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26.12.2014


Lynx is recognized as an ultra-premium outdoor kitchen brand with demonstrably superior quality, performance and design characteristics. Unique Landscapes & Custom Pools of Phoenix, AZ specializes in high-end landscape design and custom pool design. This article provides building code specifications, sketches, photographs, and examples of the proper stair step height or stair riser dimensions and other stair riser requirements for indoor or outdoor stairways.
We also discuss the allowable variation in stair or step riser height between individual steps in a stairway.
Because more people are injured by trips and falls than other hazards, experts have looked closely at the specifications for stairs, steps, and rails to reduce the falling hazards.
A stair riser (green arrow in our photo at above left) is the vertical distance (green arrow) between the walking surface of two stair treads (treads are what you step on) is the stair riser or riser height. Stair riser heights The riser height shall be measured vertically between the leading edges of adjacent treads. Stair treads: The stair tread is the horizontal walking surface (red arrow) of an individual step. Closed riser stairs (demonstrated at left by the author's granddaughter Quinn Morgan Gilligan) include a vertical riser board (that my toe is kicking against). If the vertical space is enclosed (see our Carson Dunlop sketch above), the enclosing board is called the stair riser. Step riser slope (out of vertical) (<= 30 deg measured from horizontal surface of the tread) - this stair specification means the rather obvious hazard that if stairs are pitched or sloped users are more likely to trip and fall. Closed riser stairs include a board or other solid material that encloses the vertical space between stair treads. Or simply put, open riser stairs have no enclosure (my toe, shown above would be facing into open space).
Open riser stairs (shown at right in the sketch above) do not include a solid board or other material that fully encloses the open space between stair treads.
The lovely stairway shown at left rises to the main entry for the Maria Mitchell Observatory on the Vassar College Campus, Poughkeepsie, New York. They are closed riser stairs (except for that broken missing riser at the first step) because the cast iron gridwork defines the limits of placement of the leading toe of a foot of someone ascending these steps.
What happens if you make any step riser less than 4" is that walkers tend to trip over the mini-step as an obstruction rather than recognizing it as a step up. Stair risers, or the vertical distance between the stair treads, that are too tall are difficult to climb and are a falling or trip hazard. Stair risers that are too short can also be a trip hazard if the stair treads themselves (the walking surface of the stair or step) are not large enough.
Stair risers that are uneven or irregular in height are also a serious trip and fall hazard. Experts suggest that for more physically limited people the best way avoid falls is to seek living accomodations on a single floor. Continue reading at STAIR TREAD DIMENSIONS or select a topic from the More Reading links or topic ARTICLE INDEX shown below. Question: Using pre-fab stairs - Is there an exception to the riser height variation for the very first step of the staircase? Watch out: be sure to measure the height difference (deck surface to ground surface) at a projected point along a horizontal line from the edge of the deck out to the location, in horizontal distance, of the front edge of the nose of the very first or lowest step of the stairway. If you need a greater adjustment in the stair height between the ground surface and the deck surface in order to avoid having to re-cut a whole new pair of stair stringers, sometimes that can be accommodated by changing the height of the surface of the concrete or other masonry platform that many building departments and local codes require be placed as a landing at the bottom of the stairs.
I figured that if I could determine the optimum number of steps to comfortably traverse the distance of the slope of my proposed staircase I would then know the correct number of treads. So I marked off the landing locations and simply walked up and down the slope while counting the number of steps I took as I did so. In this case I took 14 steps to travel the slope which equates to 14 treads - 24a€? long. I also counted steps made on level ground over the same distance as the length of the stair and came up with 12 so I think 14 is conservative considering the slope but about right for my needs. Special Offer: For a 10% discount on any number of copies of the Home Reference Book purchased as a single order. Special Offer: For a 5% discount on any number of copies of the Home Reference eBook purchased as a single order. The Illustrated Home illustrates construction details and building components, a reference for owners & inspectors.
OSHA estimates that there are 24,882 injuries and as many as 36 fatalities per year due to falls from stairways and ladders used in construction.
