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Important microorganisms in wastewater treatment,home remedies for sinus cold congestion,bacterial infection for males - Step 1

Rehabilitation using existing technology, such as activated sludge, is very costly and often there is not enough land. MiraCarbon in anaerobic and contact aeration tank promotes the biological decomposition of contaminants. MiraCarbon in a filtration treatment tank, increases adsorption of contaminants and promote biodegradation.
Uses metabolism abilities of microorganisms to remove pollutants and contaminants.  Algae have tremendous potential to be used for waste water remediation and using algae in a wider scope compared to current commercial use is being emphasized. Combining algae for waste water remediation with biofuel production is an economically feasible process. The composition of effluent from industries is a lot different from the composition of domestic wastes. Algae are used for waste water treatment as they remove undesirable substances by biodegradation.
This chapter deals with the use of bioluminescent microorganisms in environmental monitoring, particularly in the assessment of the ecotoxicity of pollutants. References1.Farre M, Barcelo D (2003) Toxicity testing of wastewater and sewage sludge by biosensors, bioassays and chemical analysis.
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24.Bulich AA, Isenberg DL (1981) Use of the luminescent bacterial system for the rapid assessment of aquatic toxicity.
32.Dorn PB, Salanitro JP (2000) Temporal ecological assessment of oil contaminated soils before and after bioremediation. 36.Martin JW, Barri T, Han X, Fedorak PM, El-Din MG, Perez L, Scott AC, Jiang JT (2010) Ozonation of oil sands process-affected water accelerates microbial bioremediation. 38.Plaza G, Nalecz-Jawecki G, Ulfig K, Brigmon RL (2005) The application of bioassays as indicators of petroleum-contaminated soil remediation. 39.Pradhan SP, Paterek JR, Liu BY, Conrad JR, Srivastava VJ (1997) Pilot-scale bioremediation of PAH-contaminated soils. 40.Steliga T, Jakubowicz P, Kapusta P (2012) Changes in toxicity during in situ bioremediation of weathered drill wastes contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons. 41.Blaise C, Gagne F, Ferard JF, Eullaffroy P (2008) Ecotoxicity of selected nano-materials to aquatic organisms. 42.Casado MP, Macken A, Byrne HJ (2013) Ecotoxicological assessment of silica and polystyrene nanoparticles assessed by a multitrophic test battery. 43.Garcia A, Recillas S, Sanchez A, Font X (2012) The luminescent bacteria test to determine the acute toxicity of nanoparticle suspensions.
46.Lopes I, Ribeiro R, Antunes FE, Rocha-Santos TAP, Rasteiro MG, Soares AMVM, Gonsalves F, Pereira R (2012) Toxicity and genotoxicity of organic and inorganic nanoparticles to the bacteria Vibrio fischeri and Salmonella typhimurium. 47.Mortimer M, Kasemets K, Heinlaan M, Kurvet I, Kahru A (2008) High throughput kinetic Vibrio fischeri bioluminescence inhibition assay for study of toxic effects of nanoparticles. 49.Naha PC, Davoren M, Casey A, Byrne HJ (2009) An ecotoxicological study of poly(amidoamine) dendrimers-toward quantitative structure activity relationships.
51.Perreault F, Melegari SP, Fuzinatto CF, Bogdan N, Morin M, Popovic R, Matias WG (2012) Toxicity of pamam-coated gold nanoparticles in different unicellular models. 52.Velzeboer I, Hendriks AJ, Ragas AM, Van de Meent D (2008) Aquatic ecotoxicity tests of some nanomaterials. 55.Ulitzur S, Lahav T, Ulitzur N (2002) A novel and sensitive test for rapid determination of water toxicity.
