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Most common bacteria cause nosocomial infection wiki,home remedies for throat pain in tamil 5.1,how to get rid of acne fast at home for free download - Step 2

Introduction Surgical site infections (SSIs) are the second most common cause of hospital acquired (Nosocomial) infections.
Nosocomial infections The word derives from the Greek nosokomeian, meaning hospital These days the terms hospital acquired – and healthcare associated – are used A very emotive subject with the public, driven by the press Do hospitals really deserve to be blamed for all cases of hospital infection?
Impact of nosocomial infections Longer stays in hospital – bed occupancy Outbreaks leading to ward closures especially norovirus and C. The microbes Virtually any infection can be acquired in hospital However a number of “usual suspects” predominate What are they, where do they come from and why do they cause nosocomial infection? Opportunistic infections Nosocomial infections are often caused by opportunistic pathogens i.e.
Treatment There is continuous usage of antibiotics in hospitals especially in ICU As a result there will be a natural selection for strains that are antibiotic resistant – infections are getting harder to treat This has led to problems with multi-resistant bacteria e.g.


Epidemic MRSA (EMRSA) Epidemic strains have acquired a selective advantage for transmission in hospital environments EMRSA-1 was identified in S.E. Rapid MRSA screening Current methods for screening for MRSA are based on culture and take 48 hours PCR-based screening can generate a result in 2 hours! Extended spectrum ?-Lactamases ESBLs are enzymes responsible for resistance to 3 rd generation Cephalosporin antibiotics such as Ceftazidime and Cefotaxime Resistance is found in E.
Clostridium difficile Nosocomial disease spread primarily by hands of staff and “outbreaks” are common Patients generally respond to discontinuation of the inciting agent or therapy with metronidazole or vancomycin.
Success story Scunthorpe and Goole NHS trust looked at changing their antibiotic prescribing policy to reduce the incidence of C.
Today we are going to cover… The factors that contribute to nosocomial infections Examples of nosocomial infections.


MRSA, VRE, ESBLs Antibiotic treatment can also lead to alterations in normal flora and allow pathogens cause infection eg C. Response is rapid but Mtz and Vanc may also alter normal flora and may allow disease to recur Once the colon is injured it is more susceptible to re- infection.



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25.02.2016, author: admin


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