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Academic integrity is an issue of widespread concern that plagues colleges and universities worldwide. The root of plagiarism violations at university campuses is that many students do not understand the policies and procedures, or how to cite sources properly. Does this mean there is a need for university faculty to teach students how not to plagiarize? The majority of the students (79 percent) had received formal instruction on plagiarism from a middle school or high school teacher.
There are many concerns with providing a classroom lecture on academic integrity and plagiarism. A virtual lecture is a product created by the instructor available to students outside of class at any time throughout the semester. There exist several different methods and software packages available to create virtual lectures. Another method would be to create a basic Microsoft PowerPoint presentation with the desired content and record audio with each slide.
There are applications available that allow the PowerPoint file to be placed in a template with navigation tools. The following is an example of how an instructor can pull together information on academic integrity and plagiarism.
Next, either in the same virtual lecture or a new one, create PowerPoint slides that define plagiarism. In the PowerPoint presentation, go through an exercise of presenting a paragraph from published text and provide examples on how to paraphrase, use direct quotes, not rearrange or change words, etc.
Unfortunately, one issue in regards to academic integrity that cannot be resolved is if the original material a student finds online is itself plagiarized. Students have a tendency to plagiarize because of a genuine misunderstanding of the rules and formats for citing sources (Wilhoit, 1994). Students have a tendency to plagiarize because of a genuine misunderstanding of the rules and formats for citing sources. There is a need for active–learning exercises devoted to the prevention of plagiarism. At the university where this study was conducted, the instructor was able to track students accessing the virtual lecture on academic integrity and plagiarism through the course management software. After incorporating the virtual lecture with a quiz, documenting resources assignment, and other written papers, the 120 students were surveyed again at the end of each semester.
Included here is a cautionary note to be on the look out for plagiarism in a lecture versus laboratory setting, especially in science and technology courses.
The existence of rules and policies for academic integrity and plagiarism does not prevent academic integrity violations and plagiarism from occurring. The EU leads the world in numbers of S&E articles published, but the United States continues to be the top country producer. Engineering is vital to knowledge-intensive and technologically advanced economies, and many Asian economies are building their engineering capabilities. China publishes 15% of global engineering articles, and Asia as a whole publishes twice as many engineering articles as the United States and half again as many as the EU. The output of engineering articles is increasing robustly in the EU, gradually rising in the United States, and declining in Japan.
In the research literature, citations acknowledge intellectual debt to the work of others, and increasingly such citations cross borders.
Inventors in the EU and Japan produce most of these patents, but they have been joined by Asian inventors, chiefly in Taiwan and South Korea. The foreign share of such patent-to-article citations is rising, indicating growing utilization of published research in foreign inventions. Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. What are public domain images?? Free to use but you still must cite the image What isn’t in public domain?• Most digital images are protected by copyright.• Don’t think that if the registration symbol is missing that it is free to use. So….what do I cite?Any items obtained from the web orscanned from a print source should beattributed to the owner of thecopyrighted work.


Some of the main issues pertaining to plagiarism violations are student misunderstanding or inconsistent and lack of instruction. In addition, the majority of the students (75 percent) had received formal instruction from another university professor about plagiarism. Although many universities have detailed policies and procedures when it comes to plagiarism, they are not always written in a language or tone that is easy for the students to understand. Available for access through a variety of methods, the information delivered is consistent every time the student views the lecture. This section will detail very simple methods and discuss other options available with commercial software. Some laptop computers have built–in microphones, while some desktop computers require an external microphone to be plugged in. The instructor may also want to include an example of how to properly cite an Internet source, since this is a very common error in documenting sources. Many documents published on the Internet are documents that have been plagiarized and not properly referenced to the original document (Hoad and Zobel, 2003). After having students watch a virtual lecture on academic integrity and plagiarism, it is critical to have students responsible for the content communicated in the lecture.
Each semester, approximately 90 percent of the students watched the lecture, some students as many as five times throughout the semester. When asked if they feel that now they have a good understanding of the concept of plagiarism and how not to plagiarize, 97 percent responded yes. Del Carlo and Bodner (2004) found that students differentiate with attitudes and behavior in academic integrity between the two settings. Bodek, Instructional Design Specialist for Academic Affairs, Penn State Delaware County, for the technological assistance in creating the virtual lectures. It ranked 14th in 1995 with a 2% world share and rose to become the second largest country producer in 2007, overtaking Japan. Suggests strict citation for research project rather than addressing educational fair use copyright issues in full.
Do not click save before you look at the location,because you might not be able to find the image later. This includesphotographs, paintings, or other worksof art, tables, graphs, and otherillustrations from primary or secondarysource materials. Virtual lectures are an electronic resource available to students throughout the semester to aid them in proper citation and avoiding academic integrity violations. Many universities have policies that define expectations and what constitutes a violation of academic integrity, specifically plagiarism, and what the penalties may include.
In fact, once a student has plagiarized successfully, he is likely to try it repeatedly (Galus, 2002).
When the students were asked if they were aware that plagiarism was part of the university’s academic integrity policy, 100 percent of the students responded yes, yet only 79 percent of the students knew what would happen if a professor caught them plagiarizing.
This statistic is a little disturbing, for all university professors at this institution are required to discuss academic integrity and plagiarism with their students, and with just 88 percent of the students surveyed being at the sophomore through senior level, this documents inconsistencies across the education and practice of making students aware of plagiarism. Since a lecture on plagiarism would occur early in the semester, some students may be adding a course late and therefore miss the lecture on plagiarism, causing non–uniform instruction on the topic.
A virtual lecture can free up in–class time to cover discipline material and be available to any student that may have not yet signed into a course the very beginning of a semester. Once the audio input levels are tested on the computer, audio can be recorded in the PowerPoint file. Microsoft Producer takes the PowerPoint file and creates a table of contents with the title of each slide allowing for easy navigation. Depending on how much information you may want to communicate about the university’s academic integrity policy and plagiarism, these can be broken into two separate PowerPoint files and therefore two separate virtual lectures.
This is especially useful to clarify a particular referencing style the instructor may use or refresh a student on MLA or APA style of documentation. With students increasingly utilizing the Internet as a primary source for papers and presentations, this only adds to the plagiarism problem and can leave a student an innocent victim. A variety of exercises and assessment techniques can be incorporated as a follow–up to the material.