57.Tarkpea M, Hansson M, Samuelsson B (1986) Comparison of the microtox test with the 96-hr LC50 test for the harpacticoid Nitocra spinipes. 59.Hinwood AL, McCormick MJ (1987) The effect of ionic solutes on EC50 values measured using the microtox test. 60.Rodea-Palomares I, Gonzalez-Garcia C, Leganes F, Fernandez-Pinas F (2009) Effect of pH, EDTA, and anions on heavy metal toxicity toward a bioluminescent Cyanobacterial bioreporter. 61.Dou RN, Liu SS, Mo LY, Liu HL, Deng FC (2011) A novel direct equipartition ray design (EquRay) procedure for toxicity interaction between ionic liquid and dichlorvos. 64.Wang T, Lin Z, Yin D, Tian D, Zhang Y, Kong D (2011) Hydrophobicity-dependent QSARs to predict the toxicity of perfluorinated carboxylic acids and their mixtures. 71.Zhu X-W, Liu S-S, Ge H-L, Liu Y (2009) Comparison between the short-term and the long-term toxicity of six triazine herbicides on photobacteria Q67.

72.Mendes LF, Stevani CV (2010) Evaluation of metal toxicity by a modified method based on the fungus Gerronema viridilucens bioluminescence in agar medium. 78.Horswell J, Weitz H, Percival H, Speir T (2006) Impact of heavy metal amended sewage sludge on forest soils as assessed by bacterial and fungal biosensors.
79.O’Kane DJ, Lingle WL, Porter D, Wampler JE (1990) Spectral analysis of bioluminescence of Panellus stypticus. 80.Weitz HJ, Ballard AL, Campbell CD, Killham K (2001) The effect of culture conditions on the mycelial growth and luminescence of naturally bioluminescent fungi. 88.Lapota D, Johnston RK (1990) Preliminary survey of methods to assess biological toxicity at navy aquatic hazardous waste sites.
95.Stauber JL, Binet MT, Bao VWW, Boge J, Zhang AQ, Leung KMY, Adams MS (2008) Comparison of the Qwiklite™ algal bioluminescence test with marine algal growth rate inhibition bioassays. 96.Okamoto OK, Shao L, Hastings JW, Colepicolo P (1999) Acute and chronic effects of toxic metals on viability, encystment and bioluminescence in the dinoflagellate Gonyaulax polyedra.
98.Koga K, Harada T, Shimizu H, Tanaka K (2005) Bacterial luciferase activity and the intracellular redox pool in Escherichia coli. 99.Lazdunski AM, Ventre I, Sturgis JN (2004) Regulatory circuits and communication in Gram-negative bacteria.
106.Paton GI, Cheewasedtham W, Marr IL, Dawson JJ (2006) Degradation and toxicity of phenyltin compounds in soil. 107.Tandy S, Barbosa V, Tye A, Preston S, Paton G, Zhang H, McGrath S (2005) Comparison of different microbial bioassays to assess metal-contaminated soils. 109.Vulkan R, Zhao FJ, Barbosa-Jefferson V, Preston S, Paton GI, Tipping E, McGrath SP (2000) Copper speciation and impacts on bacterial biosensors in the pore water of copper-contaminated soils. 110.Zampella M, Adamo P (2010) Chemical composition and Zn bioavailability of the soil solution extracted from Zn amended variable charge soils. 112.McGrath SP, Knight B, Killham K, Preston S, Paton GI (1999) Assessment of the toxicity of metals in soils amended with sewage sludge using a chemical speciation technique and a lux-based biosensor.
113.Kleeberger A, Castorph H, Klingmuller W (1983) The rhizosphere microflora of wheat and barley with special reference to gram-negative bacteria.
114.Gibson DT, Koch JR, Kallio RE (1968) Oxidative degradation of aromatic hydrocarbons by microorganisms.
