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I have found it interesting that when studying the topic of justification that several articles speak of justification as being a a€?forensica€? term.
We have numerous movies and sitcoms on TV that highlight a€?forensicsa€? in their programs, what exactly does a€?forensicsa€? mean? According to a broad definition of the term, forensics is the presentation of evidence to a legal system, which would give it the best understanding to a judge or court regarding a just conclusion to a particular case. The first written account of forensics that we know of, according to Elizabeth Schafer, in Ancient Science and Forensics (2008), using medicine and entomology to solve criminal cases is attributed to the book of Xi Yuan Lu (translated as a€?Washing Away of Wrongsa€?), written in Song Dynasty China by Song Ci, in 1248.
Do the facts about someonea€™s death conclude that the cause of death was because of poison in the bloodstream, blunt force trauma to the head, a bullet wound, condemning fingerprints, matching clothing, or other evidence leading to the undisputable conviction of the assailant? What can be indisputable forensic evidence (if everything about us was fully known) that condemns us before Goda€¦who is absolutely Holy?
God states that mankinda€™s heart is terribly sicka€¦I think we all know the truth of that statement from personal experience!
God has Indisputable Forensic Evidence Against Mankinda€¦against us all a€“ and He has it stored on His a€?clouda€?!
God had His technology of a€?cloudsa€? worked out thousands of years ago a€“ before computers ever were dreamed of. 13 And no creature is hidden from his sight, but all are naked and exposed to the eyes of him to whom we must give account. God not only knows everything, but He has put within our heart a warning system that we call a€?consciencea€? and a€?guilta€? that lets us know when we do wrong. All of these feelings of inadequacy are a€?forensica€? evidence of our inadequate place before our Creator, who is Holy. 24 The sins of some men are conspicuous, going before them to judgment, but the sins of others appear later. In Justification, we are not speaking of a€?making an individual so they will not sin any more,a€? (sinlessness will happen when these old sinful bodies are transformed into eternal bodies, and when we will have spirits which are no longer under the curse of sin, Rom. A Judicial act of Justification, by God, is necessary because there is no other means whereby mankind in his or her natural state can become justified from the guilt of his or her sin.
If one were Judicially Justified by God, on condition of the Sacrificial Blood of His dear Son, Jesus Christ, then what sins would be too great for God not to cleanse? 9 Since, therefore, we have now been justified by his blood, much more shall we be saved by him from the wrath of God.
13 For if the blood of goats and bulls, and the sprinkling of defiled persons with the ashes of a heifer, sanctify for the purification of the flesh, 14 how much more will the blood of Christ, who through the eternal Spirit offered himself without blemish to God, purify our conscience from dead works to serve the living God.
18 knowing that you were ransomed from the futile ways inherited from your forefathers, not with perishable things such as silver or gold, 19 but with the precious blood of Christ, like that of a lamb without blemish or spot.
7 But if we walk in the light, as he is in the light, we have fellowship with one another, and the blood of Jesus his Son cleanses us from all sin. Justification does not avoid Justice, but instead, through the Spotless Sacrifice of Jesus Christ, it declares righteousness to those who by faith receive the gift of eternal life, so freely offered by God. 23 for all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God, 24 and are justified by his grace as a gift, through the redemption that is in Christ Jesus, 25 whom God put forward as a propitiation by his blood, to be received by faith. If we are plagued by the guilt of sins in the past, but have by faith claimed Christa€™s promised Justification already for those sins, then what could be the only answer to the reoccurring guilt and anxiety over those sins?
If the guilt is continuing to be from the a€?accuser of the brethrena€?, then how do we deal with those accusations? 17 Repay no one evil for evil, but give thought to do what is honorable in the sight of all. 12 Blessed is the man who remains steadfast under trial, for when he has stood the test he will receive the crown of life, which God has promised to those who love him. 41 For truly, I say to you, whoever gives you a cup of water to drink because you belong to Christ will by no means lose his reward.
22 a€?Blessed are you when people hate you and when they exclude you and revile you and spurn your name as evil, on account of the Son of Man! 35 But love your enemies, and do good, and lend, expecting nothing in return, and your reward will be great, and you will be sons of the Most High, for he is kind to the ungrateful and the evil. 23 Whatever you do, work heartily, as for the Lord and not for men, 24 knowing that from the Lord you will receive the inheritance as your reward. 6 And without faith it is impossible to please him, for whoever would draw near to God must believe that he exists and that he rewards those who seek him. 8 Watch yourselves, so that you may not lose what we have worked for, but may win a full reward.
God has indisputable a€?forensic evidencea€? of sin against all mankinda€¦against every one of us.
The Declaration of Justification: Justification does not avoid Justice, but instead, through the Spotless Sacrifice of Jesus Christ, it declares righteousness to those who by faith receive the gift of eternal life, so freely offered by God, through Jesus Christ. We are hidden in Christ, covered with His righteousness, bringing a just conclusion to our case asa€¦ a€?Not Guiltya€?!
Do the facts about someonea€™s death conclude that the cause of death was because of poison in the bloodstream, blunt force trauma to the head, a bullet wound, condemning fingerprints, matching clothing, or other evidence leading to the undisputable conviction of the assailant?A  This is the venue of modern day forensics. Why do we need justification?A  We are absolutely condemned before God if we do not have Goda€™s provision of the supernatural covering of Jesus Christa€™s blood as the atonement for our sins! What can forgive the guilt of each individuala€™s sins?A  Only Jesus Christa€™s atoning Blood! If we are plagued by the guilt of sins in the past, but have by faith claimed Christa€™s promised Justification already for those sins, then what could be the only answer to the reoccurring guilt and anxiety over those sins?A  Could the guilt not be, most certainly, from the a€?accuser of the brethrena€?? The Declaration of Justification:A  Justification does not avoid Justice, but instead, through the Spotless Sacrifice of Jesus Christ, it declares righteousness to those who by faith receive the gift of eternal life, so freely offered by God, through Jesus Christ. We are hidden in Christ, covered with His righteousness, bringing a just conclusion to our case asa€¦ a€?Not Guiltya€?!A  Praise God! He asked another Pfizer chemist, Willard Welch, to synthesize some previously unexplored tametraline derivatives.
Welch then prepared stereoisomers of this compound, which were tested in vivo by animal behavioral scientist Albert Weissman. DESCRIPTION: The profound difference between the Roman and the Greek mind is illustrated with peculiar clarity in their maps. Although copies of Agrippaa€™s map were taken to all of the great cities of the Roman Empire, not a single copy has survived. Shown here are three continents in more or less symmetrical arrangements with Asia in the east at the top of the map (hence the term orientation). Note that most scholars, however, believe that due to its placement on the column in a portico or stoa open to the public, the Porticus Vipsani, it was probably rectangular, not circular.
The only reported Roman world map before Agrippaa€™s was the one that Julius Caesar commissioned but never lived to see completed. We may speculate whether this map was flat and circular, even though such a shape might have been considered a€?unscientifica€™ and poorly adapted to the shape of the known world.
Augustus had a practical interest in sponsoring the new map of the inhabited world entrusted to Agrippa. In point of fact Augustus may have delegated the detailed checking to one of his freedmen, such as his librarian C. We may treat as secondary sources Orosius, Historiae adversum paganos, and the Irish geographical writer Dicuil (AD 825). It is also claimed that Strabo (#115) obtained his figures for Italy, Corsica, Sardinia and Sicily from Agrippa. Although the term chorographia literally means a€?regional topographya€?, it seems to include fairly detailed cartography of the known world. For a more complete assessment of what Agrippa wrote or ordered to be put on his map, we may again turn to passages where Pliny quotes him specifically as reference. It is a pity that Pliny, who seems to be chiefly interested in measurements, gives us so little other information about Agrippaa€™s map. It is the sea above all which shapes and defines the land, fashioning gulfs, oceans and straits, and likewise isthmuses, peninsulas and promontories.
A serious point of disagreement among scholars has been whether the commentarii of Agrippa mentioned by Pliny were published at the time of construction of the portico. Another element in this problem that demands some explanation is the origin of the two later works the Demensuratio provinciarum and the Divisio orbis terrarum which are both derived from Agrippa, probably through a common source. Apart from the information supplied by Pliny, our chief evidence for the reconstruction of the map is provided by the two works already mentioned, the Demensuratio provinciarum and the Divisio orbis terrarum. Dicuil, in his preface, promises to give the measurement of the provinces made by the envoys of the Emperor Theodosius, and at the end of chapter five he quotes twelve verses of these envoys in which they describe their procedure. According to Tierney, Detlefsen regarded these two works as derived from small-scale copies of Agrippaa€™s map.
Tierney believes however, that the west to east movement supposed by Klotz is, in fact, correct, but not for his reasons. Our idea of the detail of the map of Agrippa must be based on a study of the references in Strabo, Pliny, the Divisio and the Demensuratio. There are twenty-four sections in the Divisio and thirty in the Demensuratio, the difference being mainly due to the absence from the Divisio of the sections on the islands of the Mediterranean and the Atlantic. These sections are largely identical with passages in Plinya€™s geographical books (Books III to VI), and show that many passages in Pliny are taken from Agrippa beyond those where he is actually named.