Our recommended books about building & mechanical systems design, inspection, problem diagnosis, and repair, and about indoor environment and IAQ testing, diagnosis, and cleanup are at the InspectAPedia Bookstore. A concrete slab on grade is what its name implies: a slab of concrete placed directly on the ground, or grade. The inherent mass of a concrete slab makes it solid and stable, with little or no discernable deflection due to normal loads.
A properly constructed slab on grade will almost always provide more weight bearing capacity than a wood framed floor. A concrete slab may be susceptible to spalling from corrosion of steel reinforcement, if existing. Non monolithic footings, such as strip footings and some isolated footings, are placed prior to the slab on grade.
The concrete is usually placed directly with a chute extending from a truck or pumped through a hose to the slab. The following is a photograph of a concrete slab on grade with monolithic footing being prepared for concrete. Piles and grade beams are often used in residential construction where the bearing capacity of the surface soil is poor. Piles may support loads directly or be used to compact soil intended to support construction.
Isolated footings, or “pads”, are isolated from other footings and are typically used for the support of load bearing posts or columns. The length and width of isolated footings varies with the load they are intended to support. In residential construction, the thickness of an isolated footing generally varies between 12” and 24”. Steel reinforcement is usually provided in isolated footings and varies with the design loads and building code in effect. Monolithic footings are often provided with a water-stop at the upper outside corner of the foundation.
Steel reinforcement is usually provided in monolithic footings and varies with the design loads and building code in effect.
Additional steel sometimes referred to as “transfer” bars may be provided around the slab perimeter, particularly at areas of higher exterior wall loading. The construction of a monolithic footing and slab has the advantage of forming and placing concrete only once.
Besides supporting the weight of the people and items in the home, a floor structure may also serve as a structural diaphragm. As with any structural component or system, problems may arise from improper construction, damage, or deterioration of a floor structure.


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The tread depth is measured from the forward edge of the step nose or edge of the step above out to the leading edge of the step being measured - the space beneath my foot in the photo at left. Outdoor stairs that are exposed to wet or icy conditions are an even more serious falling hazard if the stairs are sloped.
This 4-inch opening dimension has the same basis as the rule that requires that the opening between stair balusters must be 4" or smaller. While we never recommend building a known trip hazard, if a an existing walkway cannot avoid step risers less than 4" high, because it is a trip hazard (and probably a code violation in most jurisdictions) you can at least reduce the risk by using clear color changes to give a visual clue marking the changes in height. Affi et als (2014 and earlier) have weighted the contributions of various stair features to the risk of a stair fall, considering for example, straight versus turned stairways, with or without landings, number of steps, handraiil design, lighting specifications, and step design specifications (using a tread depth of 269mm and a riser height of 174mm with a 40 mm tread nosing in a case example to state various risk contributors. That will avoid any error in calculating total stairway height due to any slope in the actual ground surface.
Bernie Campbalik who taught us carpentry, including stair building, used a rule of thumb that basically makes the run longer when the rise is shorter. I now think any rule can at best only make general recommendations for all the low-slope possibilities. The Horizon system runs on always-available cloud-based software for office computers, laptops, tablets, iPad, Android, & other smartphones. Nearly half of these injuries are serious enough to require time off the job--11,570 lost workday injuries and 13,312 non-lost workday injuries occur annually due to falls from stairways and ladders used in construction.
The text is intended as a reference guide to help building owners operate and maintain their home effectively. The focus here will be slabs that are unreinforced or reinforced only with welded wire fabric (WWF). Clean sand or gravel is sometimes brought in to elevate property, or replace materials removed for the purposes of improving drainage or soil bearing characteristics. This is often done with a hand operated machine that basically consists of a motor on top of a steel plate. During placement, the concrete should be consolidated properly to avoid honeycomb or air pockets. During the early stages of the curing process (generally between 4 and 24 hours), contraction joints may be tooled, formed, or sawn into the slab. Piles can be thought of long and slender structural members (or columns) placed in the ground below the supported structure. Piles that support vertical loads directly support those loads primarily through end bearing and friction. Concrete grade beams span between the tops of the supporting piles at or just below ground level.
