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A construction crane collapsed in Makati City on Thursday morning, hurting at least two people, Radyo Inquirer 990 AM reported.
The crane was being used in the construction of a building on dela Costa street in Barangay (village) Bel-Air.
Presumptive President-elect Rodrigo Duterte said early Thursday morning that he will implement a massive revamp in the government the moment he assumes office at noontime of June 30. A fuming Duterte told reporters that the agencies that will be affected by the shake-up will include the Philippine National Police (PNP), the National Bureau of Investigation (NBI), and the Bureau of Corrections (BuCor). The tough-talking mayor said that the shake-up will not spare anyone as it will include ranking officers. The only institution that seems to be out of the chopping block for now in Duterte’s view is the military.
The septuagenarian incoming president issued his plan of revamping the law enforcement agencies after he seethed on the deaths of five people in a summer concert party in Pasay City last May 21. He said that the deaths can be pinned to the “lack of intelligence” of the law enforcement agencies.
In this four-picture combo people try to jump in the water right before their boat overturns off the Libyan coast, Wednesday, May 25, 2016. ROME, Italy — Dramatic images released by the Italian navy Wednesday captured the moment a heavily overcrowded boat overturned in a shipwreck off Libya which left at least five people dead. The blue fishing vessel, its deck heaving with people, tipped over after the migrants rushed to one side on spotting a rescue ship — an all too frequent mistake which has led to many disasters in the Mediterranean.
The migrants, many of them men, some already wearing orange lifejackets as a precaution, were captured in rare photographs as they clung to the boat’s rails or each other, or dropped like stones into the sea. Some are seen hanging on to the starboard edge by their fingertips as the trawler rolls, while others try to balance on the rim. Pictures taken seconds later show the churning waters around the boat peppered with people trying to get away from the vessel which, now overturned, begins to sink, with four people still perched on its upturned hull.
The Bettica threw life-rafts and jackets to those in the water, while another navy ship in the area sent a helicopter and rescue boats. Survivors can be seen in the photographs wearing life-rings, some swimming towards the Bettica as the helicopter whirrs overhead.
The migrants had sounded the alarm by calling for help using a satellite phone some 18 nautical miles off Libya.
The Bettica went on to pluck another 108 migrants from their dilapidated vessel in a second rescue operation on Wednesday.
It is not the first time a boat making the perilous journey across the Mediterranean has overturned because of sudden movement onboard when help is in sight. In August last year, a Palestinian survivor of just such a shipwreck described the moment the boat rolled as “like being flung from a catapult.
According to the International Organization for Migration, over 1,370 migrants have lost their lives so far this year as they attempt the perilous crossing to Europe.
The latest arrivals bring the number of people rescued and transferred to Italy since the start of the year to nearly 40,000 following the rescue of more than 6,000 since Monday, according to figures collated by the UN’s refugee agency (UNHCR) and the coastguard.
The overwhelming majority of those arriving in Italy so far this year have been from sub-Saharan Africa. The UNHCR, aid organizations and the Italian government say there is no sign yet of Middle Eastern refugees switching to the Libyan route to Europe following moves to restrict access from Turkey via the Greek islands. The southwest monsoon (habagat) prevailing over the western section of Luzon will bring rain in parts of the country, the state weather bureau said Thursday.
Metro Manila, MIMAROPA, Western Visayas, Zamboanga Peninsula and the Provinces of Pangasinan, Zambales, Bataan, Cavite and Batangas will have cloudy skies with light to moderate rains and isolated thunderstorms, the Philippine Atmospheric Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration said.
Partly cloudy to cloudy skies with isolated rainshowers or thunderstorms will prevail over the rest of the country.
Moderate to occasionally strong winds blowing from the southwest to south will prevail over the western section of Luzon and its coastal waters will be moderate to occasionally rough, Pagasa said. Elsewhere, winds will be light to moderate coming from the southeast to south with slight to moderate seas. A screengrab from a US Department of Defense video shows a nuclear missile silo for a Minuteman intercontinental ballistic missile, ICBM, preparing for a test launch. WASHINGTON, United States — America’s nuclear force still uses floppy disks designed in the 1970s to coordinate some of its functions, according to a watchdog report released Wednesday. The military did not immediately respond to a request for comment, but according to the GAO report, the Pentagon is planning to fully replace the system by the end of 2020. In this May 24, 2016 file photo, a man puts a banner of the G7 Summit at International Media Center in Ise, Mie Prefecture, central Japan.
ISE, Japan — World leaders kick off two days of G7 talks in Japan Thursday with the creaky global economy, terrorism, refugees, China’s controversial maritime claims, and a possible Brexit headlining their packed agenda. Heads of state and government from the United States, Britain, France, Germany, Italy, Canada and host Japan are meeting in Ise Shima, a mountainous, sparsely populated area about 300 kilometers (200 miles) southwest of Tokyo. In line with the animistic religion’s traditions, the buildings are regularly replaced, but the shrine is believed to have occupied the same spot for more than 2,000 years. Prime Minister Shinzo Abe’s decision to take his counterparts to the sprawling site has attracted some controversy, however, due to its nationalist overtones. The group will also get brief crash course on Japan’s world-leading green car technology. The sputtering global economy was expected to take center stage when the formal talks get under way in the afternoon, although divisions were likely to remain over whether the world should spend or save its way out of the current malaise, with Japan and Germany at odds on the issue. China, the world’s second largest economy, will not be present, but it looks set to loom large over discussions. Japan and the US are keen to corral support for a growing pushback against Beijing’s territorial assertiveness in the South China Sea.
The G7 will also discuss the refugee crisis and Islamist terrorism, with France’s Hollande keen to address the issue after a brutal year that saw France hit twice by jihadists. Security was tight across Japan, with thousands of extra police drafted in to patrol train stations and ferry terminals. Dustbins have been removed or sealed and coin-operated lockers blocked at train and subway stations in the capital and areas around the venue site. Britain’s referendum next month on whether or not to stay in the European Union is sure to figure prominently in discussions, as economists warn a so-called Brexit could dent the global economy. Following the talks, Obama will move on to Hiroshima, becoming the first sitting US leader to travel to the city, the site of the world’s first nuclear attack, on August 6, 1945.
Obama arrived in Japan after spending several days in Vietnam, where he urged the communist authorities to embrace human rights and abandon authoritarianism. JAKARTA, Indonesia — Indonesia’s president Wednesday approved tough new punishments for child sex offenders, including a maximum penalty of death and chemical castration, after the brutal gang-rape and murder of a schoolgirl. Convicted pedophiles could also be forced to wear electronic monitoring devices following their release from jail under new rules introduced in an emergency decree.
The presidential decree brings the new punishments immediately into effect, although parliament could later overturn it.
Widodo was spurred into action after the murder and gang-rape in April of a 14-year-old girl, who was set upon by a gang of drunken men and boys as she walked home from school on the western island of Sumatra.
The attack sparked a national debate on sexual violence, led to calls for harsher punishments for child sex offenders and prompted protests in the capital Jakarta. The case has drawn comparisons with the fatal gang-rape of a student on a bus in Delhi in 2012, which sparked mass protests and led to an overhaul of India’s rape laws. By introducing chemical castration, Indonesia joins a small group who use the punishment worldwide, including Poland and some states in the US. Chemical castration involves the injection of certain drugs that are expected to reduce sex drive, control sexual urges and fantasies, and reduce sexual arousal. In a press conference, Tabora, a prominent member of the clergy and highly regarded academic, said anyone—including Duterte and himself—could prove vulnerable to falling by the wayside if given absolute power. The tough-talking mayor has been linked to death squads and is known for imposing strict edicts here as his anti-crime approach.  During the campaign, political adversaries had cautioned against Duterte’s tyrannical tendencies. He was, however, tolerant of Duterte’s ways that had invited criticism from the Catholic hierarchy, saying his stance towards the Church is an opportunity for the hierarchy to reflect on itself.
Extolling Duterte as “clearly a man of the poor,” Tabora said the Church could take after his stance towards the impoverished. Duterte recently called the Catholic Church “the most hypocritical institution,” saying bishops were known for asking favors from politicians.  Duterte even taunted the Church hierarchy for his landslide victory despite their call not to vote for him.
He has also issued policy statements that run against Church dogma, including the reimposition of the death penalty and state-endorsed birth control. He said the Church should listen to the people’s voice, considering that “a great number of people who voted for him are Catholics” despite the Church’s campaign against him. As to Duterte’s policy pronouncements, Tabora said his proposition for a three-child policy was merely “recommendatory.” On the revival of the death penalty, the priest expects the Church to fight it.
In Quezon province, a Franciscan priest from the Prelature of Infanta sided with Duterte in his  criticism of Church leaders in the country. Montallana, president of the environmental advocate, Save Sierra Madre  Network Alliance, hoped that Church leaders would look at Duterte’s criticism “as a call to be converted to the poor,”?  in line with Pope Francis” call for the Church “to be a poor Church for the  poor.” With a report from Delfin T. The military scored a small victory against the notorious kidnap-for-ransom terrorist cell Abu Sayyaf on Wednesday, as troops seized one of the group’s encampments in Sulu province.
In a statement, the Armed Forces of the Philippines Western Mindanao Command (Wesmincom) announced that the 14th Scout Ranger Company had managed to take the camp of the group of Idang Susukan in Barangay Gulangan, Maimbung, Sulu after a 45-minute gunfight with the rebels. The gunfight broke out amid the military’s ongoing pursuit and clearing operations against the ASG. British billionaire and philanthropist Richard Branson is known as a maverick, having grown his Virgin Group business empire in unconventional ways. But even Branson, who returned to Manila on Wednesday after two decades to speak to Filipino businessmen, draws the line when human rights are involved.
Most of the crowd paid anywhere between P20,000 to P35,000 each to hear the flamboyant visionary, whose latest project involves making space travel affordable to all, share his thoughts on business and success. But aware of the plan of presumptive President-elect Rodrigo Duterte to reintroduce capital punishment, Branson also spoke about the death penalty, saying it is not a deterrent to crime.
Even the United States, which has a “relatively good judicial system,” got it wrong years ago, when DNA-based evidence was not yet allowed, Branson said. He said jurisdictions would have less of a chance resolving the drug problem if approached in a “repressive” way rather than an approach seeking to reform addicts.  Miguel R. So bad is the Philippines’ drug problem that Filipinos overwhelmingly voted into the presidency a man whose main platform centers on stamping out crime, particularly the trade in illegal drugs, within three to six months after assuming office. The deaths of five people who attended the open-air Closeup Forever Summer Concert at the Mall of Asia on May 21 suggest the pervasiveness of the drug culture and the easy access to highly regulated substances even in very public venues.
The five fatalities—aged 18 to 33, one an American—were found unconscious at different places in the concert grounds; they died in hospitals hours later. Expressing regret over the deaths, the concert organizers said they were cooperating with authorities in the investigation and that “very stringent measures and precautions” were in place during the event. Police have disavowed responsibility for the incident, citing an internal arrangement with organizers about taking charge only of perimeter security.
Dancing to and otherwise enthused by the music, some 14,000 young bodies gratefully partook of cold drinks reportedly being passed around.
Investigators are looking into reports that the five had taken party drugs that contain a cocktail of shabu, the recreational drug ecstasy, and cialis, a drug used to treat erectile dysfunction. And the Philippine Drug Enforcement Agency (PDEA) must push for an intensive investigation: Should a new police protocol be drafted to make law enforcement more effective even in private and ticketed events? It seems good news that we are again the fastest growing economy in Asia, and possibly the world, with the 6.9 percent reported annual growth rate of our gross domestic product (GDP) in the first quarter. Three world economic and financial giants recently came out calling for a serious review of how economies measure their performance. With all its limitations and shortcomings, GDP remains the most widely used measure for assessing the performance of economies worldwide.
At the aggregate level, growth in GDP says nothing about how output and incomes are distributed.
At the individual level, even economists themselves have long questioned the premise that increased income or access to goods and services leads to improved wellbeing or greater happiness.
In other words, we humans can increase happiness not just from consuming more goods and services.
A true anecdote from the Kingdom of Bhutan, where its former king had prominently championed the concept of gross national happiness, drives the point home quite clearly. With world-renowned economists now calling for it, we may soon see serious efforts to revisit our standard measures of economic performance, or more importantly, economic wellbeing.
Stiglitz aptly summed up why we need to find a better measure: “What we measure informs what we do.
When the renowned Filipino sculptor Eduardo Castrillo passed away last week at 73, news reports about him included the enumeration of many of his bigger-than-life metal monuments—historical, sociopolitical, religious—that are familiar to the public.
But there was no mention of the one at the Bantayog ng mga Bayani compound in Quezon City, where heroes and martyrs who fought against tyranny during the dark years of the Marcos dictatorship are memorialized.