The consensus of the views of modern scholars on Agrippaa€™s map, is that it represents a conscientious attempt to give a credible version of the geography of the known world. But this consensus is not quite complete and therefore I now turn to consider the view of Agrippaa€™s map put forward by Professor Paul Schnabel in his article in Philologus of 1935. Schnabel does not himself take up the general question of the use of Agrippa by Marinus and Ptolemy. Schnabel here refers to the last chapter of the geographical books of Plinya€™s Natural History, that is, Book VI, cap.
Schnabel continues with the negative argument that the Don parallel cannot belong to the school of Hipparchus.
We may speculate as to whether Plinya€™s phrase regarding the a€?careful later students,a€? does not refer to Nigidius himself. Schnabel next moves on to a more ambitious argument, making the assumption that Ptolemy has used some of Agrippaa€™s reckonings to establish points in his geography.
It is sad to think that this elegant piece of reasoning must be thrown overboard, but Tierney believes it must be rejected on at least three different counts. In the second place Schnabela€™s statement that Agrippa reduced the itinerary figure of 745 miles to a straight line of 411 cannot be accepted.
Thirdly, it may fairly be objected that the very method by which Schnabel obtains the figure of 411 miles is faulty. Tierney passes over Schnabela€™s reasons for thinking that Agrippa established lines of meridian in Spain and in the eastern Mediterranean, all of which Tierney finds quite unconvincing. Schnabela€™s attempt to present us with a scientific Agrippa and indeed to reconstruct a scientific Roman geography may be regarded a complete failure, and the older view of Detlefsen and Klotz must be regarded as correct.
From another well-known passage in Strabo (V, 3, 8, C, 235-236) that contains a panegyric [a public speech or published text in praise of someone or something] on the fine buildings of Augustan Rome, we know that he was well acquainted with the dedications of Marcus Agrippa that he specifically mentions.
Strabo shows the contemporary Roman view of the purely practical purposes of geography and of cartography by everywhere insisting on restricting to a minimum the astronomical and mathematical element in geographical study. This would mean then that Agrippaa€™s map was based on the general scheme of the Greek maps which had been current for upwards of 200 years, since the time of Eratosthenes and Hipparchus, and that it presumably attempted to complete and rectify this scheme by using recent Roman route-books and the reports of soldiers, merchants and travelers. Towards the end of the fourth century two important events greatly enlarged the scope of geography. About a century later the famous astronomer Hipparchus subjected the geography of Eratosthenes to rather stringent criticisms. The next geographer whose views are well known us is Strabo (#115), who was writing at the time of the construction of Agrippaa€™s map or some years later. If, then, progress was no longer being made or to be expected from Greek geographers using various astronomical instruments, was anything to be expected from the other tradition, the Roman roads and their itineraries? We must then approach the map of Agrippa on a purely factual basis realizing that it provides us merely a list of boundaries followed by a length and breadth, for the areas within the Empire and beyond it.
Fundamentally, therefore, Agrippaa€™s figures allow us to construct a series of boxes or rectangle with which to deck out the shores of the Mediterranean and the eastern world and whose dimensions should be reduced by an uncertain amount.
Spain consists of three boxes, the square of Lusitania and the rectangle of the Hispania citerior [Roman province] east of it being placed over the rectangle of BA¦tica. In Gaul [France] a large rectangle lies over a small one, that is Gallia Comata over the province of Narbonensis. The islands of the Mediterranean are not forgotten, at least the major ones, just as Italy lies too far to the southeast, so do Corsica and Sardinia lie too far to the southwest. The eastern Mediterranean is faced by Syria whose longitude Pliny (V, 671 states as 470 miles between Cilicia and Arabia, and whose latitude is 175 miles from Seleucia Pieria on the coast to Zeugma on the Euphrates. We have now either reached or gone beyond the boundaries of the Roman Empire in the north, south and east, as it was in Agrippaa€™s day.
The most important achievement of the map, to Agrippaa€™s mind, consisted in its measurements, and it is possible that he spent very considerable pains in getting these exactly, although we cannot take the account given by Honorius (ca. The exact correspondence between Pliny, the Divisio and the Demensuratio, in giving many of the boundaries of the sections, shows, according to Detlefsen, that these boundaries also were inscribed upon the map. Klotz, in his final review of Agrippaa€™s methods of work, has made some illuminating points that supplement Detlefsen.
Within the Empire he chiefly used the itineraries without the overt use of an astronomical backing, although astronomical data, of course, already formed the basis of the Greek maps that were the real foundation of his. Klotz, A., a€?Die geographischen commentarii des Agrippa und ihre Uberrestea€?, Klio 25, 1931, 35ff, 386ff.
Note that most scholar, however, believe that due to its placement on the column in a portico or stoa open to the public, the Porticus Vipsani, it was probably rectangular, not circular.
According to Fisher seeing that this is a Roman world map sharing many similarities with the mappaemundi, it is logical to assume that SchA¶nera€™s southern landmass is a copy of Agrippaa€™s Orbis Terrarum, the Roman world map upon which the mappaemundi were based.
Within the context of the early 16th century, it seems apparent that SchA¶ner found himself caught up in the perfect cartographic storm. All these parts were in place when an errant 1508 report of a strait at the tip of South America with a large southern continent lying beneath inspired SchA¶ner to unwittingly preserve the only copy of Agrippaa€™s Orbis Terrarum on the bottom of his 1515 world globe. When medieval Christians began creating the mappaemundi they borrowed heavily from Agrippaa€™s map as well as Greek designs.
This design adjustment may also explain the Expositio mappemundi (EMM), manuscripts which are a collection of the data items appearing on the mappaemundi. It was reverse engineered from the mappaemundi, but plays it relatively safe in its assumptions.
The new found design also provides for the first time insights into the inspiration for key design aspects on the mappaemundi such as the tribute to Jesus at the top of the map, the transition from a separate commentary requiring locative terminology to commentary overlain onto the mappaemundi no longer requiring spatial references, and the distribution of images from a consolidated arced matrix lying above Africa on SchA¶nera€™s design to areas throughout the mappaemundi.
In conclusion, Fisher believes that he has presented a solid logical case for the historic discovery of a long lost 2,000-year-old Roman world map at the bottom of the world, SchA¶nera€™s world that is.
To help users answer that last question, the mobile app Tinder provides a unique card-based interface1. Technology is not only making it easier for users to find dates, but it is also providing them with instant access to nearly every movie ever made and telling them about more restaurants than they knew existed. When people are trying to choose what they want to do, however, these interfaces make the process more difficult than it needs to be.
Both iTunes and Netflix require that users do work to get more information, just as brick-and-mortar customers have to physically remove the movie from the shelf, turn it over, and read the back. These interfaces are designed to show good options of a certain type in a certain area, but they make it difficult for the user to make informed choices, especially on mobile. In addition, neither interface helps the user narrow down their possibilities to a single choice, and instead they treat each new query as a brand new search.
Rather than the list, grid, and map interfaces that are currently common, services could repurpose Tinder’s card-based interface to help users make better choices faster. Users would first see a text field for typing a query, and perhaps a dropdown list of suggested categories or keywords. After entering a query, the user would be presented with a virtual deck of cards, with the top card taking up most of the screen. The user could swipe away the current card to reveal the next card, and the app would pre-load the required data so the user could move quickly. This deck would be accessible from a button in the top bar, and the user could switch between the two decks by tapping that button. If the user wanted to further refine her query, she could enter in new search terms or locations. Technology has made it easier for users to discover an increasing abundance of things they might enjoy, but it has not yet offered comparably improved tools for wading through this deluge of options. Paul Adams recently wrote about the trend towards cards as general interactive containers for all types of content, and a startup called Wildcard wants to replace the mobile Internet with a library of cards designed for those devices. In high school, my friends and I would spend nearly as long at Blockbuster deciding what to watch as we would spend watching the selected movie itself. Communication is a core human need, and people use a variety of online services to talk with others who are far away. Yet people have communication needs that Twitter does not yet satisfy, and these missing features present it with both strategic risks and opportunities. The 140-character limit makes it difficult to compose messages, slowing down an otherwise free-flowing exchange. Twitter’s standard reverse-chronological feed with new messages at the top is awkward for long conversations, which traditionally occur in chronological feeds with new messages at the bottom. All messages are public, so participants are forced to censor themselves because they don’t know who might be listening. Yet, as TechCrunch columnist MG Siegler notes, there are lingering user perceptions that the company has yet to overcome.
While these problems with Twitter’s conversation products are solvable, they are not simple, and Twitter has focused on other user needs.
As Christensen might predict, Twitter has seemed happy to let the other messaging companies relieve it of the least-profitable part of its product, so that it could better focus on what was important to the business.
More drastic changes are needed to revive DMs: Twitter should transition DMs into a separate messenger application focused on conversation1. The above wireframes show what Twitter’s DM app might look like if it were modeled after its successful messaging competitors. Twitter can, and will need to, do better than this standard interface in order to create a truly competitive and compelling messaging product.
Twitter’s social follow graph is both unique and valuable, but, for reasons described above, it should not rely on these relationships for messaging permissions in this new DM app. While traditionally a new social graph required substantial manual effort from users, this is no longer the case. Because users would have the same account on both Twitter and this DM app, the follow graph still gives users of the DM app unique social opportunities.
Finally, as in the background of this wireframe, the DM app could leverage Twitter to add additional social richness to the Contacts tab by showing statistics about interactions that happen on Twitter itself. Because the new DM app would integrate directly with Twitter, it could automatically display tweets from a conversation’s participants in the thread itself.