116.Paton GI, Palmer G, Burton M, Rattray EAS, McGrath SP, Glover LA, Killham K (1997) Development of an acute and chronic ecotoxicity assay using lux-marked Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar trifolii. 117.Paton GI, Palmer G, Kindness A, Campbell C, Glover LA, Killham K (1995) Use of luminescence-marked bacteria to assess copper bioavailability in malt whiskey distillery effluent. 118.Brown JS, Rattray EAS, Paton GI, Reid G, Caffoor I, Killham K (1996) Comparative assessment of the toxicity of a papermill effluent by respirometry and a luminescence-based bacterial assay. 119.Paton GI, Viventsova E, Kumpene J, Wilson MJ, Weitz HJ, Dawson JJC (2006) An ecotoxicity assessment of contaminated forest soils from the Kola Peninsula. 120.Dawson JJC, Campbell CD, Towers W, Cameron CM, Paton GI (2006) Linking biosensor responses to Cd, Cu and Zn partitioning in soils. 121.Preston S, Coad N, Townend J, Killham K, Paton GI (2000) Biosensing the acute toxicity of metal interactions: are they additive, synergistic, or antagonistic? 122.Campbell CD, Hird M, Lumsdon DG, Meeussen JC (2000) The effect of EDTA and fulvic acid on Cd, Zn, and Cu toxicity to a bioluminescent construct (pUCD607) of Escherichia coli.
124.Bundy JG, Campbell CD, Paton GI (2001) Comparison of response of six different luminescent bacterial bioassays to bioremediation of five contrasting oils.
125.Dawson JJC, Godsiffe EJ, Thompson IP, Ralebitso-Senior TK, Killham KS, Paton GI (2007) Application of biological indicators to assess recovery of hydrocarbon impacted soils. 126.Bundy JG, Wardell JL, Campbell CD, Killham K, Paton GI (1997) Application of bioluminescence-based microbial biosensors to the ecotoxicity assessment of organotins.
129.Sinclair GM, Paton GI, Meharg AA, Killham K (1999) Lux-biosensor assessment of pH effects on microbial sorption and toxicity of chlorophenols.
130.Tiensing T, Strachan N, Paton GI (2002) Evaluation of interactive toxicity of chlorophenols in water and soil using lux-marked biosensors. 131.Nissen S, Alexander BD, Dawood I, Tillotson M, Wells RP, Macphee DE, Killham K (2009) Remediation of a chlorinated aromatic hydrocarbon in water by photoelectrocatalysis. 132.Beaton Y, Shaw LJ, Glover LA, Meharg AA, Killham K (1999) Biosensing 2,4-dichlorophenol toxicity during biodegradation by Burkholderia sp RASC c2 in soil. 133.Puglisi E, Vernile P, Bari G, Spagnuolo M, Trevisan M, Lillo E, Ruggiero P (2009) Bioaccessibility, bioavailability and ecotoxicity of pentachlorophenol in compost amended soils.
134.Strachan G, Preston S, Maciel H, Porter AJR, Paton GI (2001) Use of bacterial biosensors to interpret the toxicity and mixture toxicity of herbicides in freshwater.

135.Strachan G, Capel S, Maciel H, Porter AJR, Paton GI (2002) Application of cellular and immunological biosensor techniques to assess herbicide toxicity in soils.
137.Turner NL, Horsburgh A, Paton GI, Killham K, Meharg A, Primrose S, Strachan NJC (2001) A novel toxicity fingerprinting method for pollutant identification with lux-marked biosensors. 138.Horsburgh AM, Mardlin DP, Turner NL, Henkler R, Strachan N, Glover LA, Paton GI, Killham K (2002) On-line microbial biosensing and fingerprinting of water pollutants. 139.Amin-Hanjani S, Meikle A, Glover LA, Prosser JI, Killham K (1993) Plasmid and chromosomally encoded luminescence marker systems for detection of Pseudomonas fluorescens in soil. 140.Paton G, Campbell C, Glover LA, Killham K (1995) Assessment of bioavailability of heavy metals using lux modified constructs of Pseudomonas fluorescens. 144.Colepicolo P, Cho KW, Poinar GO, Hastings JW (1989) Growth and luminescence of the bacterium Xenorhabdus luminescens from a human wound. 147.Ivask A, Rolova T, Kahru A (2009) A suite of recombinant luminescent bacterial strains for the quantification of bioavailable heavy metals and toxicity testing. 148.Leedjarv A, Ivask A, Virta M, Kahru A (2006) Analysis of bioavailable phenols from natural samples by recombinant luminescent bacterial sensors. 151.Ivask A, Green T, Polyak B, Mor A, Kahru A, Virta M, Marks R (2007) Fibre-optic bacterial biosensors and their application for the analysis of bioavailable Hg and As in soils and sediments from Aznalcollar mining area in Spain.