The instructor can provide students with a brief article and ask students to summarize the main points with correct in–text citations and format for the reference. When asked if they feel that now they have an understanding of why plagiarism is wrong, 98 percent responded yes. Certainly plagiarism and integrity are not just academic issues but also impact students and professionals in business and government jobs and funding (see Nitterhouse, 2003). The technological tool of virtual lectures is also useful for communicating rules of ethics and other regulations for industry or other areas of employment outside of academia.
Faculty even include statements in course syllabi that warn students against violating the rules of academic integrity.
This is especially true with many first–year university students who report never having received instruction about forms of plagiarism and proper citation (Wilhoit, 1994). Similar to a format one would see on a CNN newscast but without visual aids, the video can be placed on reserve in the university library, burned on CD and distributed to students, or placed on a Web server as a streaming video through the Internet. Students can also start and stop the presentation at any point and repeat slides to reinforce material.
Have the PowerPoint file include slides with text at an understandable level for the students on how their university defines academic integrity. An instructor may want to make mention of this issue during the virtual lecture or in writing on a handout so that students use caution and carefully evaluate their Internet sources. Another assignment can be to give students a list of Internet links and titles to books and magazines. Students consistently score an average of 77 percent (out of 100 percent) on the plagiarism and academic integrity quiz, signifying that students cannot learn all there is to know at the beginning of the semester but will have to incorporate tips and information about plagiarism throughout the semester.
Additional virtual lectures can be created to instruct students on ethics and issues with these particular environments and disciplines. Unfortunately, a warning statement in a syllabus or on a course Web site is likely to be ineffective as a tool to modify actual cheating behavior (Brown and Howell, 2001).
Students would need to rely on notes taken during that lecture to clarify any misconceptions or questions that arise later on in the semester. With today’s students constantly being bombarded with multimedia movies and videos, this simple recording format and presentation may not keep the attention of the student for the duration of the instructional video. Once the file is saved with the imbedded audio, the PowerPoint file can be burned to CD to distribute to students or placed on reserve in the library, or the file can be placed online in a course management system for students to view. Include screen shots of the World Wide Web pages with this information, then include links to these pages on a World Wide Web page for students to have easy access and have familiarity with the policies.
Have students create a reference list in the proper citation style that will be used in the course.
In fact, poor college policies on academic dishonesty can unintentionally contribute to cheating (Dowd, 1992).
Also, the instructor may be inconsistent with the delivery of instructions against plagiarism from class to class, from semester to semester. Choose sources that students will be accessing as the semester goes along, so that students are already familiar with the location of the source and how to document similar sources. For example, one institution established a formalized plagiarism prevention policy and found that undergraduate student awareness of plagiarism improved after being required to sign a certificate of authorship on the title page of all written assignments completed outside of class (Sims, 2002). Then go through the procedure of what will happen if an instructor suspects a student of violating the academic integrity policy. With these and other continued writing exercises throughout the semester, including a cautionary note about plagiarism with each assignment, students receive practice and reinforcement throughout a course. Again, a screenshot of any forms that would be filled out may be helpful for students to see. Let students know about confidentiality of the information during this process, and what will happen to these reports and records after they graduate.



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