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The genetic code (blaNDM-1) located on either a plasmid or integrated into the bacterial chromosome is responsible for the synthesis of the enzyme NDM-1. Figure 1 is a schematic diagram that shows the various methods bacteria use to transfer genetic material among different bacterial types. The second method, conjugation, occurs when two bacteria share a connection through their cell walls that allows genetic material (plasmids or gene fragments) to pass into another bacterium that can incorporate the plasmid or gene fragments into other plasmids or the chromosome. These types of genetic transfers are responsible for the synthesis of the multiple enzymes like NDM-1 that allow bacteria to become resistant to many antibiotics.
The emergence of community-acquired infections, such as urinary tract infections, due to strains resistant to common antibiotics are on the rise, according to a new study. Antibiotic resistance is a serious and growing phenomenon in contemporary medicine and has emerged as one of the pre-eminent public health concerns of the 21st century, in particular as it pertains to pathogenic organisms (the term is especially relevant to organisms that cause disease in humans). Over the past few years, researchers working in hospitals have reported an increase in the number of bacteria -- many of which are forms of E. The new study involved patients with infections documented from 2006 to 2011 that were due to extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing bacteria (resistance to a common antibiotic). Prevalence of antibiotics, and the serious and growing issue of drug resistanceSince the early twentieth century, antibiotics have been part of the fight against bacterial infections. The overall broad and increasing use of antibiotics has led to the accelerated development of bacterial drug resistance.2 Antibiotic resistant bacteria are difficult to control, and can potentially cause severe and life-threatening diseases.
To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of ZERBAXA and other antibacterial drugs, ZERBAXA should be used only to treat infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. ZERBAXA has demonstrated efficacy against susceptible Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria in two Phase III studies of patients with cIAI and cUTI. Merck's commitment to the treatment of infectious diseasesFor more than 80 years, Merck has contributed to the discovery and development of novel medicines and vaccines to combat infectious diseases. The company undertakes no obligation to publicly update any forward-looking statement, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise. Newswise — Putting bacteria on birth control could stop the spread of drug-resistant microbes, and researchers at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill have found a way to do just that.
Antibiotic resistance propagates in bacteria by moving DNA strands containing the resistance genes to neighboring cells. Researchers suggest that environmental pressures, such as the use or overuse of antibiotics, selected for bacteria that could synthesize this enzyme to survive.
The first method, transformation, occurs when a bacterium's cell wall breaks down during bacterial cell death and the bacterial genetic material (both chromosomal and plasmid) are released into the environment. The first step involves a bacteriophage (a type of virus that infects bacteria) that attaches and injects its genome (Fig. Such antibiotic-resistant genes are often closely linked together, and even multiple linked genes can be transferred by these methods at the same time.

The researchers noted that the incidence of infections due to these microorganisms was increasing.
They are of the view that recognizing the strains that are resistant to common antibiotics is critical to providing proper treatment and better outcomes. The latest findings have been reported to the journal Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control, in a paper called “Changing epidemiology of infections due to extended spectrum beta-lactamase producing bacteria”. There are few antimicrobials capable of treating resistant Gram-negative infections which can have severe health complications if left untreated," explains Dr. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In addition to a combined portfolio of antibiotic and antifungal medicines, vaccines, and medicines for HIV and HCV, Merck has multiple programs that span discovery through late-stage development.
Through our prescription medicines, vaccines, biologic therapies, and animal health products, we work with customers and operate in more than 140 countries to deliver innovative health solutions.
Some speculate that because there are fewer restrictions on the use of antibiotics in many countries, antibiotic-resistant strains are likely to be produced in these countries; with NDM-1, some investigators suggest India is where this genetic element first developed. Other nearby bacteria then can absorb the genetic material and incorporate the absorbed genes into its own plasmids or chromosome. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.
We also demonstrate our commitment to increasing access to healthcare through far-reaching policies, programs and partnerships. These statements are based upon the current beliefs and expectations of the company's management and are subject to significant risks and uncertainties. Bisphosphonates, already approved to treat bone loss, have now been shown to potently disrupt the relaxase function. The bacteriophage genome then "takes over" the bacterial cell and synthesizes bacteriophage parts that are reassembled into new bacteriophages. There can be no guarantees with respect to pipeline products that the products will receive the necessary regulatory approvals or that they will prove to be commercially successful. Drugs called bisphosphonates, widely prescribed for bone loss, block this enzyme and prevent bacteria from spreading antibiotic resistance genes, the research shows.
Some bisphosphonates prevent the transfer of antibiotic resistance genes and selectively kill bacterial cells that harbor resistance. However, during reassembly, sometimes genes from plasmids or the bacterial chromosome genetic material are mistakenly put into the bacteriophage particle (Fig.1, hexagonal-shaped structure, termed a capsid) instead of only viral genes.
If underlying assumptions prove inaccurate or risks or uncertainties materialize, actual results may differ materially from those set forth in the forward-looking statements.
Interfering with the enzyme has the added effect of annihilating antibiotic-resistant bacteria in laboratory cultures.

After reassembly is done, the bacteriophage breaks open the bacterial cell wall and the new bacteriophages then can reinfect other bacteria. Those bacteria that are infected with bacteriophage genetic material that contained genes from bacterial plasmids or from the bacterial chromosome then can incorporate the plasmid or chromosomal genes into their own plasmids or chromosome.
The study provides a new weapon in the battle against antibiotic-resistant bacteria, which represent a serious public health problem. In the last decade, almost every type of bacteria has become more resistant to antibiotic treatment. Every time someone takes an antibiotic, the drug kills the weakest bacteria in the bloodstream. These drug-resistant microbes quickly accumulate useful mutations and share them with other bacteria through conjugation " the microbe equivalent of mating. After each opens a hole in their membrane, one squirts a single strand of DNA to the other.
Many highly-drug resistant bacteria rely on an enzyme, called DNA relaxase, to obtain and pass on their resistance genes. A mutation that provides antibiotic resistance can sweep through a colony as quickly as the latest YouTube hit.The researchers analyzed relaxase because it plays a crucial role in conjugation.
Lujan, a biochemistry graduate student in the School of Medicine, confirmed the hunch using x-ray crystallography, which creates nanoscale structural images of the enzyme.The researchers predicted that the enzyme's weak link is the spot where it handles DNA. The team suspected a chemical decoy " a phosphate ion " could plug this dual DNA binding site. Redinbo, who has a background in cancer and other disease-related research, realized that bisphosphonates were the right-size decoy. The drugs, called clodronate and etidronate, steal the DNA binding site, preventing relaxase from handling DNA. Exactly how bisphosphonates destroy each bacterium is still unknown, Redinbo said, but the drugs are potent, wiping out any E. By targeting these bacteria, the drugs act like birth control and prevent antibiotic resistance from spreading.Redinbo, who cautions that the results only apply to E. Other applications may include disinfectants and treatments for farm animals.Study coauthors, all from UNC-Chapel Hill, include Laura Guogas, Heather Ragonese and Steven Matson. Redinbo is a member of the UNC Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center.Redinbo and his colleagues have filed a patent and formed a small company to further develop the technology.

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06.12.2013, author: admin
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