Conversations in the new DM app should remain private so as to provide a social space comparable to the other messaging apps.
Discoverable DM conversations similar to those on Dashdash would meet this need, since the contacts of the participants could find and join a conversation if it looked interesting.
If a DM conversation had been set to be discoverable, perhaps using an interface like the one to the right, then participants might want to explicitly encourage their friends to join the conversation. There are many ways in which Twitter could expose existing users to its new DM app, ranging from aggressive emails and UI overlays to less intrusive promoted tweets in the timeline, and these provide obvious strategies for rapid growth. Foursquare, Instagram, and other social services solved this chicken-and-egg problem and grew quickly by making it easy for users to tweet their content. I strongly considered giving this new application a separate name and brand (perhaps Twig?), but because the most significant advantages of the new DM app would come from integration with the rest of Twitter, this would just confuse users further.I also considered whether this new app could be built by a third party, rather than by Twitter itself. Users allow these services to have access to the names, emails, and phone numbers stored in their address books, and then the service can match those identifiers across users to quickly and automatically build a reasonably-accurate social graph.
Dashdash, the messaging service I’ve been working on, provides exactly this sort of social space.
Google Glass has sparked a passionate debate about privacy and the role that technology should play in our lives. It will be interesting to see whether Glass is perceived as a threatening object and thus may force others in proximity of a wearer to maintain a hyper-awareness of the wearer and their own actions in places a€” whereas today, they are currently able to relax. Due to this attention tax, people might prefer that those around them not be wearing Glass. While the camera is certainly the most troublesome aspect of Glass3, it also has the potential to provide the most value to non-wearers. These behaviors outline a possible social network focused on image sharing, but more can be done with Glass to both benefit those nearby and differentiate from existing services such as Facebook, Twitter, and Google+. Google should not force Glass to be yet-another stage for performative broadcasting, but should rather develop it as a novel device for directed, private communication. Google knows this, as was apparent in the early promotional video above, yet the potential is much broader than simple video calls and photo broadcasts to social networks. The opportunity for new communication tools is larger, however, than incrementally-improved versions of apps we have today.
Glass will allow its wearers to integrate these conversations into many new contexts, and these conversations will benefit both wearers and non-wearers. There is also an interesting use case for synchronous conversations in situations where two or more Glass wearers are together in one place and have mutual friends or coworkers somewhere else. As an alternative, imagine two Glass wearers are seated across from each other in a restaurant, and a mutual friend in a faraway city would like to join them from her computer.
Social applications for Glass that focus on photo sharing, optionally synchronous messaging, and telepresence can all benefit non-wearers and balance concerns about privacy and the attention tax. Other emerging technologies will levy this same tax, and that there’s an upper limit to how much attention is required in total.
Another concern is the prominence of the display: it is both on your own face, and in the face of everyone else. There are many questions about the long-term consequences of Glass:Will every surface be covered in digital advertising?
Dashdash1 is a shared online space where we can socialize and collaborate in lightweight, ad-hoc groups, much like we do in real life at cocktail parties, school cafeterias, coffee shops, professional conferences, and office water coolers.
People regularly gather into groups that are too large for a single conversation, so instead we break up into smaller clusters.
The dynamics of these real-world social spaces emerge from the fundamental experience of being human: how our voices carry through the air, how our bodies occupy physical space, how we recognize faces, and so on. Dashdash creates two new groups in Alice’s contact list that make up her shared social space. Some services, such as Facebook Chat4 and WhatsApp, only let friends join a conversation if they are explicitly invited, but it’s too much work for participants to know who to invite, when to invite them, and which conversations will interest them. While this early version of Dashdash is useful for groups of friends and co-workers, there’s much more to build. Communication technology will continue to improve, and these improvements will create recurring opportunities for new social applications. It was recently leaked that Facebook was working on browsable chat rooms similar to those in Dashdash. Part of the reason the market for messaging apps is so crowded is precisely because the product design problems are unsolved. Messaging interfaces already let users communicate their facial expressions and emotions using icons and images. Facebook rose to dominance as an application running in a web browser on desktop computers, but recently consumer attention has shifted to mobile apps on iOS and Android.
As an application, nine-year-old Facebook has struggled to adapt to the shift from web browsers to mobile phones. Facebook, similarly, faces the cooperative efforts of Twitter, Tumblr, Google, and others who are wary of giving Facebook too much control. Even if Facebook is able to weather the challenges against its monopoly from competitors in the application layer, it faces even more disruptive and inevitable changes in the underlying data network, end-user hardware, and operating system layers upon which this social layer is built.
Telegraphs, a network-layer technology that created many new opportunities for telegraph operators, but hurt the steam ship operators carrying letters across the Atlantic.
3G data networks, a network-layer technology that enabled users of WhatsApp and other messaging applications to bypass the exorbitant SMS fees charged by mobile operators. Cell phone cameras, a hardware-layer technology that enabled users to share single photos as they were taken, rather than wait until they were at a computer to upload an album, thus altering the market for photo-sharing applications. In each case the changes in underlying technology enabled new consumer behaviors and disrupted old monetization strategies, and it’s difficult for established companies to anticipate these changes and execute accordingly.
These questions are not particular to Facebook and its products and strategies, but rather are fundamental to the market for communication technology. The paintings depict neither Facebook nor Ancient Rome (the last great empire?), but rather an imaginary city.
The layer terminology was inspired by Steve Cheney’s differentiation between application and infrastructure layers in Google Voice and FaceTime a€“ Why the Carriers Are Losing Their Voice, but there are also clear similarities to the seven-layer OSI model (which does not refer to a burrito).
Address book matching has been around for a while, but has recently become increasingly common. It’s difficult to describe the serenity of having a website that consists only of static files.
Imagine that going to a specific web page is like purchasing a new car with lots of custom options. Fortunately for bloggers, it’s much easier to make an identical copy of a web page than an identical copy of a car. Whenever I make a change to my blog, I use a static site generator called Jekyll to assemble various files on my computer into another set of files which I upload to Amazon’s Simple Storage Service (S3). When a visitor’s browser asks for a web page, the request goes to Amazon CloudFront, which keeps cached copies of the S3 files in different data centers all around the world, just as a manufacturer might keep finished cars in geographically distributed warehouses. Ideas are cheap, yet innovation is still difficult, and many bad consumer products are launched or brought to market. While people who work at startups tend to be eager to tell anyone who will listen about their products, large companies often forbid their employees from talking outside of the company about the specifics of their work1.
Even if the startup employee already knows that real-time mobile local social video sharing is actually a terrible idea, the former conversation is substantially more useful.
Perhaps companies that keep secrets are wary of attention from the press, but this risk is minimized if a company is constantly floating out a variety of possibly-incompatible ideas. Dropbox1 is great for making transparent backups of whatever I’m working on, for syncing my Application Support folders, and also for giving me access to unfinished blog posts, shopping lists, email drafts, and other things while on the go. Since the Dropbox API only gives iOS client applications access to a single directory path, he suggested I make a new directory for WriteRoom to sync with (you specify that directory when you set up the app for the first time). 2 For if Abraham was justified by works, he has something to boast about, but not before God. 20 He was foreknown before the foundation of the world but was made manifest in the last times for the sake of you 21 who through him are believers in God, who raised him from the dead and gave him glory, so that your faith and hope are in God.
This was to show Goda€™s righteousness, because in his divine forbearance he had passed over former sins. 23 Rejoice in that day, and leap for joy, for behold, your reward is great in heaven; for so their fathers did to the prophets. 12 Now if anyone builds on the foundation with gold, silver, precious stones, wood, hay, strawa€” 13 each onea€™s work will become manifest, for the Day will disclose it, because it will be revealed by fire, and the fire will test what sort of work each one has done. The Romans were indifferent to mathematical geography, with its system of latitudes and longitudes, its astronomical measurements, and its problem of projections.
The context shows that he must be talking about a map, since he makes the philosopher among his group start with Eratosthenesa€™ division of the world into North and South.
The reconstructions shown here are based upon data in the medieval world maps that were, in turn, derived from Roman originals, plus textual descriptions by classical geographers such as Strabo, Pomponius Mela and Pliny. The emphasis upon Rome is reflected in the stubby form of Italy, which made it possible to show the Italian provinces on an enlarged scale.
We are told by late Roman and medieval sources that he employed four Greeks, who started work on the map in 44 B.C.
That is the form of the Hereford world map (Book IIB, #226), which seriously distorts the relative positions and sizes of areas of the world in a way we should not imagine Julius Caesar and his technicians would have. On the re-establishment of peace after the civil wars, he was determined on the one hand to found new colonies to provide land for discharged veterans, on the other hand to build up a new image of Rome as the benevolent head of a vast empire. It was erected in Rome on the wall of a portico named after Agrippa, which extended along the east side of the Via Lata [modern Via del Corso].
Orosius seems to have read, and followed fairly closely both Agrippa and Pliny, as well as early writers from Eratosthenes onwards.
His source was clearly one commissioned by Romans, not Greeks, as his figures for those areas are in miles, not stades. The Agrippa map probably did not, in the absence of any mention, use any system of latitude and longitude. These include both land and sea measurements, though the most common are lengths and breadths of provinces or groups of provinces.
But on the credit side, Agrippaa€™s map, sponsored by Augustus, was obviously an improvement on that of Julius Caesar on which it is likely to have been based.