154.Ivask A, Francois M, Kahru A, Dubourguier HC, Virta M, Douay F (2004) Recombinant luminescent bacterial sensors for the measurement of bioavailability of cadmium and lead in soils polluted by metal smelters. 155.Rahman KS, Rahman TJ, McClean S, Marchant R, Banat IM (2002) Rhamnolipid biosurfactant production by strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa using low-cost raw materials. 160.Gu MB, Chang ST (2001) Soil biosensor for the detection of PAH toxicity using an immobilized recombinant bacterium and a biosurfactant. 161.Choi SH, Gu MB (2002) A portable toxicity biosensor using freeze-dried recombinant bioluminescent bacteria.
163.Min JH, Lee CW, Gu MB (2003) Gamma-radiation dose-rate effects on DNA damage and toxicity in bacterial cells.
164.Gu MB, Gil GC (2001) A multi-channel continuous toxicity monitoring system using recombinant bioluminescent bacteria for classification of toxicity. 166.Kim BC, Gu MB, Hansen PD (2005) Evaluation of Water-borne toxicity using bioluminescent bacteria.
The waste water treatment plants are an invaluable source of algal biomass which serve as a bright prospect for many industries and companies that use algae as a feedstock for a variety of purposes. Treatment of industrial effluent is targeted at the removal of excess concentrations of nitrogen, phosphorus and other organic matter. Organic matter in water is broken down to smaller components such as CO2, ammonia and phosphates. Toxicity bioassays based on bioluminescent microorganisms are an interesting complement to classical toxicity assays, providing easiness of use, rapid response, mass production, and cost effectiveness. A description of the characteristics and main environmental applications in ecotoxicity testing of naturally bioluminescent microorganisms, covering bacteria and eukaryotes such as fungi and dinoglagellates, is reported in this chapter. Academinc Press, London, pp 171–19575.Weitz HJ, Campbell CD, Killham K (2002) Development of a novel, bioluminescence-based, fungal bioassay for toxicity testing.
The main features and applications of a wide variety of recombinant bioluminescent microorganisms, both prokaryotic and eukaryotic, are also summarized and critically considered. Gordon and Breach Science, Yverdon, Switzerland31.Blaise C, Gagne F, Chevre N, Harwood M, Lee K, Lappalainen J, Chial B, Persoone G, Doe K (2004) Toxicity assessment of oil-contaminated freshwater sediments.
CAB International, Wallingford, pp 397–418142.Weitz HJ, Ritchie JM, Bailey DA, Horsburgh AM, Killham K, Glover LA (2001) Construction of a modified mini-Tn5 luxCDABE transposon for the development of bacterial biosensors for ecotoxicity testing.
Quantitative structure-activity relationship models and hormesis are two important concepts in ecotoxicology; bioluminescent microorganisms have played a pivotal role in their development. As pollutants usually occur in complex mixtures in the environment, the use of both natural and recombinant bioluminescent microorganisms to assess mixture toxicity has been discussed.
American Society for Testing and Materials, Pittsburgh, pp 343–35692.Heimann K, Matuszewski JM, Klerks PL (2002) Effects of metals and organic contaminants on the recovery of bioluminiscence in the marine dinoflagellate pyrocystis lunula (dinophyceae) 1. Dawson JJ, Iroegbu CO, Maciel H, Paton GI (2008) Application of luminescent biosensors for monitoring the degradation and toxicity of BTEX compounds in soils. The main information has been summarized in tables, allowing quick consultation of the variety of luminescent organisms, bioluminescence gene systems, commercially available bioluminescent tests, environmental applications, and relevant references.

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