Soaring to the sky, this 45-foot bronze monument by Castrillo depicts a mother trying, with one hand, to raise from the ground a fallen son, while her other hand is raised to the heavens in defiance. If you were one of those who experienced the excesses of the Marcos regime and the cruelty that defined it, if you lost loved ones—family members, friends, colleagues and comrades—during that despicable era, you would shudder at the memory when you look up and lay your eyes on Castrillo’s work.
The Bantayog complex now includes a P16-million building which houses a small auditorium, library, archives and museum.
I wish I had interviewed Castrillo long ago to ask him how he came to depict the defiant mother and her fallen son in that way, what inspired him, what he knew about the persons for whom his piece of art in bronze would be dedicated. What I learned just now is that the Bantayog monument was commissioned by a donor for a seven-digit price.
A short distance from the monument to the heroes and martyrs is a black granite wall of remembrance where the first 65 names were etched in 1992. All of them were opposed to the martial law regime of the dictator Ferdinand Marcos and considered freedom advocates. The monument, the commemorative wall and other structures at the Bantayog complex are dedicated to the nation’s modern-day martyrs and heroes who fought against all odds to help restore freedom, peace, justice, truth and democracy in the country.
Bantayog plans to expand its information activities that would include publishing biographies, dissemination of informative materials, film showings, roving exhibitions and museum tours. Like many of his bronze creations that reach out to the sky, may Castrillo’s spirit reach out and soar to the heavens. The centuries-old proverb “For want of a nail” has many variations, but these tell us only one thing: that a seemingly small or unimportant act of omission can lead to grave consequences. If I may draw a parallel to the proverb, President Aquino was unhorsed, his anointed successor Mar Roxas did not make it in the presidential election, and the chance to continue the daang matuwid legacy was lost.
Instead of allowing his spokespersons to react and defend him awkwardly for every public criticism, P-Noy could have done a regular TV “fireside chat” to talk directly to families in the comfort of their homes, to explain significant happenings in clear, intimate language without being misquoted, and without the adulterated bias of irresponsible media reporters and editors. US President Franklin Delano Roosevelt was the first president to effectively use radio to communicate directly with citizens in their own homes.
Direct communication with the people was specially needed to quell damaging rumors on Facebook and other social media concerning sensitive issues that mattered, such as the truth about the “Yolanda” recovery efforts, the truth about the Mamasapano clash, and the truth about the breakdown of MRT trains. The people’s frustration with the Aquino administration resulted in a mass movement for change.
In the area of public works, Secretary Rogelio Singson was a giant of a man, working quietly and tirelessly in building more than 12,000 kilometers of road infrastructures and breaking down the culture of corruption in public works. Now that the daang matuwid kingdom is lost, the President is starting to report his remarkable achievements in social and traditional media, and people are wondering why they never knew these things before.
The best way to prevent an image crisis is to build, enhance and protect your reputation with honest storytelling from the very start of your public life. From a democratization standpoint, one of the crucial questions on the 2016 presidential election that need to be answered is how an in-your-face authoritarian candidate like Rodrigo Duterte triumphed in a consolidated democracy. The first reality is that Duterte’s real uniqueness is not that he is a political outsider initially unsupported by major political parties and big business. Instead, his uniqueness is that he is the first ever presidential candidate of this country who explicitly threatened to become a dictator if democratic institutions stand in his way once he is elected president. Just to put his uniqueness in perspective, not even Ferdinand Marcos, whether the senior or the junior, ran on such an openly and brazenly prodictatorship platform. And because he won, he will be the first president of this country who can actually claim to have the electoral mandate to end democracy if he finds it necessary to do so.
Taking a dark turn on the democratic ideal of keeping one’s electoral promises, he can stare Philippine democracy in the eye as he puts a gun to its head and rhetorically asks it: Did I not vow that I will close down Congress and set aside the courts and make myself a dictator if things do not go my way? The second reality is that Philippine democracy under Benigno Aquino III is a stable, consolidated democracy.
While this administration is by no means an unqualified success story, modest improvements in key economic and governance indicators have been achieved under Mr. These also include technological (the elections were the country’s first social media elections and only the Duterte camp fully understood this fact), cultural (Filipino rebelliousness against incumbents or Filipino gullibility to messiahs), psychological (fascist attraction or Freudian id release), international (global resurgence of authoritarianism), and institutional (president is elected by plurality vote) explanations. Riding on the crest of Duterte’s spectacular surge, these analyses suddenly saw the weaknesses of Philippine politics, economy, society and democracy in a new and much harsher light.
But such analyses ignore one of the basic insights of democratic theorizing on elections in a competitive regime: that elections create identities, narratives, paradigms and, yes, zeitgeists, and not just the other way around.
Surprisingly, alternative explanations to Duterte’s striking victory in a consolidated democracy might lie in studying the lessons of the equally dramatic triumph of another candidate in the vice-presidential race: the come-from-(way)-behind victory of Rep. Gene Lacza Pilapil is an assistant professor of political science at the University of the Philippines Diliman. This has always been one of the major deterrents to investment, foreign and local: an administration that thinks only in six-year terms, and changes the commitments of its predecessor.
I’m no expert on this, but if I were Duterte, I’d do three things: 1) Move general aviation and the Air Force to Sangley Point immediately. There are other areas where change is needed, too, and truly opening up the economy by removing the constitutional restrictions on foreign equity is one of them. The bill to create a Department of Information and Communications Technology was one of them, but this has now been signed by Mr. Social media has changed the way we live, from how we interact with other people and  how we articulate our views in life to how we purchase things.
I was 12 when I first made a social media account, not because I needed it, but because my friends had one. Have you ever had that bizarre feeling of your phone vibrating in your pocket when in fact it’s not? Social media is a constant stream of information and entertainment that hooks users to keep on scrolling. When I temporarily gave up social media, I learned that I have more free time than I have ever thought. Research shows that young adults who frequently check their social media are most likely to have sleep problems. You may have hundreds or thousands of followers, yet still feel the agonizing buzz of crowded loneliness.
During the period of my social media fasting, I realized that meeting friends as opposed to chatting with them online is more expensive.
Checking social media becomes unconscious behavior, at least for me, but after my unplugging, I can say that I have fewer cravings. Julie Ruth Gagarin, 22, is an advertising and public relations graduate of Polytechnic University of the Philippines. The reported appointment of Mark Villar, son of former Senate president Manuel Villar and incumbent Sen. Some, if not many, Filipinos think that the decision by presumptive President-elect Rodrigo Duterte is “flawed.” Why? Worse, political patronage is a travesty of the “change” that Duterte has promised to pursue under his administration. However, Villar can be much better than the present public works secretary whose projects, like the notorious reblocking, road widening and double asphalt overlay, are not needed. It would better serve the presumptive President-elect if he reconsiders his offer to the young Villar who just won a seat in Congress. Before it’s too late, presumptive President-elect Rodrigo Duterte should listen and take seriously the criticisms hurled by media on his handpicked, would-be Cabinet secretaries. Duterte might suffer the same fate as that of outgoing President Aquino whose loyalty to his friends, relatives and closed associates tarnished his image and further eroded his popularity. The majority of Filipinos are behind Duterte 100 percent and wish him to succeed in office as president of the Philippines. NEW YORK, United States — Oil prices surged to the highest levels this year Wednesday after data showed a fall in US crude inventories that added to expectations of a tightening global market. The global oil market nosedived from above $100 a barrel two years ago to around $27 in early 2016, plagued by a stubborn glut. They have since rebounded, aided by weeks of wildfires in Canada that have curbed oil production and unrest affecting energy infrastructure in Nigeria, Africa’s biggest oil exporter. Presumptive President-elect Rodrigo Duterte’s stern warning for the two dominant telecommunication companies to shape up has emboldened the Philippine Competition Commission (PCC) as it vowed to look into possible uncompetitive business practices in the provision of Internet services. Duterte said Monday that he would open the country to foreign telco players that could provide better service if the existing firms would not do something to improve Internet connection and access.
The PCC chief lamented that he himself suffered from poor Internet service despite high costs shelled out by consumers. In the drafting of a national competition policy to be led by the National Economic and Development Authority (Neda) and the PCC, Balisacan noted that it would help that the incoming President, who will also head the Neda Board, was pushing for more competitive services sectors, including telecommunications.
While the scoping study being conducted by the PCC with regards the priority sectors to be investigated by the body for unfair competition has been delayed, Balisacan said Duterte’s pronouncements with regards his administration’s competition policy would boost the implementation of RA 10667, described as the country’s first foray into antitrust regulation.
It would help that government agencies, including the President himself, could lodge a case or complaint to the PCC, Balisacan said. Moving forward, the PCC would investigate uncompetitive sectors, possibly including telecommunications. The value of investment pledges approved by the Board of Investments (BOI) surged by 64 percent to P117.3 billion in the first four months of the year, reflecting the continued confidence of investors in the Philippines. Among the big ticket projects noted in the first four months of the year were the P16.7-billion project registered by Megawide Cebu Airport Corp. Despite the stellar growth, the Department of Trade and Industry will keep its 5 percent investment growth target.
A manufacturing resurgence, according to Cristobal, was also evident as the sector has consistently surpassed the growth of services for the past nine quarter. A specter commonly  experienced by the banking industry in congressional investigations is the compulsion of our congressmen and senators  to disclose information relating to bank accounts. Without dealing into specifics such as whether the secrecy of bank deposits covers instances where a bank account is alleged to be fictitious (an issue that only our courts of law can decide under our constitutional system of government), the question is whether or not Congress has the power to compel banks and their officers or employees to disclose to them information relating to “deposits” and “properties and properties in the[ir] custody”  in the course of public hearings in aid of legislation.
A perusal of the records of the legislative deliberations indubitably showed Congress was devoid of such power. This state policy was reiterated and made stricter by Congress when it passed the Foreign Currency Deposits Act (R.A. This strict basic policy which, according to one Supreme Court case  remained “unaltered by the legislated exceptions”, was reiterated by Congress when it passed the General Banking Act. In fact, aside from our courts of law in the limited instances provided by law, only the Anti-Money Laundering Council was expressly authorized to conduct inquiries into bank deposits should prevailing circumstances so warrant and only if certain conditions were satisfied.
Undoubtedly, neither the Senate nor the House of Representatives (much less the individual senators and representatives) can ask banks and their officers or employees to disclose any information on deposits or money and properties in their custody even in aid of legislation. Nine suspects allegedly involved in circulating fake money were arrested during raids conducted by monetary authorities from January to March this year.
In a statement Wednesday, the Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas (BSP) said operatives of its Currency Issue and Integrity Office undertook four “successful” anti-counterfeiting operations during the first quarter.
Between 2010 and the first quarter of this year, 61 anti-counterfeiting operations were conducted by the BSP in cooperation with other law enforcement agencies. The BSP has police authority to investigate, make arrests, as well as conduct searches and seizures to maintain the currency’s integrity under Republic Act No.
The tipsters who provided the BSP information about counterfeiting activities were also given monetary rewards.
The BSP said that from 2010, 55 individuals have received monetary reward, the highest of which amounted to P201,000.
Apart from flagship brand Jollibee, which sells the popular fried chicken “Chickenjoy,” its brands Mang Inasal, Chowking, Greenwich and Burger King franchise also sell a significant volume of chicken products. In a disclosure to the Philippine Stock Exchange on Wednesday, JFC said it had entered into an agreement with Cargill Philippines Inc.
This partnership is estimated to create around 1,000 new full-time jobs and develop new opportunities in the farming community in Batangas and nearby provinces as local poultry farmers are contracted to grow chicken to supply the requirements of the processing plant. Cargill will hold a 70-percent stake in the venture while JFC will own the remaining 30 percent. JFC will also have a 30-percent stake in the realty firm from which CJPMPI will lease the land on which the processing plant will be located.
JFC chief executive officer Ernesto Tanmantiong said in a press statement: “We partnered with Cargill to deliver high quality chicken products through Cargill’s technology and quality standards. JFC will also invest P15.2 million in its 30-percent stake in the realty firm from which CJPMPI will lease the land.
The JFC group operates a total of 3,158 stores worldwide, of which 2,506 are in the Philippines.
The creation of a Department of Information and Communications Technology (DICT) is expected to strategically position the Philippines as a leader in the global ICT market and other related sectors, according to the country’s envoy to the United States.
