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Meningitis occurs when the membranes, called meninges, surrounding the spinal cord and brain are inflamed. The two common types of meningitis are; bacterial meningitis (caused by bacteria or fungi) and viral meningitis (cause by viruses). On one hand, viral meningitis is caused by enteroviruses which are common during early fall and summer.
On the other hand, bacterial meningitis is a more serious type of infection primarily caused by bacteria called Streptococcus pneumonia and Neisseria meningitides. The fluid withdrawn will be subjected to further lab tests to identify any sign of viral or bacterial meningitis.
Empirical treatment is chosen on the basis of age, whether the patient has been subjected to a neurosurgical procedure, whether the disorder was preceded by a head injury, and whether there is a cerebral shunt. Over 1,000 pupils and 125 teachers were treated with antibiotics after three cases of meningitis were reported in a Gloucestershire school early in 2003. Meningitis describes any infection to the cerebrospinal fluid that surrounds the brain and spinal cord. Bacterial meningitis first starts as a fever which may also be accompanied by a headache and sore neck. Occasionally, the bacteria are able to invade the bloodstream and spread to the central nervous system.
Cases of bacterial meningitis in the United Kingdom are rare and tend to be in places like schools and colleges, where many people spend time close together.
Bacterial meningitis is so serious that a person showing the symptoms will be admitted to hospital. Menningococcus type A is the main cause of epidemics in western Africa whilst outbreaks of the type C infection have been seen in Europe, North America and Australia. Currently there is no vaccine against the type B Meningococcus which is known to cause meningitis in the UK. Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. Clipping is a handy way to collect and organize the most important slides from a presentation. This article provides some information about meningitis vaccine and how long it lasts, that might prove beneficial. An infection of the membranes and cerebrospinal fluids that cover the brain and spinal cord is known as meningitis. It has been found that over 2,600 people are affected by meningitis every year in the United States. This medical condition strikes infants as young as less than one year of age to a college student. There are two types of vaccines against Neisseria meningitidis, the bacteria that causes meningococcal meningitis. There is another vaccine that is administered to children under 5 years of age, known as pneumococcal vaccine.
It is very important to be punctual with the doses of meningitis vaccine for it to last longer especially in children. Disclaimer: This Buzzle article is for informative purposes only, and should not be used as a replacement for expert medical advice.
Once an infection spreads through the cerebrospinal fluid which circulates in the spinal cord and around the brain, meningitis can happen. Other cases of meningitis result from a reaction to medicine, cancer, head injury, and other chronic diseases. Since these viruses can be transferred through contact with feces, mucus, or saliva, that doesn?t mean, though, that people have to share an ice cream or kiss each other to catch the virus. This is recommended for children, which means it should form part of their vaccination schemes. Proper medical examinations are needed to diagnose meningitis, one of which is a lumbar puncture or spinal tap.
Since meningitis is a serious case, treatment should not be delayed even while waiting for the results of confirmatory tests.
This is a pre-treatment given to the patient while waiting for the results of the CFS analysis in item No. For example, adding Ampicillin is suggested to cover Listeria monocytogenes in young children, those over 50 years of age, and patients and those individuals who are immuno-compromised. Just like any other chronic illness, treatment should begin as soon as symptoms are spotted.

