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A quotation of less than 40 words should be enclosed in double quotation marks and should be incorporated into the sentence. Longer quotations should be set apart from the surrounding text, without quotation marks, in block format, indented five spaces from the left margin, and double spaced.
In block quotations, use double quotation marks to indicate that a phrase is a direct quote.
Use an ellipsis to indicate that a portion of the quotation has been omitted: three periods with spaces before and after when the words have been omitted in the middle of a sentence, four periods (with spaces before and after) when the end of a sentence has been left out. Remember that all quotations, as well as paraphrased text from your research materials must be properly cited. References with the same first author but different second authors are alphabetized by the second author.
If two entries have the same author (or same 2 or more authors in the same order), list them in order of year (earliest first). In-text Citation: In this case study, nursing students were given the opportunity to work within the cultural and economic framework of a particular community (Browne-Krimsley, 2004). In-text Citation: Halloween costume options are unlimited thanks to online shopping (Slatalla, 2004). In-text Citation: Surface pain tends to indicate a less serious problem than does deep throbbing pain ("Eye pain," 2005). In-text Citation: "An estimated 10 percent of new moms experience a more severe form of emotional distress known as postpartum depression" (Mayo Clinic, 2008, Definition section, para.
In-text Citation: Government funded health care is categorized as a "single-payer system" (Montgomery, 2006). In-text Citation: Many people in the scientific community, including University of Minnesota, Morris biologist and blogger PZ Myers (2009), remain skeptical about homeopathic treatments for cancer. In-text Citation: Burns suggests that a major problem in human relationships is not a fear of intimacy, but rather an addiction to conflict (Van Nuys, 2009). In-text Citation: Watson (1968) recalls that "much more difficulty came from the necessity to fabricate representations of the inorganic icons" (p.
In-text Citation: Nursing Theories Conference Group (1980) presents different nursing theories in terms of diagnosis, treatment and evaluation. In-text Citation: According to Chiang and Massague (2004), "Not only are cancer cells able to traverse the structural boundaries of the primary tumor, but they can also co-opt local and bone marrow-derived stromal-cell responses to their advantage" (p. In-text Citation: The electroencephalogram (EEG) was first used in the late 1930's to monitor sleep activity (Webb, 1997). In-text Citation: The invention of the Concord 40 years ago failed to spur the technology that would make ultra-fast air travel available to the masses (Sparaco, 2009).
In-text Citation: "Researchers from Case Western Reserve in Cleveland found that, come deadline time, students who put off assignments suffered more stress" ("Procrastination is bad," 1997, p. In-text citation: Studies showed that Depakote, an older treatment, was equally effective in treating manic illness and it produced less side affects than Zyprexa (Burton, 2000).
In-Text Citation: The Iranian legislation would not call for a new election despite nearly a week of protests (Winslow, 2009).
Use parenthetical citation with the author's last name and year of publication just next to the material that you are citing. If there is no author, provide the first few words of the title (use parentheses for articles or chapters of books and italics for titles of books) and the year.
If you are using a direct quotation, include the page number (where available) after the quote. Kibler (1993) reviewed literature that demonstrates that various forms of academic dishonesty have been with us since ancient civilizations and that academic dishonesty, for a variety of reasons, has increased.
The Style pages directly from the American Psychological Association, perhaps the best way to stay up to date. Moreover, the percentage of students who report ever using a cheat sheet doubled from 34 to 68 percent. In his Plagiarism Handbook, Harris (2001) noted that a "free-term-paper site, run by a 16-year-old, receives 13,000 hits a day" (p.
Implementing a process approach to information skills: A study identifying indicators of success in library media programs. Surprisingly, nearly 90 percent of college students "strongly agree or somewhat agree" that it is wrong to "hand in someone else's writing as one's own," to "use the Internet to copy text to hand in as one's own," and to "purchase papers from print term-paper mills" (Scanlon & Neumann, 2002, p.
Harris gave an example of a librarian who studied plagiarism herself and could not order a paper from a paper mill because the site was "flooded with 800 orders a day" (p. The plagiarism handbook: Strategies for preventing, detecting, and dealing with plagiarism.