The general history of ancient cartography and our knowledge of Roman buildings in the Augustan period would appear to be our surest guides. The German philologist and historian Detlev Detlefsen always clung steadfastly the view that there was no such publication and that the inscriptions on the map itself provided all the geographical information that was available to later times under the name of Agrippa.
Detlefsen had explained their origin by assuming the production of smaller hand-copies of Agrippaa€™s map, their smallness then making a written text desirable. Small discrepancies were to be explained by differences in the copies of the map used by each. Strabo used Agrippa only for Italy and the neighboring islands, so that our chief evidence comes from the other three sources. Detlefsen believed that the island sections were later added to the Demensuratio, but according to Tierney there can be little doubt that he is wrong in this and that Klotz is right in thinking that these sections have rather fallen out of the Divisio.
It relies on the general scheme of the Greek maps that had been current since the time of Eratosthenes and Hipparchus, and attempts to rectify them, particularly in Western Europe, with recent information derived from the Roman itineraries and route-books.
We have to thank Professor Schnabel for providing in the same article a new critical text of both the Demensuratio and the Divisio. He sets out, at first, to prove that Agrippaa€™s map possessed a network of lines of longitude and latitude.
39, sections 211-219, where Pliny mentions evidently as a work of supererogation, a€?the subtle Greek inventiona€? of parallels of latitude, showing the areas of equal shadows and the relationship of day and night Pliny then gives seven parallels, running at intervals between Alexandria and the mouth of the Dnieper, with longest days running from fourteen to fifteen hours. Hipparchus had made the Don parallel the seventeen-hour parallel, corresponding to 54A° N latitude, whereas Pliny here puts it at sixteen hours or 48A° 30" N latitude, which is nearly correct. 39, section 211, refers obviously to all that follows as far as the end of Book VI and shows that the complete passage is taken from Greek sources. In the first place, Schnabel has apparently overlooked Ptolemya€™s method of establishing the longitude and latitude of particular geographical points.
Pliny gives this itinerary as running at the base of the Alps, from the Varus through Turin, Como, Brecia, Verona and other towns on to Trieste, Pola and the Arsia. For the reduction, of longitude he uses, as I have said, the factor of forty-three sixtieths derived from Ptolemya€™s fifth map of Europe (Book VIII, cap. Tierney turns to his last main argument in which lie tries to prove Agrippa to be the author of a new value of the degree at 80 Roman miles or 640 stadia, Pliny (V, 59) gives the distance of the island of Elephantine from Syene as sixteen miles and its distance from Alexandria as 585 miles. If we accepted it we might as well accept that everyone in antiquity who either sailed or traveled in a north-south direction in the eastern Mediterranean was also engaged in establishing a new degree value.
On the general question of Roman proficiency in geographical studies some light is thrown by a passage of Strabo (Book III, C 166) who says: a€?The Roman writers imitate the Greeks but they do not go very far. The phrase which he uses of Agrippaa€™s aqueducts is exactly echoed in Plinya€™s phrase tanta diligentia.

Before entering into the details of Agrippaa€™s map it will be useful to examine briefly these two traditions, the Greek and the Roman, in order to grasp more clearly the problem which confronted Agrippa or whoever else might wish to construct a world map in the age of Augustus.
We are told that it was Democritus who first abandoned the older circular map and made a rectangular one whose east-west axis, the longitude, was half as long again as the north-south axis, the latitude.
The campaigns of Alexander and the new Greek settlements pushed the Greek horizon far to the east while in the west the intrepid Pytheas of Massalia circumnavigated Britain and sailed along the European coast from Gibraltar at least as far as the Elbe, publishing his investigations in a work which included gnomonic observations at certain points, and remarks on the fauna and flora of these distant areas. He made devastating attacks on the eastern sections of the map, as being seriously incorrect, both on mathematical and on astronomical grounds. Sad to relate, the gradually accumulating mass of details concerning roads and areas did not add up to any great increase in geographical knowledge.
Our three main authorities, Pliny, the Divisio and the Demensuratio, have suffered a great deal in the transmission of these latter figures, the longitude and latitude, so-called.
Klotz has argued that Agrippa did not use the word longitudo in the technical sense of the east-west measurement, nor the word latitudo in the technical sense of the north-south measurement, but rather in the more general sense of length and breadth. To evaluate the map we must take a glance at each of these boxes in turn, and the most convenient order would appear to be that of the Greek geographers and of Agrippa himself, if we can trust the order of the Divisio that has Europa, Asia, Lybia, that is, Europe, Asia, and Africa. The internal line of division ran south from the estuary at NA“ca between the Astures and the Cantabri, down to Oretania and on to New Carthage.
Off the coast of Gallia Comata lies an enormous Britain, 800 by 300 miles, and north of it an equally exaggerated Hibernia [Ireland]. Corsica, in fact forms the eastern boundary of Sardinia and this explains why the long axis of both islands is described as the longitude.
Tierney believes that it is possible to remove the difficulties felt about Agrippaa€™s Syria by both Detlefsen and Klotz. Only a few more boxes or rectangles are left to the east of the line, formed by Armenia, Syria and Egypt, but now they begin to grow portentously large.
Spain has three sections and Gaul two, while in the east of Europe Dacia and Sarmatia run off to the unknown northern ocean, and further east again the sections are quite enormous. Natural features such as the mountains and rivers that divided provinces were shown also, but in what exact way is not clear.
He points out that just as Eratosthenes had divided the inhabited earth into his famous a€?sealsa€?, so also Agrippa divided the earth into groups of countries without reference to their political or geographical conditions.
Any attempt to draw the map of Agrippa from the figures that have survived without some astronomical backing is entirely hopeless. Wherever itineraries did not exist he made use of the estimated distances of the Greek geographers, and outside the Empire he had to rely on them altogether.
Proceeding in our evaluation with this in mind we can gain insights into how the mappaemundi arrived at their final design. Fisher believes that the central zones on Agrippaa€™s map had to be eliminated when the Christians decided to adopt and adapt from Greek maps the concept of cartographic centricity by distorting the map to position the holy city of Jerusalem at the mapa€™s center. Some believe that these manuscripts were instruction sets used to construct a mappa mundi based on the fact that the text is spatially specific.
The reconstruction acknowledges that the waterway originated on Agrippaa€™s map as it is common to most mappaemundi, but it assumes that the Roman original was far less imposing, whereas SchA¶nera€™s design suggests that the mappaemundi are far more accurate in their depiction of the waterway spanning most of the continent. All three adjustments were based on their Roman counterparts, but reflect necessary adjustments as the makers of the mappaemundi opted for a Christocentric design. His evaluation, however, is based on the fact that copies of Agrippaa€™s Orbis Terrarum did indeed exist and were at one time distributed throughout Europe becoming the model for the medieval mappaemundi. Upon opening the app a user sees a deck of cards, and each card shows basic information about one potential match: photo, first name, age, and number of mutual friends. Users face an increasing abundance of choices in a widening variety of contexts, and Tinder-like interfaces could be adapted to help users answer questions like those above2. They provide minimal information about ten or more results at a time, and the user has to decide which warrant a closer look, or if they want to clear them all and move to the next page. Services such as Foursquare and Yelp help users make these choices, and while there is some variation between their interfaces, results are generally provided in both list and map formats. While the desktop browser makes it easy to see the basic information about each venue along with where it’s located, on mobile the separate list and map views force the user to either tap through to the venue detail screen or cross-reference between the two screens in order to see where anything is. There would also be a way for the user to see past searches — each search keeps track of its own state, and she might want to continue or return to them later.
Each would display the essential information about a particular search result, whether it’s a movie (title, image, year, length, rating, etc) or a restaurant (name, location on map, price, rating, etc). Note that a swipe gesture is not significantly more effort than that required to scroll past an item in a list interface, especially since the user, cognitively, can only evaluate one option at a time.
Rather than start the entire process over, the app would instead simply shuffle cards that met the new criteria into the deck. More interestingly, the app could learn about the user’s preferences for that specific search3. Depending on the type of choice being made, it should be easy for the user to begin watching the movie or to get directions to the restaurant. The earliest example I can think of is the Hot or Not of a decade ago, and Pandora also offers thumbs-up or thumbs-down buttons for giving feedback on songs. While these are compelling visions for the future, they are outside the scope of this post. Choices like these are often made collectively by groups of friends, and per-search adaptation could be especially useful in those circumstances. Specifically, shortcomings in Twitter’s products for interpersonal, private, and extended conversation are forcing users to go elsewhere. For years DMs were hidden in the official website and apps, but Twitter, to its credit, has recently tried to resurrect its private messaging product by moving it to a prominent place in the UI and adding support for photos. Twitter has trained users to think of DMs as a last-resort communication method, used only when the matter is urgent (traditionally, DMs would trigger in-app, email, and SMS notifications) or when the sender has no other way of contacting the recipient. In order to defend its position, Twitter must move its own messaging products back downmarket. On the left, the Contacts tab shows the people with whom the logged-in user can exchange messages, and on the right, the conversation view in the Messages tab shows a standard group messaging interface. Fortunately, there are several aspects of its current products that it can leverage to create a differentiated user experience unique to its new messaging app. To solve these problems, rather than overburden its existing interest-based follow graph, Twitter should create a separate message graph. Because the current follow graph is asymmetric, users can follow whomever they find interesting, regardless of whether that interest is reciprocated.