Most importantly, there would be limitless possibilities for the creative, Internet-savvy Filipino, especially the young, he said. Under the law, the existing Department of Transportation and Communications (DOTC) would be renamed the Department of Transportation. The economy is seen expanding at an even faster pace in the second quarter with a boost from election-related spending, according to First Metro Investment Corp. The government last week reported the country’s gross domestic product (GDP) grew 6.9 percent during the first three months, the fastest expansion among major Asian economies. Public expenditures in the second half, meanwhile, were seen to be ramped up by incoming President Rodrigo R. Remittance inflows from Filipinos overseas would also continue to support consumer spending, FMIC added. The total amount of outstanding government-issued securities further declined to P3.77 trillion at the end of April as more T-bonds and T-bills matured that month. The latest Bureau of the Treasury data showed the amount at the end of the first four months was lower than the P3.84 trillion posted at end-March.
The Treasury will sell at an auction P20 billion in T-bills—P8 billion of the benchmark 91-day, P6 billion in 182-day and P6-billion 364-day government securities—on June 6. The government had planned to borrow domestically, through the sale of treasury bills and bonds, a total of P135 billion during the second quarter. Despite the implementation of the Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas’ term deposit auction facility under the interest rate corridor scheme, the Treasury would still continue to sell T-bills and T-bonds, National Treasurer Roberto B. Built by the Arab general Uqba ibn Nafi from 670 AD (the year 50 according to the Islamic calendar) at the founding of the city of Kairouan, the mosque is spread over a surface area of 9,000 square metres and it is one of the oldest places of worship in the Islamic world, as well as a model for all later mosques in the Maghreb.[1] The Great Mosque of Kairouan is one of the most impressive and largest Islamic monuments in North Africa,[2] its perimeter is almost equal to 405 metres (1,328 feet). Under the Aghlabids (9th century), huge works gave the mosque its present aspect.[7] The fame of the Mosque of Uqba and of the other holy sites at Kairouan helped the city to develop and repopulate increasingly. But because of the specific nature of the land, crossed by several tributaries of the wadis, the urban development of the city stretched southwards. At the foundation of Kairouan in 670, the Arab general and conqueror Uqba Ibn Nafi (himself the founder of the city) chose the site of his mosque in the center of the city, near the headquarters of the governor. Under the rule of Aghlabid sovereigns, Kairouan was at its apogee, and the mosque profited from this period of stability and prosperity. The current state of the mosque can be traced back to the reign of Aghlabidsa€”no element is earlier than the ninth century besides the mihraba€”except for some partial restorations and a few later additions made in 1025 during the reign of Zirids,[27] 1248 and 1293-1294 under the reign of Hafsids,[28] 1618 at the time of mouradites beys,[29] in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century.
Several centuries after its founding, the Great Mosque of Kairouan is the subject of numerous descriptions by Arab historians and geographers in the Middle Ages. A« He built in the mosque of Kairouan the cupola that rises over the entrance to the central nave, together with the two colonnades which flank it from both sides, and the galleries were paved by him. Among the Western travelers, poets and writers who visited Kairouan, some of them leave impressions and testimonies sometimes tinged with emotion or admiration on the mosque. A« The Great Mosque is dedicated to Uqba, where there is a famous college where we will study the remotest corners of this kingdom : are taught reading and writing of Arabic grammar, laws and religion. A« Is there a more beautiful than this still preserved old tower, the minaret, in Islamic architecture ? Today, the enclosure of the Great Mosque of Kairouan is pierced by nine gates (six opening on the courtyard, two opening on the prayer hall and a ninth allows access to the maqsura) some of them, such as Bab Al-Ma (Gate of water) located on the western facade, are preceded by salient porches flanked by buttresses and surmounted by ribbed domes based on square tholobate which are porting squinches with three vaults.[12][37] However, Arab geographers and historians of the Middle Ages Al-Muqaddasi and Al-Bakri reported the existence, around the tenth and eleventh centuries, of about ten gates named differently from today. The portico on the south side of the courtyard, near the prayer hall, includes in its middle a large dressed stone pointed horseshoe arch which rests on ancient columns of white veined marble with Corinthian capitals. The combination formed by the courtyard and the galleries that surround it covers an immense area whose dimensions are about 90 meters long and 72 meters in width.[44] The northern part of the courtyard is paved with flagstones while the rest of the floor is almost entirely composed of white marble slabs. The door giving access to the minaret is framed by a lintel and jambs made of recycled carved friezes of antique origin.[49] There are stone blocks from the Roman period that bear Latin inscriptions. The interior includes a staircase of 129 steps, surmounted by a barrel vault, which gives access to the terraces and the first tier of the minaret.
The Mosque has several domes, the largest being over the mihrab and the entrance to the prayer hall from the courtyard. The prayer hall is located on the southern side of the courtyard ; and is accessed by 17 carved wooden doors.
The central nave, a sort of triumphal alley which leads to the mihrab,[62] is significantly higher and wider than the other sixteen aisles of the prayer hall. In the prayer hall, the 414 columns of marble, granite or porphyry[68] (among more than 500 columns in the whole mosque),[69] taken from ancient sites in the country such as SbeA?tla, Carthage, Hadrumetum and Chemtou,[59] support the horseshoe arches. The covering of the prayer hall consists of painted ceilings decorated with vegetal motifs and two domes : one raised at the beginning of the central nave and the other in front of the mihrab. The painted ceilings are a unique ensemble of planks, beams and brackets, illustrating almost thousand years of the history of painting on wood in Tunisia. The boards painted under the Hafsid period (during the thirteenth century) offers a floral decor consists of white and blue arches entwined with lobed green. The mihrab, which indicates the Qibla (direction of Mecca), in front of which stands the imam during the prayer, is located in the middle of the southern wall of the prayer hall. The mosque's mihrab, whose decor is a remarkable witness of Muslim art in the early centuries of Islam, is distinguished by its harmonious composition and the quality of its ornaments. It is surrounded at its upper part by 139 lusterware tiles (with a metallic sheen), each one is 21.1 centimeters square and they are arranged on the diagonal in a chessboard pattern. The wall of the mihrab is covered with 28 panels of white marble, carved and pierced, which have a wide variety of plant and geometric patterns including the stylized grape leaf, the flower and the shell.
The maqsura, located near the minbar, consists of a fence bounding a private enclosure that allows the sovereign and his senior officials to follow the solemn prayer of Friday without mingling with the faithful. The library is near located, accessible by a door which the jambs and the lintel are carved in marble, adorned with a frieze of floral decoration.
The Mosque of Uqba, one of the few religious buildings of Islam has remained intact almost all of its architectural and decorative elements, is due to the richness of its repertoire which is a veritable museum of Islamic decorative art and architecture.
From the library of the mosque comes a large collection of calligraphic scrolls and manuscripts, the oldest dating back to the second half of the ninth century.
Among the finest works of this series, the pages of the Blue Qur'an, currently exhibited at Raqqada National Museum of Islamic Art, from a famous Qur'an in the second half of the fourth century of the Hegira (the tenth century) most of which is preserved in Tunisia and the rest scattered in museums and private collections worldwide. Other works of art such as the crowns of light (circular chandeliers) made in cast bronze, dating from the Fatimid-Zirid period (around tenth-early eleventh century), originally belonged to the furniture of the mosque. At the time of its greatest splendor, between the ninth and eleventh centuries AD, Kairouan was one of the greatest centers of Islamic civilization and its reputation as a hotbed of scholarship covered the entire Maghreb.
In addition to studies on the deepening of religious thought and Maliki jurisprudence, the mosque also hosted various courses in secular subjects such as mathematics, astronomy, medicine and botany. DESCRIPTION:This seminal work was initially compiled in manuscript form on vellum, with drawings in red and black.
The author, a seventh century Bishop of Seville (Spain), leaned heavily himself on classical writers, as well as the teachings of the Church Fathers. In view of the extraordinary influence of this treatise, the following excepts (the translation is taken from G.
Concerning the earth we are told that it is named from its roundness (orbis) which is like a wheel; whence the small wheel is called a€?orbiculusa€?. As to size, Isidore accepts Eratosthenesa€™ estimate (via Macrobius) of 252,000 stadia for the circumference of the earth.
The Ancients did not divide these three parts of the world equally, for Asia stretches right from the south, through the east to the north, but Europe stretches from the north to the west and thence Africa from the west to the south.
Interestingly, Isidore was the first writer to clearly define the Mediterranean by that proper name. It contains many provinces and districts whose names and geographical situations I will briefly describe, beginning from Paradise .
This obvious Biblical note coming so early in the topographical section of the treatise might lead the reader to expect its continuance in subsequent chapters; but apart from one or two entirely understandable references to Biblical lore - Scythia and Gothia also are said to have been named by Magog, son of Japhet and the River Ganges which sacred scripture calls Phison, flows down from Paradise to the realms of India - only the most sparing use of this source is made.
In the extreme east of Asia the country of Seres is rich in fine leaves, from which are cut fleeces which the natives who decline the merchandise of other peoples sell for use as garments .
Europe, in the true classical fashion, is divided from Asia by the river Tanais [todaya€™s Don] and is bordered on the north by the Northern Ocean.
Moreover beyond [these] three parts of the world, on the other side of the ocean, is a fourth inland part in the south, which is unknown to us because of the heat of the sun, within the bounds of which the Antipodes are fabulously said to dwell.
This concession by Isidore as expressed in the brief quote above indicated that he more than half believed in the sphericity of the earth and quite fully in the doctrine of the Antipodes. As far as his own graphic expression of the worlda€™s geography, one of the map designs frequently associated with Isidore of Seville is actually a survival of the ancient Greek tripartite division of the world into Asia, Africa and Europe, surrounded by the Ocean Sea.
The T within the O produced a world image divided into half (by the cross of the T) and two quarters.
Regardless of experience and all knowledge to the contrary, the most important city regionally was located in the center of the habitable world. In addition to the usual tripartite circular map of the world, some manuscripts of the Etymologiarum feature other map designs as well. Caius Crispus Sallustius, generally known as Sallust (86-34 BCE) was a Roman senator and historian, who subsequent to his falling out with the Caesar, was sent to Africa as a governor of Numidia (In the north-west of Africa}.


He produced his most important works on the conspiracy of Catiline and the war of Rome with Jugurtha.
The Medes and Armenians connected them selves with the Libyans who dwelled near the African sea, while the Getulians lay more to the sun, not far from the torrid heats; and these soon built themselves towns, as, being separated from Spain only by a strait, they proceeded to open an intercourse with its inhabitants.
Some copies of Sallusts manuscripts, which have reached us, do also include a simple T-O map, which relates to his narrative of the Jugurthine War.
As mentioned above, Sallusta€™s works were copied and re-copied and were in use until the late medieval period and many of the later copies of his manuscripts have reached us.
Sallust mappamundi, ninth century, a€?University of Leipzig Library, Leipzig, Germany, MS 1607, f. Since Sallust was the governor of Numidia, he has naturally paid more attention to the details of this continent.
In the bodies of water dividing the world into the three continents, the Mediterranean bears no legend. Another variation of the basic Isidorean design was called the Byzantine-Oxford, or B-O T-O maps.
More prominently than in any other example of the biblical school, the Holy Land dominates the center of the map. The map was brought back to England or Ireland after the First Crusade, which conquered Jerusalem in 1099.
Christian scholars adopted the T-O map for its simplicity, as had the classical writers who first employed it. These T-O maps, whether actually contained in the Etymologiarum of Isidore, in later editions of the same, as modified derivatives thereof (Sallusts, B-O T-O), or as maps that were merely influenced by the basic design format (Hereford, Ebstorf, et. At the Benedictine monastery of Thorney in East Anglia, a large and elegant computus book was finished in 1110, designed to be an ornament of the newly completed church. The continents are arranged with Asia at the top, Europe apparently in the center and Africa in the southwest corner. Like the map within the rota of sunrises and sunsets, this is a T-O map with Asia in the top half, and Europe and Africa in the lower half.
In form, content and function, MS 17a€™s map represents a recent development in medieval cartography. On the other hand, this mappamundi is also closely connected in content and context to Byrhtfertha€™s Diagram on fol.
But there is also a particularly insular connection between computus and universal geography, one that is connected to the debates over the correct system of calculating Easter that marked the early years of Christianity in England. Schematic maps of the oikumene of the T-O type are often embedded in computus diagrams as a shorthand representation of the earth; zone maps illustrating the climates of the earth, derived from Macrobiusa€™ Commentum in Somnium Scipionis (#201), appear in anthologies of cosmographic materials as illustrations of passages from Isidore (cf. In about 1446-1451 Jean Mansel composed a universal history titled La fleur des histoires, and then in the 1460s wrote a longer version of the same work.
The map is placed at the start of the prologue to Book IV, in which a description of the regions of the world is given in alphabetical order. The name gorgato recalls the medieval Latin gargata and Old French gargate, meaning a€?throat,a€? perhaps alluding to the creaturea€™s voracious nature, but these monsters seem to have been invented by the cartographer.