Bacterial meningitis is a feared and serious infection that can cause brain damage, deafness and even death. Meningococcus can infect the cerebrospinal fluid surrounding the brain and spinal cord (shown in blue on the diagram). It is contained within protective membranes called the meninges and any infection can cause serious damage to the nervous system. These symptoms can develop very quickly, over several hours, or more slowly over one to two days.
In the later stages of the disease, bacteria can infect the blood and release toxins that damage tiny capillaries in the skin and cause blood to leak into the skin. Most of the time it does not cause any symptoms but it does mean that it can be spread by droplets in coughs, sneezes and when kissing.
This allows the infection to develop and it must be treated immediately because bacterial meningitis proves to be fatal in 5-10% of cases. Although this is serious, outbreaks can be quickly brought under control by prescribing antibiotics to anyone who may have come into contact with an infected person to kill the Meningococcus before infection happens.
In 1996, the largest ever reported outbreak of bacterial meningitis infected over 213,000 people and resulted in 21,830 deaths. In cases of bacterial meningitis these are given as quickly as possible once the infection has been diagnosed.
It is difficult to get antibiotics into the cerebrospinal fluid and medicines often need to be given using a needle directly into the bloodstream or spinal cord. Vaccinations contain carbohydrate molecules from the Meningococcus bacteria that stimulate the immune system so that it can quickly kill any living Menigococcus that enter the body. The causative agents of this infection are virus, or bacteria, and very rarely fungal agents. It is also observed in people with underlying medical conditions, like people whose spleens are surgically removed due to other disorders. The first one begin meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine (MPSV4), the only vaccine that can be administered to people over 55 years of age.
It provides protection against Streptococcus pneumoniae, that causes this medical condition in young children. The most common side effects are redness and swelling at the site, headache, malaise, chills, and fever.
The vaccines are very useful in protecting one from the infection, however, do not completely eliminate the chances of getting an infection. Many are interested to learn how to cure meningitis since anyone can experience this disorder at any age. Common symptoms of meningitis include: lethargy, fever, sore throat, confusion, neck stiffness, and vomiting. These viruses can spread when people sneeze without covering their mouth or when they touch surfaces that others have also touched. Since the early 1980?s, many countries have administered children immunization against Haemophilus influenzae (type B).
Usually, prophylactic treatment is given along with antibiotics such as Ceftriaxone, Rifampicin, or Ciprofloxacin. This is true in the case of meningococcal illnesses which require the administration of Benzylpenicillin before the patient is brought to the hospital. The quicker you start the medication, the less chance there is of any complication to other parts of the body. The antibiotics were given as a precaution in case the infection had been transmitted to other pupils and staff in the school.
Vomitting, sensitivity to bright light, confusion and seizures can develop as the disease progresses.
The tumbler test is often described as a method for diagnosing meningitis because if a glass tumbler is pressed against the skin, the rash does not fade. However, this is not always possible in countries where healthcare is not so easily obtained. Vaccination programmes aim to improve the situation but factors such as overcrowded housing, dusty conditions and population movements mean meningitis is a serious threat. Antibiotics may be given to friends, family and other close contacts of the infected person.
It is observed that viral meningitis is not as severe as bacterial meningitis and can be overcome by the body's immune system without treatment. Other dangerous consequences of meningitis cause 11 to 20% of the people to lose their arms or legs, develop problems of the nervous system, mental retardation, seizures, strokes, or turn deaf.

The meningitis vaccine, Haemophilus influenzae type B (Hib) is administered to children under 5 years of age.
There are two types of pneumococcal vaccines, pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) and pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PPSV). One does not feel too much pain and if the injection is taken in a calm and relaxed manner, the slight discomfort or pain in the upper arm won't last more than three days after the shot is taken. Make sure to wash the hands frequently and do not share personal items like towels, hankies etc. Note that bacterial meningitis can affect children at age two or younger since they are not immune to the disorder yet.
When infected, the viruses will multiply first in the digestive tract before they spread to the other parts of the body.
Although the treatment cannot protect the patient from future infections, the risk of contracting the illness is reduced. Thereafter, a long needle is injected into the dural sac to get cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from the spinal canal. When the pressure level is above the centimeter water reading, there must be a bacterial infection.
Given that the disease can cause serious complications, the patient should be placed in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU).
The treatment may consist of third-generation Cephalosporins like Ceftriaxone or Cefotaxime.
Due to the life-threatening effects of this disease, many are interested to learn how to cure meningitis effectively.
Viral meningitis is relatively mild and sufferers generally recover without the need for medical treatment. This should not be the only diagnosis as a rash does not develop in all cases of meningitis.
Emergency vaccinations can be given to others in the area to prevent the spread of the infection into the wider population. They give protection for 3 - 5 years and are given to the groups that are most at risk; young children and teenagers.
Bacterial infection is very dangerous and can result in brain damage, hearing loss, learning disability, and in extreme cases death. Yet, it is seen that at least one person dies out of 10 and many are affected for life due to the same.
There are usually 3 to 4 doses given at 2 months, 4 months, 6 months, and 12 months of age. This vaccine is recommended for children between the age group of 11 to 18 years and at 0 risk group of 2 to 55 years by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). PCV7 is used to provide immunity to children under the age of 5 and PPSV provides immunity to adults and those children who are at risk of infection. Ask the children to do the same and also make sure that they cover their mouths when sneezing and coughing.
Bacterial meningitis can be caused by a range of bacteria but perhaps the most serious is caused by a group of bacteria known as Meningococcus. The only certain way to identify bacterial meningitis is to take a sample of fluid from the spinal cord and test for the presence of Meningococcus.
When an outbreak of meningitis happens, emergency vaccination programmes are an effective way to stop the infection spreading into an epidemic.
This vaccine is known to provide immunity against meningitis infection for at least 15 years. The vaccines are known to develop 90% immunity in adults who receive it and can provide protection that lasts for minimum 3 years to a maximum of up to 5 years. The vaccines provide immunity that lasts for about 3 years to 5 years according to National Network for Immunization Information (NNII). The meningitis vaccine risks involved in this case are very high fever, seizures, hives, skin rashes, swelling of the face, mouth, and difficulty in breathing. Four of these (types A, B, C and W135) are capable of causing epidemics and can be fatal within 48 hours of developing the symptoms of infection.

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26.06.2014, author: admin

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