This is a simple feature, but one that other messaging apps also could not offer, and it would give users additional context in a variety of conversations. Users don’t always know which of their friends would be interested in a particular conversation, however, and sometimes they want a social space that allows for more serendipity than conversations that are typically both private and secret. Discoverability would be enabled on a per-conversation basis, and new participants wouldn’t be able to see messages sent before they had joined. From discoverable rooms, participants would be able to tweet a link to the DM conversation, and followers who clicked it would seamlessly see the conversation in a new browser window or an in-timeline Twitter card. The earliest adopters of the new DM app still need to have a good experience, however, before their friends have transitioned from the legacy DMs to the new DMs.
While the new DM app would partially adopt this strategy with the aforementioned tweetable links to conversations, it could also simply degrade gracefully to legacy DMs.
While all of the functionality I describe needs only the publicly-available APIs, Twitter has discouraged applications that allow consumers to engage with the core Twitter experience; this new messaging app falls squarely in that upper-right quadrant. Several of my private beta users had only previously known each other through Twitter, but were able to converse freely on Dashdash without needing to exchange additional contact information. Many of the advertised features of Glass are utility apps (such as weather forecasts, email previews, and driving directions with traffic reports), but non-wearers who prefer not to be recorded are indifferent, at best, to the wearer’s convenience.
The public reaction to Glass is reminiscent of the extreme distaste for amateur photographers that arose in the late nineteenth century.
It was critical both that people enjoyed using cameras to create the images, and that other people enjoyed viewing the images later. The Glass camera is available at a moment’s notice with a touch or voice command5, which makes it easier for the wearer to document social events, so non-wearers can enjoy more photos than would have otherwise been taken.
Google+, specifically, is primarily used as a platform for public and community broadcasting, and feels like it was designed to resemble Facebook so that it could compete with Facebook. Dustin Curtis points out that applications have recently begun to use images for communication, rather than artistic expression on Instagram or documentation on Facebook. The Glass hardware is well-suited for optionally synchronous conversations with individuals and groups who are far away.
The Glass wearers can maintain eye contact, and the third friend can see each through the other’s camera. The near-term8 success of Glass hinges on whether other people want their friends to be wearing it, regardless of whether or not they have Glass themselves. Security systems, autonomous delivery drones, and even gaming consoles will all have increasingly networked cameras, so perhaps we’ll just assume everything is always being recorded. People are very adept, however, at knowing where other people are looking, and I suspect that a glance up-and-to-the-right at Glass will be just as obvious, and just as rude, as a Glance down at an iPhone. Glass will make those adjacent to the wearer more comfortable by requiring that users verbally broadcast their usage of the device. We can look around, see which people are having which conversations, and join whichever conversations we choose. Others, such as Facebook and Twitter5, blur the edges and make the conversation public to the participantsa€™ entire social graphs, forcing them to perform for a large and unseen audience.
When people are in face-to-face conversations, there’s information being exchanged other than just the words being spoken. The instant messaging service described above is just the beginning of the vision for Dashdash: to make our face-to-face conversations indistinguishable from our conversations with people who are far away. I’m also looking for people to work with, so if you’re as excited as I am about the future of communication, then get in touch! Social norms on Facebook, however, encourage users to oversaturate their networks over time, and as a result Facebook users will be less comfortable making their conversations visible to all of their friends. People have been using typographical marks to represent faces and emotions for a long time, but recently apps have been offering more detailed stickers. They want to own the network of connections between people upon which all future applications will be built. This shift is not unique, but rather simply the most recent disruption in a long history of evolving communication technologies. It acquired photo-sharing app Instagram to strengthen its mobile presence, yet other competitive mobile apps have continued to grow exponentially: users of two-year-old Snapchat now send 200 million photos per day, and users of four-year-old WhatsApp send 10 billion messages per day2.
If Facebook establishes itself as a new layer between the OS and application layers, then former competitors in the application layer would be reliant on Facebook for the social graph, and Facebook would be protected.
Facebook wants all applications to rely on them for their social graph, but it is difficult for Facebook to prevent those companies from leveraging that graph to create a competing social layer.
For example, the current mobile devices are certainly not the apex of communication technology. Should Facebook spend resources developing a new social layer (perhaps enabled by passive data collection from wearable devices like Glass), and risk being too early or building the wrong thing? Facebook, mired by their secrets and moored by a billion users clicking on advertisements and Like buttons, will not be the last great social network5. Each new great social network will look different from the previous great social network, because they will be built on a different stack of technologies.
Titled The Consummation of Empire, Destruction, Desolation, The Savage State, and The Arcadian or Pastoral State, respectively, they were painted by Thomas Cole from 1833-36 as part of his five-part series The Course of Empire.
It was perhaps pioneered by Kik, and Path was fined by the FTC for automatically collecting this data. Previously, I was assembling my web pages with WordPress on DreamHost’s shared hosting infrastructure1. Alternatives to publishing platforms like WordPress include static site generators that will assemble every possible web page in advance of any requests.
While my DreamHost site was assembled by a single server in a single data center, these files on S3 have automatic redundant storage and are designed to remain accessible even if there are hardware failures. I had been using a slightly-customized version of a common WordPress theme, but wanted a cleaner layout that focused attention on the posts and projects that were most important. Companies that are secretive about their in-progress products are at a significant disadvantage.
Companies that are open about their ideas get this sort of feedback constantly, for free, as part of their employees’ daily lives.
The tech press is able to make big stories out of big launches precisely because the companies themselves have hyped those launches up to be so big. External feedback is valuable because it’s free from internal politics and propaganda, and because it can be a source of fresh ideas from potential users. The Dropbox iOS app lets you view but not edit files, so I tried out PlainText by Hogs Bay Software. I think they executed remarkably well, given the size of the company (24,200 employees), the stakes involved (see the ever-hyperbolic TechCrunch), and their history with social (Buzz, Wave). If anyone hears my voice and opens the door, I will come in to him and eat with him, and he with me.
25 For the wrongdoer will be paid back for the wrong he has done, and there is no partiality. Arch Gen Psychiatry -- Early Coadministration of Clonazepam With Sertraline for Panic Disorder, July 2001, Goddard et al.
This leads him on to the advantages of the northern half from the point of view of agriculture.
The original was made at the command of Agrippaa€™s father-in-law, the Emperor Augustus (27 B.C. These were no doubt freedmen, of whom there were large numbers in Rome, including many skilled artisans.
A late Roman geographical manual gives totals of geographical features in this lost map with recording names, but even the totals, on examination, turn out to be unreliable. Mapping enabled him to carry out these objectives and to perfect a task begun by Julius Caesar.
This portico, of which fragments have been found near Via del Tritone, was usually called Porticus Vipsania, but may have been the same as the one that Martial calls Porticus EuropA¦, probably from a painting of Europa on its walls.
Dicuil tells us that he followed Pliny except where he had reason to believe that Pliny was wrong.
It is through such features that continents, nations, favorable sites of cities, and other refinements have been conceived, features of which a regional [chorographic] map is full; one also finds a quantity of islands scattered over the seas and along the coasts. The fact that such an insignificant and distant place as Charax was named on the map shows the detail that it embodied. His sister, Vipsania Polla, began the work, and we know from Dio Cassius that it was still unfinished in the year 7 B.C.
There can be no reasonable doubt that the map was a rectangular one with the east-west measurements running horizontally and the north-south measurements running vertically. Though Strabo does not mention Agrippaa€™s name here he is probably merely being tactful with regard to the Emperor who, presumably, took a large part in the completion of the portico with its map. One must grant Detlefsen that in Plinya€™s main reference there is talk only of a map and the commentarii are merely the basis of the map.
Partsch on the contrary, had assumed an original publication, contemporary with the original map, of a Tabellenwerk, that is, a series of tabulated lists. 1475, and, according to Paul Schnabel (Text und Karten des PtolemA?us, 1938) the thirteen manuscripts of the 15th and 16th centuries and a further manuscript of the 13th century all derive from the ninth-century codex in the library of Merton College, Oxford. What they show is rather that on the orders of Theodosius two members of his household composed a map of the world, one written and the other a painting. The classical scholar Alfred Klotz, however, in his articles on the map has shown that a number of correspondences between the two works as against Pliny point rather to a common source from which both works are derived. Greek cartography, like Greek writing, ran from left to right and perhaps the former practice was promoted by the fact that the western boundary of Europe was well known, at least from the time of Pytheas (ca. The numerals are much more corrupt than those in Pliny, and there is usually a presumption, therefore, that Plinya€™s figures preserve a better version of Agrippa. Schnabel, while expressing appreciation of the earlier work of Alfred Klotz, yet criticizes Klotz severely on two grounds. For the sixth of these parallels he gives a slight correction due to the Publius Nigidius Figulus (ca.
Therefore, Schnabel argues, the incorrect latitude of Hipparchus was corrected by Agrippa who had experience of the Black Sea in his later years.
His proximate source, moreover, he names in section 217, according to his usual custom, as Nigidius Figulus. The parallels of Meroe and Thule were both equally useless in astrological geography although they may well have been mentioned by Nigidius, as they are by Strabo simply by way of clearing the decks. H, 10, 1.) for the mouth of the river Varus (the frontier of Gaul and Italy), that is, 27A° 30a€™ E longitude and 43A° N latitude, and again his position for Nesakton (Geog.