The T-O map tradition did not die out as a cartographic form of expression until as late as the 17th century, as may be seen from a book such as the Variae Orbis Universi, by Petrus Bertius, 1628.
The Matenadaran archive collection in Yerevan, capital of Armenia, contains some 14,000 manuscripts from the golden age of Armenian literature, beginning in the 5th century, and from later periods. One exception to the general lack of maps in the Yerevan archives is MS 1242, a collection of eighteen unrelated essays on religious, moral, mathematical and astronomical subjects dating mainly from the 13th to the 15th centuries.
The map on folio 132r can be described as of the T - O type, but its construction has been modified. Also as in many maps of the T-O genre, the centre is occupied by the Holy City of Jerusalem, which is shown with its six gates, each inscribed with its name in Armenian.
In both shape and arrangement, the city sign is akin to that on the Hereford mapparnundi, c.1290 (#226), although it lacks the enclosing crenulated walls of the Hereford map sign. As shown in the following Table, in addition to Jerusalem, twenty-seven place- names are found on the map. The inscription to the left of the stem of the T, below the triangle formed by three dots, reads, Ays koghms Eropa [This side is Europe]. The Red Sea [Karmir] dzov; only the word sea is legible on the map) is shown as a bold open circle on the borders of Africa and Asia.
The division between Europe and Asia, normally marked with the horizontal crossbar of the T, here is demarcated with a single red line and is more complex. In keeping with T-O maps in general, the greater part of the Armenian map is allocated to Asia, inscribed Ays koghms Asia [This side is Asia]. In the east, in the upper part of the map close to the Ocean are the names Khaytai [China] and Zaytun [Zaytun], another Chinese trading port city.
The presence of these toponyms in the area between Europe and China bears witness to the importance of these towns and provinces in trade and commerce between East and West and is perhaps indicative of the period of the mapa€™s creation. There is nothing, then, untoward in the inclusion on the Armenian map of Sara (Sarai), a city founded only in the 1240s by Batu Khan, the grandson of Mongol leader Gangiz Khan, who took over the territory of southern Russia and its Turkic speaking peoples during the early 13th century. Khachaturian also proposed that based on palaeographic evidence, the map was made in the Cilician Kingdom of Armenia during the Crusades, unfortunately not specifying which Crusade.
Caffa, the first town listed in the row of toponyms along the northeastern periphery of the map, was only a small Crimean seaside town until the 13th century.
The presence of the name Caffa on the map is a strong indication that the map was made during the citya€™s heyday, namely in the 14th century.
Since, in my view, the map has to postdate both the establishment of Sarai-Batu and Sarai-Berke (New Sarai, established 1257-1266) and the time when Caffa became an important conurbation, it cannot be dated to earlier than the third quarter of the 13th century. While the majority of T-O maps produced in the Christian West depict Armenia, Mount Ararat and Noaha€™s Ark, this Armenian mapmaker has chosen not to mention any of these Armenian features. In the end, the absence of reference on the Armenian map to Armenia itself or to any of its immediate neighbors, such as Persia and Assyria, is more puzzling.
The existence of this Armenian language T-O map, though, may be owed simply to the curiosity of an individual whose interest in Western maps and literature would have been a sufficient reason for him to create a map of his own in line with those of the Western mapmakers of the time, leaving us an Armenian map as remarkable for its uniqueness as for the hints it gives of the interconnections underlying the T-O maps and the mappaemundi of the West. This is a very late example of a T-O world map, probably made in Bruges in 1482 for King Edward IV, the founder of the old Royal Library. 205CT-O map from Isidore of Sevillea€™s Etymologiarum, unknown, 10th century, 11.5 cm dia, Biblioteca Medicea Laurenziana, Florence, Plut. 205CCDiagram map from MS of Bedea€™s De natura rerum, Bede, 9th century, 24 cm square, Bayerische Staatsbibliotek, Munich, Clm 210, f. 205DD Isidore mappamundi, unknown, 11th century, 26 cm dia, Bayerische Staatsbibliotek, Munich, Clm 10058, f. 205ET-O map from Isidore of Sevillea€™s Etymologiarum, unknown, Santarem s Atlas compose de mappemondes .
205GG Circular Plan of Jerusalem, unknown, 13th century, 26 cm diameter, British Library, Additional MS. 205HT-O Sallust map from Bellum Jugurthinum, unknown, 14th century, Biblioteca Nazionale Marciana, Venice, Fond. 205HH Reverse T-O map from MS of Isidorea€™s De natura rerum, unknown, 12th century, 19 cm diameter, Cathedral Curch of Exeter, MS. 205JJT-O map from MS of Isidorea€™s De natura rerum, unknown, 9th century, 12.5 cm diameter, Burgerbibliothek, Bern, Codex 417, fol. 205LLSallust T-O map from De bello Jugurthino, West oriented, unknown, 6.8 cm diameter, Bibliotheque Nationale, MS. 205MT-O map from Isidore of Sevillea€™s Etymologiarum, unknown, 8th century, 22 X 29 cm, Vatican Library, MS Vat. 205MM Sallust T-O map with symmetrical rivers, unknown, 13th century, 10.5 cm diameter, Gonville and Caius College, MS. 205NSallust T-O map, unknown, 13th century, 10.5 cm diameter, Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge MS.
205OT-O Sallust map, unknown, 13th century, 4.3 cm diameter, Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris, MS Lat.
205QT-O map from Isidore of Sevillea€™s Etymologiarum, unknown, 10th century, 11.5 cm diameter, Biblioteca Medicea Laurenziana, Florence, Plut. 205TT-O and -V maps from Isidore of Sevillea€™s Etymologiarum, unknown, 12th century, 7.2 cm diameter, BnF, Manuscrits (Latin 10293 fol.
205TTT-O world map by Chatillon, Gautier de Chatillon, 13th century, 7 cm diameter, Bodleian Library, MS Bod. 205V1Gauthier de Chatillon mappimundi, Alexandreis, Gauthier de Chatillon, 13th century, Bibliotheque Nationale, Fonds Francais 11334, fol. 205WY-O map from Macrobiusa€™ Commentarium in somnium Scipionis, unknown, 12th century, 8.7 cm diameter, Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris, MS. 205YT-O map from MS of Commentary on the Apocalypse of Saint John (Beatus), unknown, 11th century, 4.7 cm diameter, Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris, MS. 205ZT-O map from MS of Bedea€™s De natura rerum, Bede, 12th century, 8.1 cm diameter, Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris, MS.
Whether you admit or not, the appearance plays a decisive role for someone to choose or seek a mate. For the massive goodness, I gather some great tips on how to choose photos for your online profile. Third, DO NOT upload a photo with your ex covered inside, even if you cut out or black out your ex. Single men over 50s would be more serious in finding someone to date or marry than the youths who consider they still have a lot of time for fun or playing.
Hindi lang one or two officers pati mga generals (Not just one or two officers, but generals as well).
I am satisfied [na] walang masyadong hostilities ngayon (that there are not much hostilities now),” the incoming President said.
The Italian navy says it has recovered a few bodies from the overturned migrant ship off the coast of Libya, while some 500 migrants who were on board were rescued safely. I could only see heads, all around, amid the waves, everyone pushing down on everyone else to try and stay afloat”. A nine-month old baby girl whose mother died during a crossing this week was being looked after by cultural mediators in the reception center on Lampedusa island, La Repubblica said. Leaders of the Group of Seven rich nations will undoubtedly voice unity over fighting terrorism, pandemics and tax evasion at their summit in Japan starting on Thursday, May 26. Tokyo said it was taking no chances in the wake of terror attacks that struck Paris and Brussels in recent months.
Jakarta has faced criticism for use its use of capital punishment against drug traffickers, and sparked international outrage last year when it put seven foreign drug convicts to death by firing squad.
Local media previously reported that a microchip could be implanted in child sex offenders’ legs on their release from jail. Joel Tabora offered this piece of unsolicited advice to presumptive President-elect Rodrigo “Digong” Duterte, even as he expressed understanding of the longtime mayor’s unorthodox ways and foul language, and largely supported his challenging stance towards the Catholic Church. So I think he’s saying “I have a love for the poor, maybe instead of knocking me down, maybe we should work together.
I think that was what the people admired on him so greatly,” said Tabora, calling Duterte by his nickname. What is the people of God saying in their choice of leader who was so very different from the bishops?
And indeed, investigators said the massive heart attack that killed two of the concertgoers was due to high blood pressure, kidney failure and dehydration—all indicators of drug overdose. And yet, according to reports, while some 70 cops were deployed at the venue, no security personnel were visible at the center of the gathering, where the party was said to have been at its wildest. With such lax security measures, and the young’s famous battle cry “Yolo”—you only live once—it’s not unreasonable to suspect that drug pushers and users had their day (and night) at the concert. Unfortunately, such party drugs are often sold online, making it easier for young people with an internet connection to be on party mode.
Can drug-sniffing dogs be deployed at concert venues to allow security personnel proper monitoring? And shouldn’t they have medical personnel trained to handle drug-related emergencies at the venue? But the body count can only go higher, as a recent PDEA report has indicated that in Metro Manila alone, 92 percent of barangays are drug-infested. In separate sessions at the annual meeting of the World Economic Forum (WEF) in Davos, Switzerland, Nobel laureate economist Joseph Stiglitz, International Monetary Fund chief Christine Lagarde and Massachusetts Institute of Technology professor Erik Brynjolfsson all described GDP as a poor indicator of progress. Where there’s a wide gap between a small rich minority and a large number who are poor, rapid GDP growth could come with increased misery, particularly when the benefits of growth accrue mainly to the former. Economics students are taught that “utility,” economists’ clinical term for “satisfaction” or “happiness,” is directly related to levels of consumption, and that for a rational consumer, more is always better. We may actually do so from giving more to others as well, drawing joy from the increased joy of others. Many years ago, the Bhutan government reportedly encouraged a prominent and influential farmer to double-crop a high-yielding rice variety. Among these are the People Power Monument on Edsa, the Bonifacio Monument near Manila City Hall, and the Rajah Sulayman Monument in Malate.
It is a piece of work that rends the heart and pierces the soul—a timeless reminder that freedom is not free, that freedom comes at a price. Yes, upon gazing at it you would, not only because of the painful events it brings back but also because of the stark poetry in the agony it depicts, the beauty in the defiant stance of a mother who must bear an unspeakable loss. The 1.5-hectare property was donated by the administration of President Corazon Aquino, through Land Bank of the Philippines, the year after the Marcos dictatorship was toppled and Corazon Aquino was swept to the presidency in 1986.
Many names have been added every year since then, bringing to 268 the names on the wall as of 2015. The way they lived and died varied, but they had heroic streaks that made them worthy to be included in the list of names on the Wall of Remembrance.
All “for want of a nail,” or for want of effective communications that told compelling stories about the accomplishments of the Aquino administration. As Edward Bernays, the originator of modern public relations, said, PR is “doing good” and “telling the public” about it. We are a forgiving people, and we would have understood if P-Noy said he was deeply sorry for failures and shortcomings beyond his control. The quality management system of the Department of Public Works and Highways is now certified in accordance with the requirements of the ISO (International Organization for Standardization) 9001:2008 standards. Even presumptive President-elect Rody Duterte has openly acknowledged that the P-Noy administration has done very well in its economic programs. His accomplishments were dismissed and ignored by the electorate during the election campaign.
Agatep is chair and CEO of Grupo Agatep, an integrated marketing communications agency, and a two-term president of the Public Relations Society of the Philippines. It is far from the usual deconsolidated and badly eroded democracies marked by political or economic turmoil that allowed messianic strongmen elsewhere to be elected and to later end or seriously erode their own democracies.
Aquino, from economic growth, low inflation, robust antipoverty program and higher employment to better rule of law and anticorruption scores.
Aquino in June 2013 that the Social Weather Stations recorded the highest satisfaction rating over how democracy works, at 80 percent. But a number of these analyses are bedeviled by the sense of inevitability of Duterte’s victory that they convey. These analyses argued that these infirmities explain why only Duterte could win or could have won the four-cornered presidential election. Leni Robredo over Marcos Jr.  For here it can be seen, in all its shining glory, the triumph of political strategy over zeitgeist, of contingency over inevitability, and of democracy over despair. No doubt there will be a short meeting in some departments, on where things stand, so that progress continues. But there are some areas where we don’t want continuity, and the overriding one is the exceedingly slow action of an administration that thinks before it acts, and then thinks again.
Well, here’s a good first test to prove he’s not just a “mouth”—his word, not mine (it’s hardly good English). It’s already the second most densely populated city in Asia, and with Manila Bay on one side and Laguna Bay on the other, it has nowhere to go. The incoming president can meet the outgoing one and ask for some last-minute actions on things Mr.
