going to be a huge job, because unlike for example the Hubble space telescope, Gaia does not produce data that can be directly applied to scientific research.
Leiden astronomer Anthony Brown is head of this Gaia Data Processing and Analysis Consortium (DPAC).
On Wednesday 4 September, Queen Maxima opened the renovated tropical greenhouse complex of the Leiden Hortus Botanicus, an event that attracted wide public interest. Paul Ke?ler, the prefect of the Hortus, told the Queen about the scientific research carried out in the new greenhouse, where two PhD candidates and a number of students are currently working.
In his welcome speech, Rector Magnificus Carel Stolker commented that the Hortus is now better equipped for scientific research and there is also more room for the scientific collections. The Leiden Hortus, which has been part of Leiden University since 1590, is the oldest botanical garden in the Netherlands. Sustainable and energy-efficient solutions were used in the course of the renovations, including fitting insulated glazing and adding an enclosed porch.
They should engage with a large number of stakeholders, not only in research, academia, policy, funding and governance but also in less traditional communities, such as the arts field.

His study is based on eight years of designing, implementing and evaluating transnational collaborative programmes in astronomy education and public outreach, from the perspective of the practitioner.
Planning, including evaluation, should start as soon as the concept for the MSCP is developed. The principles described above can usefully be extended from astronomy to other scientific disciplines. It shows great promise for devices based on a new family of materials—the ‘Van der Waals materials’. Not only does graphene exhibit remarkable physics, it also shows great promise for new applications, like flexible display screens and solar cells. There is a large interest in using such materials for charge transport research and electronic applications.
The reflection probability of these electrons depends strongly on the exact energy with which they hit a surface. This is because an incoming electron’s energy depends precisely on the potential at a particular spot. Kautz and Jobst applied it to electrically contacted stacks of graphene layers (1-3 layers).
With research into the nature of this phenomenon, a team of scientists led by Leiden physicist Prof.
If the density of the granules is high enough, they resist pressure as if together they formed a solid substance. If enough springs (black lines in the illustration) pull on a juncture (black ball), it stays rigidly immobile and forms a rigid, solid cluster together with its neighbours. A situation comes about in which every individual spring is needed to maintain the rigidity of the whole system (middle picture).
The visit was quite successful and led to tangible agreements with all universities on the exchange of students and staff, as well as on collaboration in research.
At the ITB, the delegation met with representatives of the Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences and the School of Life Sciences and Technology.
The Leiden delegation pledged to discuss with the Lorentz Center for Workshops in the Sciences to devote a workshop to TBC, with participation from both faculties. The delegation promised that the Leiden faculty will look into the available historical data concerning the establishment of the Bosscha Observatory in 1923. The Leiden Faculty and Bogor will both investigate how cooperation could further materialize in the near future. The Leiden Botanical Garden celebrates its 425 year anniversary this year, and on the scientific symposium organized on 17 and 18 april 2015 in honor of this anniversary, Dr.
This cooperation is shaped in Leiden by LEAD, the Leiden Ethnosystems and Development Program.
Although there’s a long way to go before it can be used on humans, the method has good prospects. To give the needles an acidity-dependent electrical charge, Van der Maaden first dips them in an aggressive ‘piranha mixture’ of sulphuric acid and hydrogen peroxide.
The audio signal reaches other frogs almost immediately, but the speed at which a wave in a pool of water travels is some 1000 times slower than the sound wave.
For the first experiment they placed a male frog in a container with water and confronted him with the sounds of a rival. Halfwerk: ‘We saw that frogs had the strongest reactions to rivals who were nearby, at a distance of about 15 centimetres, and the weakest reactions to rivals at a distance of 60 centimetres. In this experiment the researchers again played a sound and produced rippling in the water at 15 cm away, but they manipulated the signals in such a way that to the frog it would seem as though his rival were 60 cm away. His European research group is also working on a new DNA detection technique and hopes to drastically improve fusion reactors. I am incredibly grateful to everyone who supported my nomination.’ Bouwmeester divides his time between Leiden University and the University of California in Santa Barbara. In short, this group is developing a kind of DNA patch to cover the patient’s faulty DNA, and optical labels may help to really customise this treatment. This field is dominated by incredibly large-scale projects, such as the European fusion reactor ITER.
Leiden astronomer Anthony Brown is leading the consortium that will be processing the flood of measurement data. The space probe will measure the distance between these stars, and their position, using highly sensitive devices.
They also hope to find answers to pressing questions such as: What are the origins of the Milky Way?
A pan-European collaboration team will be translating these raw measurements into workable information on matters such as movement, temperature, chemical composition and the age of the stars. The consortium consists of more than 400 researchers and software developers from 24 European countries.
Thanks to this renovation, the greenhouses are even better equipped for scientific research. A Leiden chemist spoke to the Queen about her research into orchids and fruit flies and the environmentally-friendly pesticides she is developing. But the role of the Hortus extends far beyond that of a laboratory for the university, the Rector said.
There she met Hortus staff member Theo Teske, wearing high wading boots and standing in the middle of the pond where he sang an aria by the Italian composer Bellini. It is one of the few academic gardens where scientific research is carried out to this day and where new plants are still being cultivated. The greenhouse complex houses interior elements with a high monumental value, such as tile floors and slate stairs. The physicists, who won the 2015 Dutch Vacuum Society prize for their work, present this step forward in the latest issue of Nature’s Scientific Reports.
For that, it is important to understand what determines (or limits) the current flow in Van der Waals materials. This is due to a quantum mechanical effect: if the incoming electron has the exact same energy as an empty electron state in the Van der Waals material, it will not be reflected, but will get absorbed instead.
If the potential is negative, the incoming electrons are decelerated and land with lower energy. This allowed them to study the difference in conductance properties between single and triple layer graphene.
Martin van Hecke has made it to the cover of the prominent journal Physical Review Letters. It was already known that factors such as pressure and the nature of granules influenced the transition from loose to solid. If you remove a spring, the cluster remains rigid, but is no longer as solid (black balls, red lines). The marginal states of both jammed systems as well as the SR network is fully isostatic (red), whereas the marginal state for RP features floppy modes (involving the light green hinge sites) and has 34% of all bonds stressed (black). My colleague Mike Thorpe was so surprised he fell out of his seat.’ The main thing that the discovery shows is that jammed systems are created by means of a very special type of self-organisation.