This method Ptolemy has described quite clearly and unambiguously in the fourth chapter of Book I of his Geography. It is difficult to see how Schnabel imagined that this line could be reduced to a straight line of 411 miles. What they have to say they translate from the Greeks but of themselves they provide very little impulse to learning, so that where the Greeks have left gaps the Romans provide little to fill the deficiency, especially since most of the well-known writers are Greek.a€? On a comparison of this passage with Straboa€™s usual sycophantic admiration of things Roman we can rate it as very severe criticism. He was, therefore, well acquainted also with the map or Agrippa to which, or to whose content he refers no less than seven times in his Books II, V and VI.
In the fourth century the study of spherical geometry was pushed forward rapidly by Eudoxus in the Academy, and again by Callippus. This new knowledge was then exploited geographically by Eratosthenes of Cyrene (#112) in the latter half of the third century. His delineation of the Near East, of Egypt, the Black Sea and the Mediterranean was reasonably correct, and this was also true of his sketch of the Atlantic coast of Europe and the Brettanic islands in which area he followed Pytheas.
Hipparchus further indicated the theoretic requirements for establishing the exact location of points on the eartha€™s surface.
Despite his criticism of earlier geographers such as Pytheas, Eratosthenes and Hipparchus, it has long been recognized that he does not advance their work except in providing some details in regard to the map of Europe, while his general map of Europe has more faults than that of Eratosthenes. Without the stiffening of astronomical observation the Roman road systems were like a number of fingers probing blindly in the dark.
The variation in the figures is aggravated by the fact that our later authorities do not entirely understand the Roman method of expressing large numbers as used by Agrippa and Pliny.
This is, however, a serious error on the part of Klotz and to accept it would be a very retrograde step in our appreciation of the map.
Therefore the word longitude could reasonably he used of its full length, and the measurements at right angles to this, that is, the latitudes, varied so much that Agrippa thought it necessary to give at least two, one in northern Italy and the second from Rome to the river Aternus. Since the Pyrenees are supposed to run north and south the longitude of Hispania citerior is really the latitude, as was noted before. Over the Rhine lies a small Germany, only half the size of Gaul, and southeast of it an Illyricum and Pannonia of about the same size as Germany. Cross measurements of the Mediterranean are given at three points, from the Italian coast by way of Corsica and Sardinia to Africa, from southern Greece through Sicily to the same place, and from Cape Malea in Greece to Crete and Cyrenaica.
Mesopotamia measures a fairly modest 800 by 320 miles, but further east Media measures 1,320 by 840, Arabia to the south is 2,170 by 1,296 and, finally, India represents the Far East with 3,300 by 1,300. He must have taken over the map of Eratosthenes as revised by people such as Polybius, Posidonius and Artemidorus, and made it the basis of his own. Pliny understood these measurements as being the prime value of the map and that is why he copies them so exhaustively. Sometimes simple dividing lines were used, such as that used in central Spain, or wherever natural features of division were not present.
Thus Agrippaa€™s India corresponds generally to the first a€?seala€? of Eratosthenes, and Agrippaa€™s Arabia, Ethiopia and Upper Egypt corresponds to the fourth a€?seala€?. Even with an astronomical basis they only provide us with a set of rectangles mostly scattered at haphazard about the Mediterranean.
At the boundaries to the north, east and south he had to content himself with qua cognitum est. This water feature is significant not only in the fact that it is completely landlocked, unlike most waterways which empty into a surrounding sea, but also notably both waterways are 1) truncated at each end by circular lakes 2) are similarly arced away from the center of their C-shaped surrounding, and 3) span the portion of their C-shape lying opposite the Greek and Italian peninsulas, the portion of the map which coincides with Africa. First century Roman maps like Agripaa€™s Orbis Terrarum, which had existed throughout Europe, disappeared during the medieval period, but at least one copy was discovered in Germany just a few years prior to the arrival of Schonera€™s 1515 globe, the Peutinger Table (#120), and therefore it is not unreasonable to believe that SchA¶ner might have had access to an unfinished copy of Agrippaa€™s map. When Agrippaa€™s Orbis Terrarum was originally created and put up for display on the wall of a portico, extensive commentary was likely consolidated within the center circular zone (2), but extending Jerusalem and Asia Minor into the mapa€™s center displaced much of the central text and necessitated the text's redistribution about the mappamundia€™s new design, relocating comments within the region to which each pertained, which is why we find the mappae mundi littered with commentary. But it may actually be that the EMM were based on the original text found on Agrippaa€™s map with the locative terms such as a€?above,a€? a€?opposite,a€? and a€?to the south ofa€? being necessary for a consolidated text set apart from the map, while the mappaemundia€™s placement of these data items directly onto the map logically allowed the removal of the spatial references.
The mappaemundi maintained this orientation because medieval Christians held Eden, which they believed resided in the east, in high esteem. The reconstruction also omits completely the lateral mountain range above the waterway, which seems like a rather large oversight as both the Peutinger Table and Ptolemya€™s map, two ancient Roman maps, incorporated a trans-African range as does SchA¶nera€™s design. It also maintains a more realistic belief that ancient maps did not maintain the accuracy of modern maps, but retained a basic design and set of elements common to nearly all ancient maps. The cards are already filtered by location, and the user can tap into a card to find out more about her potential date.
Users searching from a desktop browser can open promising results in different tabs, but users searching from mobile apps have to remember their favorites for the duration of the search.
In the store, the user can physically carry around a handful of movies, but will either need to put them back later or ask an employee to do it for her. First she scrolls through all of the results in her initial search area near her office, and takes mental note of a few promising-looking restaurants.
By making it easy for the user to keep track of and review good-enough options, the app will pull her gently towards a decision. It might notice, for example, that the user was only swiping right or tapping into ramen restaurants despite having searched for Japanese in general, and the app could shuffle more ramen and less sushi into the current deck accordingly. For example, perhaps a user loves sushi, but tonight she is eating with a friend who is vegan.
While their features differ slightly, in general users can exchange text, photo, audio, video, and sticker messages privately both with other individuals and with groups through an SMS- or chat-like interface. While these changes make it easier for users to observe a conversation as it happens, the best conversations still overwhelm the medium, and as a result participants move those conversations to some other service. Their typing notifications, for example, create a sense of mutual presence and attention, while stickers convey emotion when body language cannot.
The upstart messaging apps, however, pose a significant threat of disruptive innovation, as described by Clayton Christensen in his book The Innovator’s Dilemma.
More problematically for Twitter, these apps are expanding upmarket into other aspects of social networking: Snapchat recently launched a broadcast feature called Stories, Kik is pushing a platform that enables third-parties to develop social apps, and WeChat offers a Twitter-like Moments feature. While Twitter could continue to incrementally iterate on DMs until it reached superficial feature parity with the competitors, this would not fix the underlying shortcomings described above. The timeline in the current app satisfies the first need, and the conversations in this new app would satisfy the second need, similarly to how Facebook has separated its Messenger iPhone app away from its flagship app.
The only difference of note is that this new DM app shows the user how many messages she has exchanged with each friend; Twitter has been successful in lightly gamifying its products through the prominent placement of tweet, follow, and follower counts on user profiles, and these message counts are similarly intended to encourage interaction between users. Specifically, Twitter should fork its follow graph, seed conversations with tweets, create serendipity through conversation discoverability, and use Twitter as a platform for growth.
Users would not want to receive DMs from anyone, so some sort of permissions are necessary. If a new DM user wanted to send a message to a legacy DM user, then the sender’s messages would be received as a legacy DM (assuming the recipient already follows the sender on Twitter). By forking its follow graph, seeding conversations with tweets, creating serendipity through conversation discoverability, and using its core product as a platform for growth, Twitter could create the compelling and viable messaging product it needs.
An enterprising third party might be able to get Twitter to grant more than the default 100,000 API tokens, but it would be imperative that the short- and long-term incentives of both companies were aligned.
The debate has focused on the camera and, to a lesser extent, the microphone; ita€™s difficult for people near the Glass wearer to know if theya€™re being recorded. The keys to the success of Glass, then, are applications that are useful not only to the wearer, but also to other people without Glass2. How did society transition from one in which these photographers were derided for privacy violations, to one in which everyone has a camera in their pocket?
Imagine, for a moment, a birthday party in the early days of point-and-shoot cameras: everyone wants to have a friend with a camera to document the celebration4, and as a result everyone wants to buy a camera and be that friend. The service that replaces Facebook, however, will not look like Facebook, and Glass will suffer if integrated too tightly with Google+a€™s broken social graph. Optionally synchronous conversations are somewhere between the synchronicity of a phone call and the asynchronicity of email, and a good example is desktop instant messaging on AIM or Gchat. Current mobile devices get cluttered with notifications, but the Glass wearer can engage in a conversation without seeing notifications from other apps, just as a landline telephone user can make a call without checking her voicemail. If something else captures their interest, then they’ll naturally turn toward it, and the third friend will automatically follow their gaze.
Concerns about privacy and attention can be overcome by social apps that bring people closer together, and Glass has an exciting future as a communication device9. The things we say in these real-life conversations are private to those there at the time; as people come and go, those remaining can change what they talk about and how they act. This means Dashdash works with existing chat clients2 that people already use across a variety of platforms. It’s not scalable for everyone to see every conversation, so Alice can only see the Dashdash conversations that her friends are in.
Each participant is aware of the others’ intonation, facial expressions7, and body language as well as the context for the conversation. Basically wea€™re trying to make it so that every app everywhere can be social whether ita€™s on the web, or mobile, or other devices.