Aquino to rush a bill through Congress to create the post of Metro Manila governor, to whom all city mayors would report. When I became a teenager, I was not really that preoccupied with it, but gradually, my online time increased every year.
This is the same as wearing eyeglasses for long: Sometimes a person forgets that he or she is wearing them.
Whatever your niche is, social media always has something fresh to entice you to spend more time on the screen.
When I am writing and I am suddenly at a loss for words, I used to visit Facebook to relax a bit. A predictable night for most teenagers and young adults entails going to bed as early as 9 p.m. This is because our mobile phones produce blue light, which is healthy during the day but becomes a foe at night for it blocks the production of melatonin, a hormone that helps us sleep at night. It’s funny how Facebook recently included the emotion buttons, perhaps to give people the ability to communicate not only their views but also their feelings.
Instead of visiting a friend who is sick, we prefer to comment “get well soon” to their statuses. Remember that because of social media, jobs were created today that never existed in the past 15 years. At the end of the day, social media is not really the problem; how we use it may be the problem. Cynthia Villar, to the Cabinet position of public works secretary has not been well-received. We are told that the position was not offered to the young Villar, but was asked by his parents.
Our advocacy is for the new President to succeed by appointing the right people to the right positions!!! If he really has to appoint Mark Villar, then he can give him other positions in, say, the Department of Tourism or the Tourism Infrastructure and Enterprise Zone Authority.
While it is understandable for the presumptive President-elect to appoint persons who helped him during the campaign, it is important that they are appointed to the right positions to make them effective. As a result, President Aquino’s daang matuwid was repudiated in the last presidential election as his presidential candidate, former interior secretary Mar Roxas. US benchmark West Texas Intermediate for delivery in July advanced 94 cents to $49.56 a barrel on the New York Mercantile Exchange. Balisacan said on the sidelines of the public consultation on the implementing guidelines of the Republic Act (RA) No.
The BPO [business process outsourcing] sector is very dependent on a very efficient telco industry,” Balisacan noted. Sources of growth have become more diversified, showing changes in the structure of the economy. The manufacturing sector, he said, regained its strong position as it grew by 8.1 percent in the first quarter of 2016, the highest rate posted in the past even quarters.
Underpinned by our new industrial policy, investor confidence in manufacturing has heightened as indicated by rising fixed capital formation expenditure,” he explained. The following excerpts from the deliberations conducted by the House of Representatives in respect to the enactment of the Bank Secrecy Act (R.A. Not only that, but also, it protects the public investors or depositors from any harassment or investigation or inquiry into their bank deposits because the primary object of this bill is to encourage deposits in banks instead of hoarding in private safes of individuals.
1405 readily indicated there was an attempt to include inquiries conducted by Congress in aid of legislation as an exception to the secrecy of bank deposits.
On the contrary, Republic Act 1405, as finally passed by Congress,  expressly provided that “all deposits of whatever nature with banks or banking institutions … are hereby considered as of an absolutely confidential nature and may not be examined, inquired or looked into by any person, government official, bureau or office,” except upon the limited instances provided therein. This law expressly provided  that “[n]o  director, officer, employee, or agent of any bank shall … [w]ithout order of a court of competent jurisdiction, disclose to any unauthorized person any information relative to the funds or properties in the custody of the bank belonging to private individuals, corporations, or any other entity …” (Section 55.1(b)). We will continue to maintain our strong relationship with key chicken suppliers in the country and look forward to sustained long term supply arrangements with them as our businesses grow together,” Tanmantiong added. It would likewise improve over-all economic competitiveness through enhanced digital connectivity and integration,” Philippine Ambassador to the US Jose L.
10844 has been supported by the American business community and would long be remembered as one of the important pillars of President Aquino’s economic legacy. This vast space contains a hypostyle prayer hall, a huge marble-paved courtyard and a massive square minaret. Then there are the upheavals of Kairouan following Hilalian's invasions in 449 AH (or 1057 AD) and which led to the decline of the city. More than a defensive role, the buttresses and towers full serve more to enhance the stability of the mosque built on a soil subject to compaction.[13] Although a seemingly harsh, the external facades, punctuated with powerful buttresses and towering porches, some of which are surmounted by cupolas, give to the sanctuary a striking aspect characterized by majestic sobriety.
Around 690, shortly after its construction, the mosque was destroyed[15] during the occupation of Kairouan by the Berbers, originally conducted by Kusaila. The stories concern mainly the different phases of construction and expansion of the sanctuary, and the successive contributions of many princes to the interior decoration (mihrab, minbar, ceilings, etc.). In the history of Art, its three-storey minaret is considered such a masterpiece and a model among the most prestigious monuments of Muslim architecture. This reflects the fact that, unlike the rest of the mosque, the enclosure has undergone significant changes to ensure the stability of the building (adding many buttresses). This porch of seven meters high is topped with a square base upon which rests a semi-spherical ribbed dome ; the latter is ribbed with sharp-edged ribs.
Near its center is an horizontal sundial, bearing an inscription in naskhi engraved on the marble dating from 1258 AH (which corresponds to the year 1843) and which is accessed by a little staircase ; it determines the time of prayers. It consists of three tapering levels, the last of which is topped with a small ribbed dome that was most probably built later than the rest of the tower.[48] The first and second stories are surmounted by rounded merlons which are pierced by arrowslits. Their use probably dates to the work done under the Umayyad governor Bishr ibn Safwan in about 725 AD, and they have been reused at the base of the tower.[49] The greater part of the minaret dates from the time of the Aghlabid princes in the ninth century. The courtyard facade (or south facade) of the tower is pierced with windows that provide light and ventilation,[51] while the other three facadesa€”facing north, east and westa€”are pierced with small openings in the form of arrowslits.[47] The minaret, in its present aspect, dates largely from the early ninth century, about 836 AD.
The dome of the mihrab is based on an octagonal drum with slightly concave sides, raised on a square base, decorated on each of its three southern, Easter and western faces with five flat-bottomed niches surmounted by five semi-circular arches,[24][57] the niche in the middle is cut by a lobed oculus enrolled in a circular frame.
Wooden brackets offer a wide variety of style and decor in the shape of a crow or a grasshopper with wings or fixed, they are characterized by a setting that combines floral painted or carved, with grooves. It is formed by an oven-shaped niche framed by two marble columns and topped by a painted wooden half-cupola.
Divided into two groups, they are dated from the beginning of the second half of the ninth century but it is not determined with certainty whether they were made in Baghdad or in Kairouan by a Baghdadi artisan, the controversy over the origin of this precious collection agitates the specialists. Behind the openwork hint, there is an oldest niche on which several assumptions were formulated. Jewel of the art of woodwork produced during the reign of the Zirid prince Al-Muizz ibn Badis and dated from the first half of the eleventh century, it is considered the oldest still in place in the Islamic world.
Most of the works on which rests the reputation of the mosque are still conserved in situ while a certain number of them have joined the collections of the Raqqada National Museum of Islamic Art ; Raqqada is located about ten kilometers southwest of Kairouan. Featuring kufic character suras are written in gold on vellum dyed with indigo, they are distinguished by a compact graph with no marks for vowels. These polycandelons, now scattered in various Tunisian museums including Raqqada, consist of three chains supporting a perforated brass plate, which has a central circular ring around which radiate 18 equidistant poles connected by many horseshoe arches and equipped for each of two landmarks flared. During this period, the Great Mosque of Kairouan was both a place of prayer and a center for teaching Islamic sciences under the Maliki current.
The transmission of knowledge was assured by prominent scholars and theologians which included Sahnun ibn Sa'id and Asad ibn al-Furat, eminent jurists who contributed greatly to the dissemination of the Maliki thought, Ishaq ibn Imran and Ibn al-Jazzar in medicine, Abu Sahl al-Kairouani and Abd al-Monim al-Kindi in mathematics. From this it is quite evident that the two parts, Europe and Africa, occupy half of the world and that Asia alone occupies the other half.
Proceeding to a systematic description of the countries of the world, of Asia Isidore says that it is bounded in the east by Lake Maeotis [Sea of Azov] and the river Tanais [the river Don].
Other maps give definite localities for the Twelve Tribes of Israel and the abiding places of the Twelve Apostles. The most closely related or influenced maps of the T-Oa€™s are those that accompany manuscripts of Sallusta€™s works and may have originally been drawn to illustrate a passage from Sallusta€™s De bello Jugurthino which, like Isidorea€™s treatise, also attempted to briefly describe the countries of the world. Both accounts appear bound in one manuscript that was copied and used as a textbook of history for almost a millennium.
The sea is boisterous, and deficient in harbors; the soil is fertile in corn, and good for pasturage, but unproductive of trees. The name of Medes the Libyans gradually corrupted changing It in their barbarous tongue, into Moors. Many copies of this map mention the name of Armenians in North Africa, along with the names of the Medes and the Persians These were probably the forbearers of the first T-O maps, as we know them today. Some of these include basic T-O maps, which show the continents, including the names of some countries and peoples. The copy dates from the ninth or tenth century and is drawn on vellum and taken from a Sallust manuscript now in the University of Leipzig in Germany.
In the area of Europe there are no legends, only the city of Roma is represented with a vignette of a castle and its name, attesting to the importance of the power of Rome in the Empire.
Affrica contains 24 legends, which include cities of Harran, Cartage [Cartage] plus four other cities. The left arm of the T is inscribed Tanais, but the right arm, which should have borne the name Nilus, is only connected to the Nile at the right extremity, where the Nilus is shown as a vertical line.
There are 15 toponyms and the countries of Phoenicea, Carthago, Ethiopia, Numidia and mountains of Catabatmon are shown. This area is divided first into the lands of Judea, Galilee, and Palestine, and further by the names of seven of the Twelve Tribes. One of the most interesting features of this map is its highly abstract form: it is mostly comprised of straight lines with only a few concessions to irregular geographical forms. Most puzzling is that the label for Europe crosses what would normally be the Mediterranean.
The division of the earth among the sons of Noah, Noaha€™s ark, seven of the twelve tribal territories of the land of Israel, Jericho and the city of refuge (Joshua 20) for those guilty of involuntary manslaughter under Hebrew law, all come from Jewish history.
These divisions are treated rather casually, however, for the label EVROPA straddles the boundary between Europe and Africa; locations in the Holy Land are indifferently assigned to Asia and Africa, and Athens and Achaia are placed in Asia.
Running horizontally across the middle of the map, and dividing Asia from Africa and Europe, is a band labeled HIERVSALEM. Europe in principle occupies the left hand side of the lower half of the map, but the label EVROPA actually straddles the vertical divider. Great Britain, Ireland and Thule are represented at or over the edge of the orbis and in the northern rather than western quadrant.
The prominence given to Jerusalem, together with the double representation of the Cross (once on its own, and once on Mount Zion), is a case in point. Evelyn Edson, on the other hand, argues that MS 17a€™s mappamundi is one of a small group of complex maps directly inspired by computus themes. A famous and often reproduced world map in a manuscript of the short version of Mansela€™s book, which was probably made by Simom Marmion in about 1460, illustrates the division of the world among the three sons of Noah.
Mansela€™s description includes ancient places such as Carthage and Delos, biblical places such as Babylon and Judaea, and lands of contemporary importance such as Westphalia and Gascony.
Of course that is the easy conclusion, but it is rendered very plausible if we look at the names of some of the islands in the circumfluent oceana€”golgavatas terra, lapides presiosa (for lapides pretiosi, a€?precious stonesa€?), habundans terra, illa deserta, tamaria, alphaua terra, and illa arcana, for examplea€”which are quite clearly invented. It immediately precedes the prologue to Book IV, which includes a regional description of the world in alphabetical order.
Among these manuscripts are many illustrated works on astrology and astronomy as well as some on geography, but virtually nothing contains a map. The circular legend around the city reads The city of Jerusalem populated in ancient and recent times by the Israelites [the Armenian phrase reads Bnakui hin yev nor avrinatz qaghaq I[sra] letzotz vor e Yerusaghem].
It also resembles the plan of Jerusalem in another Armenian manuscript in the Matenadaran, the much later MS 1770 which dates from 1589. This is shown by the pair of vertical red lines that descend from Jerusalem in the center to the outer Ocean and represent the Mediterranean, which is identified only by the word Sea.
Between the inscription and the Mediterranean, that is in western Africa, is a small circle which, being inland, can only denote a lake.
It is outlined in black, colored solidly in red and interrupted as if to indicate the traditional crossing of the Israelites as they fled from Egypt. Two black lines, drawn at right angles to each other and to the red lines of the continental division and the Mediterranean, indicate the Aegean and Black Seas. In the north, following the curve of the encircling Ocean, and on the borders of Europe and Asia, is written Rusq [Russia].