They are often placed outside the main structure, such as to support a roof overhang, but are also commonly located at the interior for the support of post or columns point loads. The weight of the supported vertical load combined with the weight of the footing itself is divided by the total area of the footing. For heavier point loads, a thicker footing may be required to avoid a shear or punching failure of the concrete. The reinforcement typically consists of a grid of reinforcement steel bars placed near the bottom of the footing. A monolithic footing is often simply a thickened area of concrete around the perimeter of a concrete slab on grade. The water stop in this case is essentially a notch, upon or in which the exterior wall rests.
The reinforcing steel provides strength and crack control, and typically consists of continuous or “longitudinal” steel bars placed near the bottom of the footing. If properly designed and constructed, monolithic footings suffice for the load bearing requirements of most one or two-story homes and even some light commercial buildings. The vertical steel bars protruding around the slab perimeter will lap with wall reinforcement in a grouted CMU cell. The first floor structure of many single family homes consist of a concrete slab on grade, prefabricated wood trusses, or framed with sawn or engineered lumber.
This is a structural component often orientated on a horizontal plane, which is stiff and strong enough to collect and transfer horizontal (wind, earth, etc.) loads.
Some common problems with floor structures and their causes are discussed in Common Problems and Diagnosis.
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Stair tread depths shall be 11 inches (279 mm) minimum.The stair tread depth shall be measured horizontally between the vertical planes of the foremost projection of adjacent treads and at right angle to the tread's leading edge.
I've seen several rules such as the sum of one tread and one riser should always be equal or greater than 17; I think we need to dig out some texts on stair design such as those in the references.
The adhesion and friction forces of the confined biopolymer were monitored as a function of time, shearing distance, and driving velocity under a large range of compressive loads (pressures).
Study of frictional values of car tires involved in collisions on snow or ice covered roadways.
Footings are located below the exterior walls of a home (perimeter) and may also be provided below interior load bearing walls and posts. In expansive soils, or clay, the bottom of the grade beam is generally isolated from the soil to prevent upheaval damage to the beam.
In residential slab on grade construction, they may be placed with the slab (monolithically), or prior to (underneath) the main slab concrete.
This computation approximates an applied pressure, which must be less than the bearing capacity of the soil. If the supported column or post is expected to experience uplift, then the connection of the column to the footing must be adequate.
With heavier point loads or large footings, another steel grid may be required near the top of the footing. The goal in this case is to make the horizontal interface (between the bottom of the wall and top of the footing) lower than the interior floor slab surface. They may also have shorter steel bars (the width of the footing minus several inches for concrete cover) placed, at regular intervals, perpendicular to and immediately above or below the longitudinal bars.
A potential disadvantage of this type of footing is relatively limited load carrying capacity due to the eccentric loading conditions discussed above.
The second floor of many two-story single family homes are constructed with hand framed wood members or prefabricated wood trusses.


Exterior walls or roof planes orientated perpendicular to the direction of wind or other horizontal load transfer loads to the diaphragm (roof or floor structure). The 1-piece construction of the polystyrene core ensures durable insulation, and the rust- and corrosion-resistant surface has been crafted from galvanized steel for durability. The galvanized steel surface resists rust and corrosion and has been treated with 2 coats of baked-on enamel primer for smooth painting or staining. Suggestions for adapting pre-fabricated stairways to the to the actual overall stairway height without violating building stair codes & standards. It may be impractical to fix this condition by a new stairway for the same reason - there just isn't enough space. The concept is that a low rise stair usually has, just as you suggest, a tread that provides a "longer" walking surface. More importantly, they show that compliance with OSHA's requirements for the safe use of ladders and stairways could have prevented many of these injuries. Such slabs are commonly used for sidewalks, driveways, pool and patio decks, and the interior first floor of a home.
A pile cap is similar in shape to an isolated footing, but different in that the load on the cap is distributed to piles rather than to soil below the pile cap.  Pile caps are often used for heavier commercial or multi-unit residential construction. Uplift conditions also require that the footing (and overlying slab) be large and heavy enough to prevent upward movement, if other uplift restraint provisions are not made. J bolts intended to anchor the column or post base plate to the footing are sometimes pre-set with a template and cast into the concrete, to avoid drilling holes in the concrete later. They most often support the exterior walls of the building, which are typically aligned with the outside edge of the mono footing. Transfer steel is sometimes used with monolithic footings because of the eccentric or off-center loading condition of a monolithic footing. Trusses are also very commonly used for roof structures, which are covered in the prefabricated wood truss roof structure section.