Can Facebook successfully transition its application to mobile, and either defeat or pay off3 these barbarians at its gates?
Microsoft Windows, for example, succeeded in monopolizing the desktop OS market, but innovation moved to the web browser.
As a result, Facebook encourages smaller applications to use their platform, but restricts access for larger companies.
There is nothing unique about the ongoing shift in consumer attention from desktop to mobile, and this constant evolution ensures that neither Facebook nor any other single company will own this social layer indefinitely and be the last great social network. Regardless of the whether Google can foster healthy social conventions around Glass, it’s clear that we will have wearable communication devices, and that those devices will enable yet-to-be-imagined user experiences in both the social and application layers. Or should they wait until the market is established and the interaction paradigms proven, and risk being too late? Nor will Facebook be the second-to-last great social network — whatever company comes next will face all of the same challenges, and will eventually be replaced by a new social layer for the same reasons. Each new great social network will be great for us, the users, because they will bring us ever closer to people who are far away. Web pages usually consist of small files, so it’s easier and cheaper to store them all than it would be to store every possible car. There’s no work required because the web pages are pre-assembled, so the whole process usually happens in much less than a second.
I based the new design on the Octopress Minimalist theme by Ryan Deussing, but made many changes to the metadata, layouts, fonts, and colors. It is difficult for companies to 1) choose which of the many, many ideas are worth building, and then 2) iterate intelligently on the chosen ideas until they become viable products.
People at small, unproven startups get to talk about what they are doing with all sorts of people all the time. Some of the conversations might be at parties as above, some might be with friends or family or former co-workers, while others might happen during the casual networking at tech meetups.
Would Google+ have been less successful so far if its employees had been able to discuss Circles at apartment parties, or might they have learned that people don’t really want to sort their friends? Perhaps companies that keep secrets are afraid of imitation by competitors, but in reality those competitors are usually so entrenched in their own products and worldview that they are incapable of copying anything even if they wanted to.
Secrets create press interest and secrets scare competitors, but secrets also slow you down and secrets do not engender good products. I then made symbolic links from the directories containing the text files I wanted to be able to edit to this new Depot directory. 21 The one who conquers, I will grant him to sit with me on my throne, as I also conquered and sat down with my Father on his throne.
15 If anyonea€™s work is burned up, he will suffer loss, though he himself will be saved, but only as through fire.
Disregarding the elaborate projections of the Greeks, they reverted to the old disk map of the Ionian geographers as being better adapted to their purposes. If land survey did play such an important part, then these plans, being based on centuriation requirements and therefore square or rectangular, may have influenced the shape of smaller-scale maps.
The speakers compare Italy with Asia Minor, a country on similar latitudes where Greeks had experience of farming. India, Seres [China], and Scythia and Sarmatia [Russia] are reduced to small outlying regions on the periphery, thus taking on some features similar to the egocentric maps of the Chinese. He first became prominent as governor of Gaul, where he improved the road system and put down a rebellion in Aquitania. Thus Agrippa is said to have written that the whole coast of the Caspian from the Casus River consists of very high cliffs, which prevent landing for 425 miles. Such a word certainly ties up with Divisio I: a€?The world is divided up into three parts, named Europe, Asia, Libya or Africa.
It is, as one might expect, more accurate in well-known than less-known parts, and more accurate for land than for sea areas.
Moreover it seems to have been the first Latin map to be accompanied by notes or commentary. In regard to the materials of construction I think we have to choose between the painted type of wall-map mentioned by Varro and the construction of marble slabs that is used in the forma urbis Romae of two centuries later, of which considerable parts are extant. Detlefsen, as against the view of Partsch, effectively quoted the passage of the younger Pliny, on the 160 volumes of his unclea€™s commentarii, which he describes as electoruma€¦ commentarios, opisthographos quidem et minutissime scriptos, annotated excerpts, written on the back in a minute hand. It is, of course, possible to imagine that tabulated lists were put up as an adjunct to the map at the short ends, but the references to Spain and the Caspian seem somewhat out of place even here, and the balance of probability on this problem seems to lie, although rather precariously in favor of a contemporary, or nearly contemporary, publication of at least a selection of Agrippaa€™s material comprising something more than mere lists of names and figures.
Detlefsena€™s view that both works were the transformation of actual maps into a written record had the advantage that the differences in the order of the material in the two works was of little consequence, the map giving merely the visual impact, and the writer a€?being free to begin his description at whatever point on the map he preferreda€?. First come the boundaries of the province given in the constant order east, west, north, south. Firstly, Klotz has not discussed the possible use of Agrippa in Ptolemya€™s Geography, and secondly, and much more fundamentally, he has not recognized the scientific importance of the world-map of Agrippa as a link between Eratosthenes and Hipparchus on the one hand and Marinus and Ptolemy on the other, but has merely repeated traditional views dating from the end of the 19th century.
It follows further, says Schnabel, that Plinya€™s seventh parallel, that of fifteen hours, belongs equally to Agrippa. Detlefsen pointed this out in 1909, and Kroll (after Honigmann) throws further light on the subject in his article on Nigidius in R.
Plinya€™s final phrase about these scholars adding half an hour to all parallels denotes rather the astronomer than the astrologer.
III, 1, 7) on the river Arsia, that is, 36A° 15a€™ east longitude arid 44A° 55a€™ N latitude.
It would be fairer to use the reduction factor from Ptolemy's third map of Europe, referring to Gaul (Book VIII, cap.
Hipparchus however, reckoned the distance from Syene to Alexandria as seven and one-seventh degrees of latitude. The most important of these passages is the first (II, 5, 17, C 120) where he refers to the important role played by the sea and secondarily, and by rivers and mountains in the shaping of the earth. Yet we may be sure that maps still continued to be made as rectangles on a plane surface, although the relation of the spherical to the plane surface must have begun to appear as a problem. His calculation of the length of the eartha€™s circumference and of the degree length of 700 stadia was a notable event in the advance of geography.

For latitude he described the celestial phenomena for each individual degree of the ninety degrees running north front the Equator to the North Pole, giving for each the length of the longest day and the stars visible. He tells us that the lack of gnomonic readings in the east, of which Hipparchus complained, was equally true of the west (IL 1, C 71). When one considers the variants within the MSS groups it follows that one may have a dozen or more variants for a single number. The corresponding Greek words had, of course, originally meant length and breadth with no particular sense of direction. In Spain again the Pyrenees were always regarded as running north and south, parallel to the Rhine, while the east coast as far as the straits and Cadiz was regarded as running more or lees in a straight line to the west. Detlefsen accepts that Agrippaa€™s figure is an error without being able to explain why, while for Klotz Syria is an obvious proof that Agrippa assigned no definite direction to his longitude. India alone, therefore, has a longitude as great as the whole Mediterranean, while its latitude is comparable to that of Europe and Africa combined. His chief pride would seem to have been in his measurements, and indeed it is only for the exactness of these that Pliny praises him when he refers to BA¦tica in Book III, 17.
Again the horizontal spine of Mount Taurus plays an important role in both as a line of division between the northern and southern areas, Agrippa, however, follows the Eratosthenic method of division only in a general way and not in detail.
It is quite certain that the waterway made its way onto the mappaemundi via Agrippaa€™s Orbis Terrarum as this landlocked waterway represents the Roman belief that the Nile River originated in the mountains of Mauritania and ran laterally across the continent dividing the African continent in two with Libya to the north and Ethiopia to the south.
And finally, based on SchA¶nera€™s design Agrippaa€™s map was built around a concentric grid that resembled a polar projection which he as a globe maker would have readily recognized. Ancient Roman maps like the Peutinger Table, however, oriented the map with north to the top similar to the reconstruction based on SchA¶nera€™s design. But should some doubts still linger, he offers one last review two earlier images comparing the landmass to other C-shaped maps, the Greek Hecataeus (#108) and medieval Hereford world maps, and ask that you consider the mathematical probability that SchA¶ner would incorporate the precise elements of these maps in their precise order and placement without an ancient world map as his template.
The user can also swipe the card left if she isn’t interested, or swipe right if she is. Then she drags the map closer to her apartment to see more results, but if the two map areas overlap and the results near her office happen to rank highly, then she’ll have to look at those same results a second time.
In this way the app might be able to tease out preferences of which the user wasn’t even consciously aware. Twitter has experimented with giving users the option to relax this restriction, but it reverted the change several weeks later, suggesting that another solution is needed. If you’re unfamiliar, watch the first ten minutes of this talk, but skip the two minutes of intro music!
At the same time, there’s little point in sending messages to someone who does not have permission to respond. For small groups, these embedded tweets would enrich the conversation by giving a sense of what other participants were thinking about. Perhaps these messages could be preceded by an automated header from Twitter that invited the recipient to download the new DM app. Specifically, non-wearers could derive value from Glass applications for photo sharing, optionally synchronous messaging, and telepresence.
The friends and family of Glass wearers can enjoy this unique and personal communicative content even if they don’t have Glass themselves7. These services are great for talking with friends while watching television or with coworkers whom you don’t want to interrupt, and recipients can respond at their leisure with only an expectation of timeliness. The video from the third friend’s camera would also always be in the field of view of the Glass wearers, rather than off to the side on a screen.