Zaytun was the Arabic name given to the port of Quanzhou or Tseu-Tung in the province of Fujian, China. It may also be that this is the earliest Christian map on which the toponyms Caffa, Azov, Sarai, Zaytun and Khansai are found. The geographer Mkrdich Khachaturiana€™s suggestion that the map dates from 1206 is unlikely to be correct.
The Flemish Franciscan William de Rubruck (1220-1293), who in 1253 travelled to the region, stated that [Sarah] Batu was one of the most important cities of the region.
It is hardly possible to date a manuscript precisely based on palaeography alone, and, furthermore, the script used on the map is similar to that in a manuscript produced in Caffa in 1445 (Matenadaran, MS 8963), which is another collection of astrological and scientific subjects, with diagrams and calendars.
Only after Genoese merchants had leased it from the Mongols, was it transformed into a flourishing commercial centre, trading with the East and rivaling the Venetian- controlled city of Tanais on the Sea of Azov.
Such a date would fit the suggestion that the Armenian mapmaker, who was most likely to have been a monk, either saw or was told about contemporary Italian T-O maps in Caffa, a city not only administered by the Genoese, but also to all intents and purposes functioning as an Italian city, and one of the most suitably located Armenian communities for intellectual as well as commercial contact with the West.
Hovhannes Hovhannisian, the other Armenian geographer who has studied the map, argues that the presence of the commercial centers of Khorazm [Oxiana] and Sarai are indicative of the period when the Mongols had close connections with Khorazm (that is, from the 1240s to the 1360s), and this explains the rationale behind his dating the map to as late as 1360. Other biblical events and places are shown on the map, however: Jerusalem, the giving of the Tablets of the Law to Moses, Mount Sinai and the Red Sea. While the Hereford mappamundi, c.1290 (#226) and the Sawley map, 1180 (#215) each show a monastic establishment, the references to these have been placed on the banks of the Nile. It can plausibly be deduced, that the author was familiar with Central Asia since current trends in commercial and political relations are well represented by the depiction of the Silk Road cities and major trading centers such as Baghdad, Damascus, Constantinople and Venice. A sumptuous example of Flemish illumination illustrating an encyclopedic work, it embodies the spirit of medieval civilization. If you have some experience about online dating, you would know that having a closeup will show up better in search results.
No opposite single wants to see such a photo, even though you look beautiful and confident via it. If possible, show yourself doing things you’re interested in via these photos since it’s a nice way for others to know about you.
Since then, making a good first impression becomes very important and quality photos can certainly help you! Finding a consensus on how to breathe life into their sluggish economies is proving more elusive. So I think that this President is ushering in for us all who are Catholics a period of deep reflection on what we are saying about ourselves, and how we are actually implementing it,” Tabora said.
The Philippine National Police and the National Bureau of Investigation are conducting parallel inquiries. The five, it appears, were also under the influence of alcohol, which makes for a fatal brew with drugs in most cases. At the admission desks, concertgoers were told to list their names, ages and e-mail addresses as they presented their tickets, but there was no need for IDs.
Monitoring such e-commerce sites should certainly be a priority of drug enforcement agents.
How about the deployment of undercover agents, to spot possible drug trade during open-air events, or even just to douse the chutzpah of drug dealers? Would it hurt to have posters warning of the fatal mix of party drugs and alcohol, and loudspeakers blaring the same warning before the start of an event?
Also, the Philippines has the highest abuse rate for shabu in East Asia, according to the latest UN World Drug Report. I have written time and again on the need for caution against reading too much into that number, and for everyone to understand what GDP tells us, and what it doesn’t. All argued for change in how economic and social development are measured—and it seems the time is finally ripe for this. Both measure the total value of goods and services produced and of total incomes earned in the economy, which are two sides of the same coin.
We could also derive satisfaction from doing something enjoyable, such as playing a sport, or even doing our job (hence the word “workaholic”).
What were his thoughts and feelings when he saw his creation being hoisted up to its pedestal? And very few spend time worrying about their image and reputation until they get into trouble. His demeanor and informality during these chats kept him in high public regard throughout his unprecedented four terms as US president. Our economy in 2010 was at $198 billion, but as P-Noy ends his six-year term, our economy has grown to $320 billion, surpassing half of all the presidents of our country for the past 40 years.
The opposition parties were one in spreading lies that there was blatant corruption and hopeless incompetence in his governance. Nor that he has an antiestablishment persona of uncouth language and manners that some analysts have romantically labeled as authentic. It was also in June 2013 that the number of Filipinos saying that “democracy is always preferable to any other kind of government”—whom the democratization literature calls “unconditional democrats”—was at a record high of 65 percent. Aquino himself or his administration; rejection of the post-Edsa “ruling elite democracy,” “oligarchic democracy” or “cacique democracy,” and triumph of the grassroots movement over party machinery) approaches.
This is problematic because he was not the survey front-runner, and even found himself in fourth place behind survey laggard Mar Roxas as late as the March 4-7 SWS survey. Hence, wittingly or unwittingly, they fanned further the man-of-the-hour, zeitgeist narrative of the Duterte camp. And already Rodrigo Duterte spoke well when he aired the assurance that he’ll continue the policies and programs of President Aquino.


I’m involved in a project that would put a marker into gas and diesel to stop the smuggling. This is one area where autonomy is not desirable, and the horrendous traffic mess is partly because of this.
I found myself checking my phone periodically, such as when waiting for an elevator to arrive, when I’m sitting in a bus, when I get up in the morning, while eating my lunch, and before going to bed. According to a research, nine out of 10 people have exhibited phantom vibration syndrome, in which people mistaken an itch or a muscle spasm as phone vibration. The phantom vibration syndrome may not sound like a big deal to our health, but I find it to be very annoying. It turns out that I was never busy, that I was just diverted, and my time was channeled into some baloney pursuits. I tell myself that I will just scroll for five minutes, but the truth is, it will become 40 minutes. It makes the flow of information faster and connects everyone regardless of where they’re from. The first reaction was on the issue of conflict of interest, given that the Villars are into property development.
The question is: Has he built roads, bridges and other public works of high construction quality?
The appointment of Mark Villar as public works secretary is not a good start for the Duterte administration. If it’s coming from the practices of industry players then we have to address that frontally—we can impose administrative fines. First the growth of manufacturing has outpaced services in the past four years after more than a decade. I understand that the President can authorize the NBI and other investigating agencies under existing laws to look into all bank deposits of individuals. It gives such power only to the court, and under the specified circumstances.” [House of Representatives Deliberations on H. For all these reasons, the mosque (which occupies the same place since its founding in 670) is not any more situated in the center of the medina, and is thereby positioned on the extremity, near the walls. Among the authors who have written on the subject and whose stories have survived[31] are Al-Bakri (Andalusian geographer and historian who died in 1094 and who devoted a sufficiently detailed account of the history of the mosque in his book Description of Septentrional Africa), Al-Nuwayri (historian who died in Egypt, 1332) and Ibn Nagi (scholar and historian of Kairouan who died around 1435). The rainwater collector or impluvium, probably the work of the Muradid Bey Mohamed Bey al-Mouradi (1686a€“1696), is an ingenious system that ensures the capture (with the slightly sloping surface of the courtyard) then filtering stormwater at a central basin furnished with horseshoe arches sculpted in white marble.[45] Freed from its impurities, the water flows into an underground cistern supported by seven meters high pillars.
According to the German archaeologist Christian Ewert, the special arrangement of reused columns and capitals surrounding the mihrab obeys to a well-defined program and would draw symbolically the plan of the Dome of the Rock.[71] The shafts of the columns are carved in marble of different colors and different backgrounds. The oldest boards date back to the Aghlabid period (ninth century) and are decorated with scrolls and rosettes on a red background consists of squares with concave sides in which are inscribed four-petaled flowers in green and blue, and those performed by the Zirid Dynasty (eleventh century) are characterized by inscriptions in black kufic writing with gold rim and the uprights of the letters end with lobed florets, all on a brown background adorned with simple floral patterns. These tiles are mainly decorated with floral and plant motifs (stylized flowers, palm leaves and asymmetrical leaves on bottom hatch and checkered) belong to two series : one polychrome characterized by a greater richness of tones ranging from light gold to light, dark or ocher yellow, and from brick-red to brown lacquer, the other monochrome is a beautiful luster that goes from smoked gold to green gold.
If one refers to the story of Al-Bakri, an Andalusian historian and geographer of the eleventh century, it is the mihrab which would be done by Uqba Ibn Nafi, the founder of Kairouan, whereas Lucien Golvin shares the view that it is not an old mihrab but hardly a begun construction which may serve to support marble panels and either goes back to work of Ziadet Allah I (817-838) or to those of Abul Ibrahim around the years 862-863.[79] Above the marble cladding, the mihrab niche is crowned with a half dome-shaped vault made of manchineel bentwood.
The upper edge of the minbar ramp is adorned with a rich and graceful vegetal decoration composed of alternately arranged foliated scrolls, each one containing a spread vine-leaf and a cluster of grapes. The beginning of each surah is indicated by a band consisting of a golden stylized leafy foliage, dotted with red and blue, while the verses are separated by silver rosettes. The three chains, connected by a suspension ring, are each fixed to the plate by an almond-shaped finial. One may conceivably compare its role to that of the University of Paris during the Middle Ages. The former were made into two parts because the Great Sea (called the Mediterranean) enters from the Ocean between them and cuts them apart . His treatment of the habitable earth enables one to arrive fairly easily at the scope of his knowledge. During his mission there he was involved in various rebellions and conflicts with neighboring powers and has left accounts of his activities. In his Jugurthine War Sallust writes about Africa, describing its geographic location and climatic conditions, as well as its demography where he narrates how the Armenian mercenaries settled in North Africa and intermingling with the Libyan tribes, gave rise to the peoples that inhabit the region today. Since they are about the history of northern Africa, this particular area is shown in more detail.
In Europe only the name of the continent and two countries of Italia and Hyspania are shown. Near the Nile the land is described as Exusta [parched], a reference to the southern parched areas. Jerusalem was the focus of that Conquest for more than two centuries of Crusaders, and it would remain the center of attention on maps until the invention of printing and the publication of Ptolemy in the 1470s. The whole is illustrated by instructive diagrams, including five world maps: two T-O centers of rotae, two zonal maps, and one larger, more detailed map.
Another oddity is that Achaia, where St Andrew [preached] is in Southeast Asia, far from Athens, the preaching site of Paul. These are the usual numbers for the descendants of Shem and Ham, but the source of the numbers for Armenia and why this country is singled out are not clear. There is no attempt at cartographic realism: this is a diagram containing a list of places. ASIA MAIOR: glossed QVOD SVNT SEPTVAGINTA DVE GENTES ORTE, and beneath this De Sem gentes XXVI. In the Europe zone, reading from top to bottom and left to right are: Terra macedonum, Campania, Italia, ROMA, tiberis flumen, Tuscia, mons Ethna, sicilia, KARTAGO MAGNA.
These independent maps tend to occupy the full width of the page, or the page in its entirety. Anna-Dorothea von den Brincken claims that this map is the first to position Jerusalem in the centre of the world, and not at its eastern extremity.
A mappamundi with identical arrangement and legends appears in the Peterborough Computus (Harley 3667 fol.
The British Isles and Ireland were little corners of the outer margins of the orbis terrarum, which further served to marginalize the deviant computus of the island churches. But the ADAM device, to say nothing of its proximity to Byrhtfertha€™s Diagram both in MS 17 and in the Peterborough computus, argue forcefully for its derivation from Byrhtferth or his milieu.
In this category she includes oikumene maps, often quite large, such as the one in Vatican City BAV 6018 fols. Another world map in a manuscript of the long version of the book, this one created c.1480, for this map contains large and prominent sea monsters in the circumfluent ocean. His aim was to show how Rome developed from a small town to a global empire, almost every corner of which had been penetrated by Christianity before the empire passed to the Franks. In fact none of the islands in the circumfluent ocean which are discussed by Mansela€”Grande-Bretagne, iles Fortunees, Gales, Irlande, Orcades, Escosse, Thanatos, Taprobane, Thule, and Islandea€”appears on this map. The oldest geographical work originates from as early as the fifth century and is titled in Armenian Ashkharhatzuytz or Mirror of the World. The horizontal arms of the letter T (stretching north and south from Jerusalem at the centre) are not represented by the rivers Tanais (Don) and Nile, as in conventional T-O maps, but by single red lines ruled, it would seem, to demarcate Asia from Europe and from Africa. The considerable prominence given to Jerusalem can be explained by the fact that the Armenian Church had, and still has, close ties with the Holy City and is one of the four custodians of the Holy Places, with a church, seminary and religious order active since the 5th century. Outside the double-circle frame of the map are the names of the four cardinal directions Hyusis, Harav, Arevelq and Arevmutq, and the word Dzov [Sea] is written seven times.