I have made every effort to keep this document accurate, but readers have occasionally pointed out errors and inconsistencies which required correction. His book marshals lively instructional cartoons that could be used in teaching and discussing the subject of plagiarism. That article reported results of a 1928 meeting of representatives from anthropological and psychological journals, "to discuss the form of journal manuscripts and to write instructions for their preparation" (APA, 2001, p. Today the manual is in its fifth edition, and the APA format described in it is a widely recognized standard for scientific writing in psychology and education. Some of the more commonly used rules and reference formats from the manual are listed here. The APA Manual can be found in almost any college bookstore, as well as in many large, general-purpose bookstores, in the reference and style guide section. The spiral bound edition is especially handy when formatting research papers. The APA Manual draws a distinction between "final manuscripts" such as class papers, theses, and dissertations, and "copy manuscripts" to be submitted for review and publication. The APA Crib Sheet follows the instructions given in chapter six for "Material Other Than Journal Articles" (APA, 2001, pp.
Single spacing can be used for table titles and headings, figure captions, references (but double-spacing is required between references), footnotes, and long quotations" (APA, 2001, p. However, underlining in place of italics is still acceptable when using a typewriter (see APA, 2001, p. If a hanging indent is difficult to accomplish with your word-processing program, it is permissible to indent your references with paragraph indents" (APA, 2001, p. The manual itself contains all this information and more, organized and worded differently, indexed and illustrated.
Explain what an abbreviation means the first time it occurs: American Psychological Association (APA).
If an abbreviation is commonly used as a word, it does not require explanation (IQ, LSD, REM, ESP). In using standard abbreviations for measurements, like m for meter, do not add an s to make it plural (100 seconds is 100 s); when referring to several pages in a reference or citation, use the abbreviation pp. Do use "pp." for citations of encyclopedia entries, multi-page newspaper articles, chapters or articles in edited books.
Capitalize major words and all other words of four letters or more, in headings, titles, and subtitles outside reference lists, for example, "A Study of No-Win Strategies." Capitalize names of conditions, groups, effects, and variables only when definite and specific. For example, "three choices are (a) true, (b) false, and (c) don't know." Use semicolons for seriation if there are commas within the items.
Do not hyphenate common prefixes (posttest, prewar, multiphase, nonsignificant) unless needed for clarity (pre-existing). Do not hyphenate foreign, letter, numeral terms (a priori hypothesis, Type A behavior) when the meaning is clear without it (least squares solution, heart rate scores).
Do not hyphenate if a noun comes first (a therapy was client centered, results of t tests). Hyphenate adjectival phrases (role-playing technique, high-anxiety group, two-way analysis). Hyphenate compound adjectives preceding nouns (client-centered therapy, t-test scores) unless the compound adjective involves a superlative (best written paper).
Hyphenate if the words could be misunderstood without a hyphen (re-pair, un-ionized, co-worker).
The quote "picks up where the sentence leaves off" and provides the punctuation. Use a dash (rendered on typewriters and some word processors as a double hyphen) when there is a sudden interruption like this one--zoiks!--in the flow of a sentence. Use parentheses to introduce an abbreviation, for example, the galvanic skin response (GSR). When listing separate paragraphs in a series, use a number and a period, not parentheses. The first paragraph goes here. Spell out numbers which are inexact, or below 10 and not grouped with numbers over 10 (one-tailed t test, eight items, nine pages, three-way interaction, five trials). Use numerals for numbers 10 and above, or lower numbers grouped with numbers 10 and above (for example, from 6 to 12 hours of sleep). Use combinations of written and Arabic numerals for back-to-back modifiers (five 4-point scales). Use numerals for exact statistical references, scores, sample sizes, and sums (multiplied by 3, or 5% of the sample). Here is another example: "We used 30 subjects, all two year olds, and they spent an average of 1 hr 20 min per day crying.
Use metric abbreviations with figures (4 km) but not when written out (many meters distant). 311).) Extended quotations Add emphasis in a quotation with italics, immediately followed by the words [italics added] in brackets.


For quotations over 40 words in length, indent and single space the whole block (double space in papers for review or publication). Indent five more spaces (one-half inch, 1.25 cm) if there are paragraphs within the long quotation after the first. Expand or clarify words or meanings in a quotation by placing the added material in quotes. For example, "They [the Irish Republican Army] initiated a cease-fire." Reproduce a quote exactly. If there are errors, introduce the word sic italicized and bracketed--for exammple [sic]--immediately after the error to indicate it was part of the original source.
Use three dots with a space before, between, and after each (ellipsis points) when omitting material, four if the omitted material includes the end of a sentence (with no space before the first). Do not use dots at the beginning or end of a quotation unless it is important to indicate the quotation begins or ends in midsentence. But, if one, two, or three levels of headings are required in a paper, use levels 1, 3, and 4, in that order.
If five levels are required, start with level five and work down the remaining hierarchy in order (5, 1, 2, 3, 4). To avoid confusion these are labeled A, B, and C below (APA levels 1, 3, and 4 respectively) (see APA, 2001, pp. Although they end with a period (or other punctuation) they need not be complete sentences or grammatically correct. Use headings in the order presented. Level A and B headings do not end with punctuation except to add emphasis with an exclamation point or question mark. See recent issues of the American Psychologist or other APA journals for more complex table layouts. 147). Place tables close to where they are first mentioned in your text, but do not split a table across pages.
The latter are labeled "a, b, c, etc." Use asterisks to indicate statistical significance explained in the probability level note at the bottom of the table. The first time an "et al." reference is used in a paragraph, give the year, thereafter (if the citation is repeated in the paragraph) omit the year. 311), but she did not say which effect; Lopez found that "the effect disappeared within minutes" (p.
Join names in a multiple-author citation with and (in text) or an ampersand (&) in reference lists and parenthetical comments. For example, "As reported in a government study (National Institute of Mental Health [NIMH], 1991), blah blah . If the author is unknown or unspecified, use the first few words of the reference list entry (usually the title), for example: ("Study Finds," 1992). In general, use letters after years to distinguish multiple publications by the same author in the same year. For example: Several studies (Johnson, 1988, 1990a, 1990b, 1995 in press-a, 1995 in press-b) showed the same thing.
For old works cite the translation or the original and modern copyright dates if both are known, for example: (Aristotle, trans. For quoting electronic documents without page numbers, cite paragraph numbers if given, indicated by the paragraph symbol or the abbreviation para.
Disregard apostrophes, spaces, and capitals in alphabetizing; D'Arcy comes after Daagwood, Decker comes after de Chardin.
Single-author citations precede multiple-author citations of the same year (Zev, 1990 then Zev et al., 1990). All titles in references are set in sentence caps, but titles quoted in the text are set in heading caps. No quotation marks are used around titles of articles in references, but quotes are used when citing article titles in the text.
In the absence of page numbers, if paragraph numbers appear in an electronic document, add the paragraph symbol or the abbreviation para.



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