The diaphragm then transfers that load to shear walls, or walls that are orientated parallel with the horizontal load.
Be sure to reduce the falling hazard at steep stairs by providing good lighting and secure handrails. Thanks to Alan Carson and Bob Dunlop, for permission for InspectAPedia to use text excerpts from The Home Reference Book & illustrations from The Illustrated Home.
Galow specializes in residential construction including both new homes and repairs, renovations, and additions. Thanks to Alan Carson and Bob Dunlop, for permission for InspectAPedia to use text excerpts from The Home Reference Book & illustrations from The Illustrated Home. A garden shed can also be used to add depth and character to a garden or even as the focal point with the garden designed to complement the shed. A typical residential concrete slab is 4” thick, but thickness varies depending upon the intended use and the building code in effect at the time of construction. The footing provides a vertical exterior surface, at and continuous with the outside face of the wall, to the soil or exterior grade adjacent the home. As mentioned above, the supported wall is most often aligned with the outside edge of the footing, and the monolithic footing width is invariably wider than the supported wall.
Shear walls transfer the loads to the foundations. Thus the load path (from a horizontal load against a wall (or roof) to the foundation) is completed.
Carson Dunlop Associates' provides extensive home inspection education and report writing material.
The grade beams support load bearing walls and columns, and the first floor structure, excluding concrete slabs on grade.
A typical width and depth of monolithic footings is 16”, but this may vary with the local building code and the loads the footing is intended to support. However, there are many different styles, which can add their own individual charm and character to your garden.
The soil surrounding the length of the pile also acts as a horizontal brace which prevents buckling of the pile. The first floor structure may be wood framed, placed as a structural concrete slab (requiring no soil support) or as a slab (bearing) on grade.
The transfer bars ‘transfer’ engage some of the slab, helping to prevent rotation of the footing.
When the water table or loose soils are present, auger cast piles may use a drill bit to pressure inject grout as the bit is slowly removed.
You need to consider many different things such as ease of access, how the shed will look in the chosen area, security, practicality and so on.
When the location has been decided and the size of the shed determined then the next thing to so is lay the base. It is important that the wooden shed should not be contact with the ground to avoid the wood rotting. Whatever the structure in your garden these are the three basic materials used and the characteristics remain the same for each.
Although shed kits usually give you a substantial discount, they require much more time and energy.
Having said that the decision is relatively easy if your honest with yourself about your DIY capabilities. While the materials will come with a gaurantee, you should still regularly add a protective coating. If you are putting together a kit, a good tip is to paint as much of the shed as possible before assembly, since it is much easier to paint some parts of the shed before assembly, rather than standing on a ladder to do it.
You don’t want to be moving a full sized shed several feet, so you want to be sure you have it in the right place to begin with. A lot of places in the nation as well as countryside locations have got community farm as well as yard journals that come out and about once a week which have classified areas just for farm and garden buses and uses. There is also some good content articles as well as stories in a variety of brands involving vehicles, including the Massey Ferguson along with other name tractors out there. These kinds of retailers utilize skilled experts that may help you find the exhaust that’s perfect for the needs you have.
These are basically used to store home and garden tools and equipment such as lawn tractors, push lawn mowers, and gardening supplies. These can be also be used to store items that are not suitable for indoor storage, such as petrol, herbicides or pesticides. The ground will still be relatively warm as compared to the cold air, and the plants will not have as many leaves to support, so they can concentrate their resources and energy into forming a strong root system to serve as their stable foundation.Chicken tractors are a great, natural way to fertilize your garden area without having to use harmful chemicals. This friction due to rubbing of two surfaces produce little amount of heat and causes wear of machine parts.
It is necessary to make use of oil and grease working as a barrier sort of between two surfaces.



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