Further in from the Ocean two cities are named, Kostandnupolis [Constantinople] and Venejia [Venice].
Indeed, that is how it is identified, with the phrase Ays dzovis anunn Tuman [This Sea is named Tuman]. The legend that appears to refer to the Crossing of the Red Sea is worn and partly illegible. A gap in the horizontal line for the Aegean, filled with the name Kostandnupolis [Constantinople], seems to imply that the line also represents the Dardanelles, the Sea of Marmara and the Bosporus.
Zaytun and Khansai appear on the Catalan Atlas of 1375 (#246) as Ciutat de Zaytun and Ciutat de Cansay, respectively; Fra Mauroa€™s map of 1459 (#249) contains these toponyms as Cayton and Chansay. His conjecture was based on the assumption that all the toponyms on the map are contemporary with the time of its creation. This posed a problem for Khachaturian, however, and he therefore had to insist that the toponym Sara related not to Sarai-Batu but to some other location, perhaps a putative island in the Caspian Sea, even though the Caspian is neither mentioned on the map nor has it ever had an inhabited island named Sara. Looking at the toponyms shown on the map, the question arises why a Cilician-Armenian mapmaker would have included the names of cities along the distant northern Silk Road, instead of the toponyms in his locality.
The earliest mention of Caffa in Armenian literature dates from the middle of the 13th century. In Rouben Galichiana€™s view, the most creditable hypothesis is that the map was created between the late-13th and mid-14th centuries, or even slightly later, which is in line with Hovhannisiana€™s proposal. The legend to the southeast of Palestine, between Mount Sinai and the Nile reads Takhtak orinatz zor yet[ur] a[stua]tz Movs[es]i, which translates Tablets of law that God gave Moses.
The Armenian language has several different words that mean monastery, among them liana, menastan and ananpat. It may also be suggested that the mapmaker was a native of the region, very likely from 14th century Caffa, then one of the most important Armenian cultural centers and the source of a large number of manuscripts of that date.
ChnLove includes different kinds of beautiful Chinese women for love or marriage, with the age ranging from 18 to 60 plus. Therefore, making a quality, impressive and interesting profile photos becomes very significant when you’re dating online, especially dating those single people over 50. Magbalot na kayo (Pack up),” Duterte said in a press conference which rambled for more than two hours. At this writing, no one in authority has formally announced drug overdose as cause of death. Thus, it must have been fairly easy for minors to get in, or for others to sneak in drugs or spiked drinks under their clothes as only bags were inspected. Furthermore, GDP ignores how our children’s future may be compromised by our production and consumption activities today.
Psychologists have long known that happiness or wellbeing can be improved not only from “having,” but also from “doing,” “being” and “being related with.” Humans also have an inherent instinct for altruism, or for caring and sharing, even as economics assumes them to be intrinsically selfish.
It was hoped that with him serving as an inspiring example, other farmers would emulate him and thus diffuse the improved technology. Did he often come around for quiet moments to find inspiration from the heroes and martyrs? He did the very best that he could, but he stayed quiet about what he was doing and what he stood for. His economic platform made our economy grow by 6.9 percent in the first quarter of 2016—the fastest expansion since the second quarter of 2013.
The two ratings remained high in the most recent SWS democracy survey conducted in December 2015, two months before the start of the presidential campaign. Duterte’s surge in the surveys only happened in the latter half of the campaign, where incidentally this type of analyses started appearing and replacing the earlier ones that said it would be a tight race.
He CAN, because all the studies have been endlessly done over the past two decades, or longer.
3) Develop Clark for the long term and its transport link to the National Capital Region, so it fits into my earlier suggested development of a new capital for the country.
It bothers me that Duterte’s initial announcement is that he’ll give the Department of Environment and Natural Resources to a communist. It turns out that social media cleansing is one of the best detox experiences I’ve had, and I’m planning to do it more often.
From scrolling through my newsfeed, I will end up in a funny video of cats; I watch it on YouTube and the “recommended” button will entice me to watch more. It has allowed businesses to expand their reach, emerging talents to be discovered, and many more. Which reminds us of the C-5 extension controversy, where Villar the father, then a senator, allegedly used his influence with the Department of Public Works and Highways so that the C-5 Road Extension would pass through his real estate properties and connect to a link road adjacent to more of his commercial land. I upgraded to a higher [priced] subscription, I thought I’d get a better service—I did not,” Balisacan said. If it’s a cartel issue, there’s also a criminal aspect to that and they could be prosecuted by the Department of Justice,” Balisacan said.
Rodolfo said in a briefing Wednesday that the significant growth in investment approvals was driven by infrastructure and energy projects.
Although services has been the main growth driver of the economy for the past decades, manufacturing has been contributing substantially since 2013,” Cristobal said.
Those in white marble come from Italy,[59] some shafts located in the area of the mihrab are in red Porphyry imported from Egypt,[72] while those made of greenish or pink marble are from quarries of Chemtou, in the north-west of current Tunisia.[59] Although the shafts are of varying heights, the columns are ingeniously arranged to support fallen arches harmoniously.
The coating around them is decorated with blue plant motifs dating from the eighteenth century or the first half of the nineteenth century. Other scrolls and calligraphic Qur'ans, as that known as the Hadinah's Qur'an, copied and illuminated by the calligrapher Ali ibn Ahmad al-Warraq for the governess of the Zirid prince Al-Muizz ibn Badis at about 1020 AD, were also in the library before being transferred to Raqqada museum. These maps are taken from various manuscript copies of Sallusts works some of them dating from as late as the 13th and the 14th centuries, when they were still in use as textbooks by historians and scholars. The fourth line from the center bottom, near mount Athlas reads Medi - Armeni, a reference to the Armenians and Medes having settled in the area. In Asia beside the name of the continent, river Nilus, Egypt and Mare Rubrum [Red Sea] are mentioned, while the tall rising tower bears the legend Jrslm [Jerusalem]. These are the people, that according to Sallust settled in North Africa, giving rise to the North African tribes of today.
Its heavily biblical content is also unusual: note Hierusalem on the central axis with the cross and Mt. Of the sons of Noah, Shem is found in Asia and Ham in Africa, as usual, but Japheth stands next to Shem in Asia, instead of Europe.
In the centre, at the juncture of the horizontal and vertical dividing bands, is an omega-shape with a cross in the centre, labeled beneath Mons syon. The only place names in the Africa zone are at the very top, and two of them, TERRA IVDA, and PALESTINA, may have been intended as part of the central band (B above).
They absorbed significant amounts of text into the schematic frame, such as lists of the provinces of the inhabited world. She associates this with the piety of the First Crusade, and the attention given to the Cross would support this claim.
8v), a manuscript very closely related to MS 17 in space and time; and the Peterborough computus also contains the only other extant copy of Byrhtfertha€™s Diagram (#205Z13). Moreover, in Book 5 of the Historia ecclesiastica, Bede follows up his account of Adomnan of Ionaa€™s reception of the Roman Easter with a paraphrase of his De locis sanctis: now it is Jerusalem, not Rome, which is the center of the world, but the link between computistical orthodoxy and the universality of the Church in space is still the underlying message.
The map (shown below) is in a chapter on the a€?Provinces du monde,a€? but there is almost no connection between the map and the list of provinces in the chapter. The legend hic sunt dragones, a€?Here there are dragonsa€?, sounds like a legend that would appear on many medieval mapsa€”such is our tendency to associate monsters with medieval mapsa€”but in fact it appears on only one other cartographic object, namely the Hunt-Lenox globe of c.1510 (Book IV, #314), where on the southeastern coast of Asia there is a legend that reads HC SVNT DRACONES. The prominent sea monsters on the map are thus invented dangers, rather than being based on the descriptions of sea monsters in a bestiary or encyclopedia, and the labels, like those on the islands, are attempts to convey an authority and accuracy which in fact are absent.
Under the letter a€?Aa€™, for example, we read first about Asia and Assyria, then Arabia, Armenia and Albania. One full and almost sixty abridged manuscript copies of this work have survived, thirty-three of which are in the Matenadaran. Only the northern end of the single red line might be considered to represent the river Tanais, the traditional divide between Europe and Asia. It may be worth bearing in mind that for the first four centuries of Christianity it was predominantly an Asiatic and North African religion, and that the Christian world was not divided into a Latin West and a predominantly Byzantine East until after the Council of Ephesus in 431.
In Section 11, containing a text related to the Old Testament, there is circular plan of the city of Jerusalem (fol. Because the encircling Ocean touches two sides of paper, the words Hyusis [North] and Harav [South] have had to be split. West of this water body, an unnamed river is shown by a pair of parallel red lines bearing the simple inscription Sea. North of Constantinople, the vertical black line, inscribed only as Sea, represents the Black Sea. According to Ibn-Battuta, this was the largest port [he] had ever seen, which could easily accommodate more than 100 large Chinese junks. Furthermore he claimed that since Mardin appears prominently on the map, it must have been made before the conquest of that city by the Arabs, in the early 13th century.
By the middle of the 14th century, when numerous monastic scriptoria were in operation, the majority of Caffaa€™s population of 70,000 were Armenian.
Arguably, the lack of any references to Armenia itself could be attributed to the fact that he lived far from his homeland and felt no particular affinity with it. The Mediterranean Sea is not shown and only the black African faces convey a hint of reality. Every single man wants to date a young and beautiful girl; while to successfully date the young Chinese girls also means more challenges laying ahead. Suppose you upload a fake profile photo, or one that was taken years ago, your lies will be eventually revealed.
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Or we may get it from loving someone and being loved, or having good relations with family and neighbors, or having many friends. But the authorities were astonished when the model farmer chose not to plant in the following year. He created a communications vacuum that allowed his detractors to form and communicate negative opinions about daang matuwid. Public servants need to embrace the practice of regular, open and honest communications as one of the keys to building a winning personal brand.
Cambodia, hardly a progressive nation, did it in three years—not decided in three, but built it in three.
We’ll risk a repeat of an environmentalist with no ability to strike a balance (read my environmentalist daughter’s balanced view on this in my April 21 column). Mind you, Duterte has said he’ll issue an executive order to open the administration to public scrutiny, so it’s not so critical. Suddenly, I will be on Twitter, laughing out loud at the tweets of silly trolls, and then I’m in Pinterest pinning some quotes about procrastination.
Their edges, obtained from the lower parts of ancient cored columns,[46] support the string grooves back the buckets. The horseshoe arch of the mihrab, stilted and broken at the top, rest on two columns of red marble with yellow veins, which surmounted with Byzantine style capitals that carry two crossbeams carved with floral patterns, each one is decorated with a Kufic inscription in relief.
Although more than eleven centuries of existence, all panels, with the exception of nine, are originals and are in a good state of conservation, the fineness of the execution of the minbar makes it a great masterpiece of Islamic wood carving referring to Paul Sebag.[83] This old chair of the ninth century is still in its original location, next to the mihrab.
This collection is a unique source for studying the history and evolution of calligraphy of medieval manuscripts in the Maghreb, covering the period from the ninth to the eleventh century. Most of them die by the gradual decay of age, except such as perish by the sword or beasts of prey, for disease finds but few victims.
The page is composed with the map above and a week-day table arranged under the arches below. Athens, Ephesus, Achaia, and Caesarea are mentioned specifically as sites where the apostles preached. The only significant difference between the Peterborough version of the map and the one found in MS 17 is that MS 17 alone contains the marginal note on Asia maior. A map of the Macrobian type also appears in the Abbonian computus manuscript Berlin 138 fol. Adam, Eve, and the serpent are in Eden at the top (east) of the map, with the rivers of Paradise flowing downward from it to the west (the river Jordan is labeled). Heads symbolizing the four principal winds surround the habitable world, on which a number of historical or encyclopedic features are portrayed, such as the Tower of Babel, the Trees of the Sun and the Moon, the river Jordan, Jerusalem with Mount Calvary, the Red Sea, Rome, and some of the monstrous races. These monsters, though invented, nonetheless have their effect, and render the circumfluent ocean a place of terrors, in contrast to the apparently peaceful buildings of the inhabited world.
The original Ashkharhatzuytz is attributed by some to the 5th century Armenian historian Movses Khorenatzi, while others believe that it is the work of the 7th century scientist and astronomer Anania Shirakatzi. Two vertical parallel red lines (running from Jerusalem to the western edge of the map) represent the unnamed Mediterranean Sea that separates Africa and Europe.
Christianity had reached Armenia through the preaching of the Apostles Bartholomew and Thaddeus. 392r), which is similar to the plan of the same city drawn in the centre of the world map of MS 1242.