These activities resulted in a 3D-printed material that can switch between completely different mechanical properties. The Faculty of Science is aiming to sign a Memorandum of Agreement with both faculties in the near future. He made needles that a vaccine bonds to well in a slightly acidic solution, but that easily release it in a neutral environment, such as in the skin.
With a few more intermediary steps he then binds pyridine clusters to that which are positive in an acidic environment. This bizarre phenomenon was already observed long ago for free electrons and atoms; in fact quantum theory as a whole would not work without particles in superposition. The larger the reactor, the easier it is to keep the plasma under control with magnetic fields.
For example: the two optical telescopes on board the probe are able to determine the diameter of a human hair at a distance of one thousand kilometres. The Queen received from the daughter of one of the Hortus staff members a very special bouquet, of orchids and carnivorous plants that had been freshly picked in the greenhouse that very morning. Finally, the Queen was presented with a Hortus treasure hunt by a group of children whom she told that she would be delighted to come back with her own children.
The typical experimental approach is to apply electrodes to a sample, send a current and measure the resistance. In this way a pile of sand can support a car, while together separate bubbles form a mass of sea foam. If you remove a random spring (left-hand image), the system becomes a bit looser, whereas if you add a spring (right-hand image) it becomes a bit more rigid. Several possibilities for cooperation were identified in this area, and currently both ITB and the Leiden Faculty of Science are looking to identify possibilities for further cooperation. Cooperation with the Bogor Botanical Gardens will focus on joint PhD’s, joint publications and the exchange of material. This approach is new and could in principle be used for a whole range of vaccines and medicines.
That means it can be kept for longer periods than a vaccine or medicine in a liquid solution, even without refrigeration.
From this we concluded that information about the distance to the rival must come from these ripples. But the mirror, however small it is, still consists of billions of atoms, and is therefore considered to be a macroscopic object, and the question is whether such objects can actually be in superposition. Nevertheless, in some cases the plasma still becomes unstable and damages the wall of the reactor. A member of staff of the Hortus reassured the Queen that no fingers would be eaten by the plants. In addition to researchers and students, many visitors come here to admire the botanical garden.’ The renovation was also made possible thanks to the many volunteers and the gifts from Leiden residents and other supporters of the Hortus.
The entrance greenhouse was raised and a footbridge was created so that visitors can now view the tropical jungle from above. The Leiden physicists place atomically thin layers on top of each other, like a layered cake or ‘spekkoek’. So if you apply a voltage over a Van der Waals material via two electrodes—meaning that the electrical potential changes with distance—there should be a variation in the local reflectivity. LEEP will also allow research on dynamic effects, for example as a function of temperature, since it is much faster than other potentiometry techniques. A study conducted by van Hecke with his colleagues at TU Eindhoven and Arizona State University was intended to shed light on this issue.
One application van Hecke can think of is in shock absorbers that could be used in items such as shoes, but he also mentions an even more exciting application: ‘impalpability cloaks’. Another advantage is that microneedles only pierce the top layer of skin, the dead epidermis. He tested this method using a protein called ovalbumine (a model vaccine, that bonded well to the needles. The question then arose: do frogs use the lapse in time to estimate the distance to their rival? If this works, it will involve a temperature of maximum 300 nanokelvin, 0.0000003 degrees above absolute zero (-273 degrees Celsius). After completion of each processing cycle, the scientific data is immediately made available to the academic community and the general public,’ says Brown on the weblog of the Gaia project.
For each layer they use carbon (graphene) or other materials like boron nitride or tungsten disulfide. In fact, small-scale variations can strongly affect the conductance properties of the whole sample. By accurately measuring the reflectivity for each point on a sample, researchers can determine the local potential (voltage) on the nanoscale. That creates opportunities for studying metal-insulator transitions, edge channels in topological insulators and ballistic charge transport in graphene.
Slikkerveer from Leiden established cooperation in the master program ‘Integrated Microfinance Management’, which aims to contribute to poverty reduction in Indonesia. They don’t touch any nerve bundles, so the injection is pain-free and causes no discomfort.
If an opposite charge is applied, the proteins will be attracted from an acidic solution to the needles and bond electrically.
In human skin tissue the pyridine groups lose their charge, and the ovalbumine was released properly. Since these layers interact by Van der Waals forces, we simply call them Van der Waals materials. Therefore, the research team of Sense Jan van der Molen designed a novel imaging technique that visualizes where the voltage actually drops: low-energy electron potentiometry (LEEP). The delegation visited UNPAD to look for potential expansion of cooperation, and met with the deans of the Faculty of Pharmacy, Prof.
In mice, the protein administered in this way triggered an immune reaction just as a vaccine is supposed to do.
Irmanida Batubara (Biopharmaca Research Center) from the Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science.
The delegation also met with UI board members, the Vice Dean of Human Resources, Venture and Adm., Dr. In these meetings it became clear quite quickly that there is potential for cooperation in the areas of bioinformatics, biodiversity, taxonomy, ethnobotany, conservation genetics, metabolomics and toxicology.

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