The significance of the two circles is made clear by the note, also on the outside, The all encompassing ocean, which is in this shape. Venice was an important entrepot for Armenian merchants, and Constantinople, capital of the Byzantine Empire, was the most important religious and political centre outside Jerusalem. These lines, drawn almost at right angles to the Mediterranean, connect with the outer Ocean. Misr is the Arabic name of Egypt, used also in old Armenian, which the mapmaker has chosen to employ in conjunction with the later-day Armenian name of the country.
The northern extremity of the red line dividing Europe and Asia, beyond the eastern end of the Black Sea, must also stand for the Sea of Azov (for which there is no place-name) and the river Tanais.
Sarai refers to the capital of the Mongols; it is either Sarai-Batu (Old Sarai), built in 1240s, or Sarai-Berke [New Sarai], dating from around 1260. These are doubtful lines of argument; information took time to be disseminated, and maps were only slowly updated.
In addition, two legends in Palestine read Yekin anapatn [Came to the monastery] and Yekin Ye[rusaghe]m sakavq [A few came to Je[rusale]m]. The monastery on the Armenian map is not named but is defined as ananpat, which suggests a conscious choice, since on the Hereford map the whole legend reads Monasteria Sancti Antonii in deserto. As only as you use a correct way to date, you can find your soulmate even though you are a man over 50. In many cases, these other sources of happiness may actually be associated with having less of the things that GDP measures. The DENR should really be split as it’s hard to encourage and control an activity all in one government agency. The P40 billion would cover the estimated P37 billion to be lost with introduction of a 25-percent corporate income tax. When I look at my clock, it’s already midnight and I no longer have the energy to finish my article. Uniting these two gives us Garden of Delight; for it is planted with every kind of wood and fruit-bearing tree, having also the tree of life.
Several of the districts are rich in gold and precious stones but are rarely approached by man owing to the ferocity of the Griffens . Animals of a venomous nature they have in great numbers, Africa, then, was originally occupied by the Getulians and Libyans, rude and uncivilized tribes, who subsisted on the flesh of wild animals, or like cattle, on the herbage of the soil. Place names are almost entirely omitted from Africa and Asia Major, and a note in the upper right adds a€?[Asia] Major has in the east Alexandria and Pamphiliaa€?.
The only places without a biblical link of some kind are in Italy (Sicily, Mount Etna, Tuscany, Campania), Constantinople and Britain, Ireland and Thule. However, the Peterborough map does not represent Mount Sion as a round a€?hilla€? with a cross, but as a triangle, and spells IERUSALEM without MS 17a€™s initial H.
When these Greek names for the cardinal directions are read as if making the sign of the cross, that is, east-west-north-south, their initial letters spell ADAM.
Jerusalem stands out at the center of the world and is labeled, as are Calvary, Babylon, the Red Sea, and Rome; the Trees of the Sun and Moon visited by Alexander the Great are also easy to identify. As this manuscript is the only one of the long version of the work that contains a world map, it seems likely that the map was the result of a specific request by the patron commissioning the manuscript, namely Philippe II Sans Terre (1438-1497). The text also retains Isidorea€™s distinction between the Fortunate Islands and the earthly paradise and repeats the belief that Enoch and Elijah dwelt in the Garden and that the noise of the waters of Paradise falling to earth from a such a great height caused the local population to be born deaf.
The text is based on the work of Pappus of Alexandria (late third or early 4th century AD), but the chapters relating to Armenia and neighboring countries have been expanded. In accordance with the Western Christian T-O maps, the Armenian map is oriented with East at the top. It became the state religion in 301, after the conversion of King Tigran III, which makes the Armenian Church one of the oldest Christian entities.
Although made in geographically widely separate locations, a common source or tradition may be suspected, especially were the Armenian map to prove to have been made before the end of the 13th century, which would place all these maps to within one hundred to one hundred fifty years of each other. The term Sea, it should be noted, as used on the Armenian T-O map, refers any substantial body of water, whether it be an ocean, sea, lake or river. One of these is located at the eastern extremity of the Mediterranean Sea, within the parallel lines, whereas the other two lie just to the north of the lines. On the other (eastern) side of the legend indicating Africa a large red circle contains the legend Paravon yev zorqn Yegiptosi [Pharaoh and the army of Egypt].
Directly south of the Red Sea, near the shores of the surrounding Ocean, lies Ethiopia, named Hapash. The 13th century traveler Marco Polo mentions Zai-tun and Kin-sai as being important cities, trading with Japan (Zipangu), as well as with the Arabs and Persians. Moreover, in the case of the Western mappaemundi the very essence of the map was the inclusion of old (historical as well as biblical) information together with contemporary places and events. Since the two Western maps and the Armenian map seem to have been made within one hundred and one hundred fifty years of each other, we can see the reference on the respective maps as further confirmation of the possibility of a common source. That’s to say, dating matured ladies on ChnLove are much easier, especially dating Chinese women over 50. Thus, he would rather live leisurely and spiritually—and chose to spend his time in the monastery instead.
Wherever you decide to build an airport, it will work by the very fact that the government will have to ensure that it works.
They were controlled neither by customs, laws, nor the authority of any ruler, they wandered about, without fixed habitations and slept in the abodes to which night drove them. These islands, the only ones represented, break the frame of the map, perhaps as a burst of patriotism on the part of the scribes. The popularity of this ancient conceit was primarily due to St Augustine, who compared Adama€™s progeny filling the earth and the sons of Noah re-populating the globe.
A list map using the T-O form as a symbolic frame for displaying the names of provinces in Asia, Africa and Europe appears in Cotton Vitellius A.XII, fol.
But otherwise the mapa€™s geography is vague; it presents much of the earth as a a€?jumblea€? of land and water. Adam and Eve, the tree and the serpent are shown within an ornate architectural frame, as if to emphasize the uniqueness and splendor of the Garden. But once he had been assigned this task, the artist seems to have given his fancy free rein. A later version of the Ashkharhatzuytz by the 13th century historian and geographer Vartan Areveltzi is also extant in multiple copies (MS 3119, 4184 and others). Armenian Christianity's ties with the Latin churches were severed in 554 over irreconcilable doctrinal differences. The city plan in the 16th century MS 1770 also would seem to have been derived from the same common source or tradition.
Similarly the term Land does not denote a territory as such, but is placed wherever there is a significant gap between neighboring toponyms. The Nile is placed well inside Asia, where a vertical (easta€”west) red line running from close to the eastern Ocean towards the Red Sea bears the legend Ays dzovis anun Nil asen [This Sea is named Nile]. Although the whole representation may be highly schematic, the way that the Aegean Sea is depicted as branching off from the Mediterranean to the west of Jerusalem and the easta€”west alignment of Black Sea, shown at right angles to the northern end of the Aegean near Constantinople, presents a more faithful picture of reality than many other T-O maps.
Then comes Ashkharq Hndkatz [Lands of the Indians], followed well to the southeast by Hndkastan [Hindustan or India]. It was usual for medieval maps, in short, to depict conditions in existence some time before their creation. It’s the best to put a date on all your recent photos that you upload the profile whether they’re taken recently or not. He simply but eminently demonstrated that more production and more happiness do not necessarily come together. Before going to the museum, visitors should head for the Wall of Remembrance and search for names of next of kin, friends, colleagues, comrades—the known and little-known—who fell in the night and also those who did not die in battle but continued the struggle until the breaking of the dawn.
A quick outcome is needed, then file a challenge at the Presidential Electoral Tribunal, if you must.
From the middle of the Garden a spring gushes forth to water the whole grove and, dividing up, it provides the source of four rivers [see #205C and Q].
The northern (left) half of the cross bar represented the river Tanais [Don], and the southern (right) half of the cross bar represented the river Nile. But after Hercules, as the Africans think, perished in Spain, his army, which was composed of various nations, having lost its leader, and many candidates severalty claiming the command of it, was speedily dispersed.
Around the circle of the map the cardinal directions are ostentatiously given in Greek and glossed in Latin: for example, Anathole vel oriens vel eoi, in the east.
Like MS 17a€™s image, it gives considerable prominence to the circumambient ocean, as well as to the islands of Britain, Ireland and Thule: its creator seems to have been especially concerned to situate his own region with respect to the extremes of the world, both to the east and to the west. It should also be noted that a second, incomplete copy of this map is found in Cambridge, Corpus Christi College 265, p. It appears in Bedea€™s commentary on Genesis, and is prominently featured in Byrhtfertha€™s Diagram.
29r) in which only the northern temperate zone -- the oikumene or inhabited world -- is treated like a map, while the remainder of the disk is occupied solely by text. From Paradise the four rivers flow out to give life to the earth and to establish a mysterious yet material connection between paradise and the human realm.
Both the earlier and the later versions display the influence of Ptolemy, and as in the case of Ptolemy, no maps accompany these manuscripts. By adding the word Land between the toponyms, the mapmaker has tried to show that although these towns are widely separated and distant from each other, they constitute a chain of cities along a route that can only be the Silk Road.
In the Middle Ages, the designation India was used loosely to refer to the lands east of Persia, Media and the Middle East. Another thing he can order is an increase in the excise tax on fuels that are half the price they used to be, as Cesar Purisima has suggested. Approach to this place was barred to man after his sin, for now it is hedged about on all sides by a sword-like flame [romphaea flamma], that is to say that it is surrounded by a wall of fire that reaches almost to the sky.
Of its constituent troops the Medes, Persians and Armenians having sailed over Into Africa, occupied the parts nearest to our sea. A note to one side says, Maior habet in oriente alexandriam pamphiliam, a reference to Asia Major at the top of the map. Kartago Magna, which could be Cartagena in Spain as Cartago appears elsewhere on the map, is another non-biblical site. It is very close to such contemporary elaborations of the Sallust map as Vatican City, BAV Reg. Insular writers were particularly attracted to this theme, because they associated the conversion of their lands, at the very edge of the known world, with the fulfillment of Christa€™s command to take to Gospel to the ends of the earth.
64, underscores the magnetic attraction of these two ways of listing the inhabitants of the world, and how innovative MS 17 was in fusing them. In his book, Mansel described Paradise as a wonderful region surpassing all other earthly lands, fit for mana€™s initial perfection, surrounded by a wall of fire and situated on an exceptionally high mountain that reached the sphere of the moon.
So here Lands of the Indians most probably refer to the northern and western neighbors of India, such as Persia and its neighboring countries, while Hndkastan denotes India proper. Englanda€™s geographic position may have made it especially sensitive to this apocalyptic dimension: the second of two notes on chronology in Oxford Bodleian Library Auct.
The manuscript is dated to the last quarter of the 11th century, and this addition to the second half of the 12th century but the hand of the map bears an extraordinarily close resemblance to that of Scribe A of MS 17, and the palaeographical indicators point to a date closer to 1100. This fulfillment would be the climax of history, and would usher in the last days; hence the world-maps included in the Apocalypse commentary of Beatus of Liebana were essentially maps illustrating the preaching of the apostles to the gentes descended from Noaha€™s three sons, but expanded to encompass the whole world and the entirety of the world-age (#207). Its presence in the manuscript raises questions about how such an essentially non-Armenian-style map came to be made by an Armenian, and when, considering that this is the only T-O type map bearing Armenian inscriptions known to exist. In every part of their body they are lions, and in wings and head are like eagles, and they are fierce enemies of horses.
The frame of the map, a double circle, was drawn in drypoint, and at the right and left upper corners of the page are two smaller drypoint circles. Indeed, mappaemundi have a pronounced historical dimension: they are found in association with chronicles more frequently than in scientific works, and as illustrations of sacred history, they were infused with an allegorical vision of time.
82v, a manuscript contemporary with MS 17, adopts a four-ages scheme somewhat like that found in the dating clause on fol. Hence this world map is a logical addition to a manuscript devoted to the reckoning of time.
Edson tentatively suggests a comparison to the maps of the Holy Land created by the Talmudic scholar Rashi to expound the sacred text; however, MS 17a€™s map does not illustrate a text. 3v, but the fourth age, instead of ending in the annus praesens, runs from the Incarnation ad iter ierusalem, as if this event closed the series of years and ushered in the end times. In fact, the only bodies of water to be named on this map are the rivers Jordan, Euphrates and Tiber. In this respect, MS 17a€™s map is an integral part of a monastic encyclopedia, in which the study of the world and time is itself a serious discipline.
The land of Hyrcania, bordering Scythia to the west, has many tribes wandering far afield on account of the unfruitfulness of their lands.
XII): the latter is of exceptional interest in that the map shares the page with a schema of the divisions of philosophy not dissimilar to the one on fol.
The interpolated Biblical references include the ark of Noah in Armenia, and cities such as Athens and Caesarea that are explicitly connected with the missionary activity of the apostles.



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