These apps all support multiple services, so users can add their Dashdash account alongside their Gchat, AIM, and other accounts. There are many, many other services6, yet none mirror how conversations actually work in social spaces in the real world. Data (and data exhaust) from other services can help the participants understand these shared contexts: Where is each participant? So inherently our whole approach has to be a breadth-first approach rather than a depth-first one. By restricting access, however, Facebook also forces those companies to seek alternative social layers or build their own, thus strengthening competitors. There will be many future technologies after Glass at the network, hardware, and OS layers, and each technology will destabilize these higher layers in which Facebook has built its empire and create new opportunities in undeveloped territory. The barbarians are independent, so each can try a different approach, but a sprawling empire must choose its strategies more carefully.
I hope the new design makes reading and browsing easy, but feedback, and pull requests, are always appreciated! Companies that keep fewer secrets are faster because of the quantity, quality, and variety of feedback they get on their ideas. Within this round frame the Roman cartographers placed the Orbis Terrarum, the circuit of the world. This shape was also one that suited the Roman habit of placing a large map on a wall of a temple or colonnade.
If Romans were planning this, they would place the northern section much further west, whereas the cartographers were Greeks, and they followed a tradition which originated in Rhodes or Alexandria. He pacified the area near Cologne (later founded as a Roman colony) by settling the Ubii at their request on the west bank of the Rhine. Agrippa was an obvious choice as composer of such a map, being a naval man who had traveled widely and had an interest in the technical side.
The date at which the building was started is not known, but it was still incomplete in 7 B.C.
If the commentary had not been continuous, but had merely served as supplementary notes where required, there is a possibility that by Plinya€™s time, some eighty years later, it might have gone out of circulation. Augustus was the first to show it [the world] by chorography.a€? Evidently there is a slight difference of meaning between this and Ptolemya€™s definition, by which chorography refers to regional mapping. From the quotations given by Dilke, there would appear to be a general tendency by Agrippa to underestimate land distances in Gaul, Germany and in the Far East, and to overestimate sea distances. Although the words used are longitudo and latitudo, they have no connection with longitudinal and latitudinal degree divisions. Romans going to colonies, particularly outside Italy, could obtain information about the location or characteristics of a particular place.
We know that the campus Agrippae was in the campus Markus on the east side of the Via Flaminia and that it was bordered towards the street on the west by the Porticus Vipsania. In view of the widespread use of marble facings that characterizes the age of Augustus, the marble slab method appears more probable. Riese and Partsch had argued that certain references to Agrippa in Pliny, in particular the reference to the inaccessibility of part of the coast of the Caspian Sea and also that to the Punic origins of the coastal towns of Baetica refer more naturally to a published work than to the map in the Porticus Vipsania.
We do not know the size of this map that has perished, or whether its descent from the map of Agrippa was through a series of hand-copies as Detlefsen supposed.
In actual fact Pliny and the Divisio both begin their description from the straits of Gibraltar, moving east, while the Demensuratio, on the contrary, begins with India moves west. Following on this and connected there with come the longitude and latitude, in that order, expressed in Roman miles with Roman numerals. These views stated that Agrippaa€™s work was constructed on the basis of Roman itinerary measurements and took no note of the scientific results of the astronomical geography of the Greeks. Pliny then adds a€?from later studentsa€? five more parallels, three of them, those of the Don, of Britain, and of Thule, running north of the original seven, and two, those of Meroe and Syene, running south of them.
What is new in Plinya€™s parallels may be referred to the Greek astronomers of the age of Hipparchus or the two or three generations after him. By subtraction we get the difference in longitude between the two places as 8A° 45a€™ and the difference in latitude as 1A° 55a€™. This third class was to be manipulated as intelligently as possible so as to fit in with the basic evidence of the first two classes.
But in every case instead of a geometrical definition a simple and rough definition is enough.
He also established a fundamental parallel of latitude, following the example of DicA¦archus.
The north, the far east, and Africa south of the Arabian gulf, were practically unknown, and even in the Mediterranean and the land-areas surrounding it, major defects were due to the great uncertainties of measurement, whether by land or by sea. Straboa€™s aversion to the mathematical and astronomical sick of geography has already been described and considered as typical of the age that he lived. Much toil has been expended by scholars such as Partsch, Detlefsen and Klotz in attempting to divine which, if any, of these figures belong to Agrippa. They became technical terms for longitude and latitude with a strict directional sense in the filth century B.C. The north coast, however, was usually thought to run from Lisbon (Cabo da Roca) to the Pyrenees, the northwest capes, Nerium and Ortegal, being ignored. Detlefsen held that the map was not drawn to scale and that the measurements were merely inscribed upon it. Unfortunately, in nearly all cases we know neither the beginning nor the end of the routes measured, nor do we know, with any exactness, the direction of the route. Eratosthenes determined the sides of his a€?seals,a€? that were irregular quadrilaterals, by the points of the compass. It is clear that he gave the itinerary stages in Italy and Sicily in addition to the coastal sailing measurements. He believes such a notion is impossible and with the presentation of a sound argument for the circumstances contributing to SchA¶nera€™s error, there remains little reason to doubt that because of his grand error we are able to gaze upon Agrippaa€™s Orbis Terrarum for the first time in many centuries. If two users share mutual interest, they are both notified and can exchange messages through the app.
Until Twitter resolves this issue, the subtle social friction and persistent fear of embarrassment will drive users to other messaging products.
Thus the new message graph should be symmetric: users would add other users as contacts, and if the recipient approves the request, then the two could then exchange messages. It’s natural for users to then want to strengthen these relationships further through lightweight, synchronous, private conversations. Embedded tweets wouldn’t trigger notifications like normal messages, and they could be hidden either individually or for an entire conversation. This backwards compatibility would both accelerate the growth of the DM app and make it immediately useful for new users.
Furthermore, audio quality would improve because the Glass microphone is built-in, rather than resting on a conference table. Facebook’s social layer monopoly is further destabilized by the ease with which users can rely on multiple social graphs simultaneously, in contrast to how inconvenient it is for them to use multiple data networks, hardware devices, or operating systems.
If companies have product leaders that can understand that feedback, then they can iterate quickly to arrive at a product consumers want. Note that some directories such as notepad docs are located elsewhere in Dropbox, but I can still make the appropriate symlinks.
27 But I discipline my body and keep it under control, lest after preaching to others I myself should be disqualified. As a visual aid to this discussion, the temple map will have been envisaged as particularly helpful. He must have had plans drawn, and may even have devised and used large-scale maps to help him with the conversion of Lake Avemus and the Lacus Lucrinus into naval ports.
Two late geographical writings, the Divisio orbis and the Dimensuratio provinciarum (commonly abbreviated to Divisio and Dimensuratio) may be thought to come from Agrippa, because they show similarities with Plinya€™s figures.
If West Africa is any guide, in areas where distances were not well established, they were probably entered only very selectively. Also the full extent of the Roman Empire could be seen at a glance.a€?Certain medieval maps, including the Hereford and Ebstorf world maps (see monographs #224 and #226 in Book IIB) are now believed to have been derived from the Orbis Terraum of Agrippa, and point to the existence of a series of maps, now lost, that carried the traditions of Roman cartography into Christian Europe. Varro, in the following century, tells us of a map of Italy that was painted on the wall of the temple of Tellus.
Remains of the portico are stated to have been found opposite the Piazza Colonna on the Corso at about the position of the column of Marcus Aurelius and further north. The volumes of commentary referred to by the younger Pliny were not published, but were clearly digested to the point where little further work was needed to prepare them for publication, and the same situation may well be accepted for the commentarii of Agrippa. The text, however, had long previously been known from its reproduction in the first five chapters of the De Mensura Orbis Terrae, published by the Irish scholar Dicuil in A.D. But it did quite clearly derive from that map, whether in the map-form or in a written form, with its list of seas, mountains, rivers, harbors, gulfs and cities. On Klotza€™s view that both works derive from a common written source this major divergence becomes a problem to he explained, but Klotz can offer no explanation. The boundaries are marked by the natural features, usually the mountains, rivers, deserts and oceans, only occasionally by towns or other features. Of these parallels Schnabel tries to establish that at least two are due to Agrippa, to wit, the first of the new parallels passing through the Don, and the seventh of the old parallels passing through the mouth of the Dnieper. Using Ptolemya€™s reduction factor at 43A° N latitude which is forty-three sixtieths we find that with Ptolemya€™s degree of 500 stadia the difference in longitude between the two places in question is 3,135 and five-twelfths stadia and the difference in latitude is 958 and one-third stadia. It was this third kind of evidence which gave Ptolemy his positions for the Varus and the Arsia.
He thinks the 411 miles represents the itinerary measurement from the Varus to Rimini through Dertona, and that the Arsia has got attached to it by a slight confusion in Pliny's mind in thinking of the boundaries between the mare superum and the mare inferum, with which, in fact, he equates the Varus-Arsia measurement. This factor of forty sixtieths or two-thirds gives a distance of approximately 384 miles from Varus to Arsia and the striking coincidence on which Schnabel has built this elaborate theory simply vanishes. Therefore, argues Schnabel, Agrippa made a new reckoning of the degree at 80 Roman miles or 640 stadia.
Such features as these brought into existence the continents, the tribes, the fine natural sites of cities and the other decorative features of which our chorogaphic map is chock full.a€? The map of Agrippa displayed, therefore, all the natural features just mentioned and, in addition, the names of tribes and of famous cities. Only a combination of the practical measurements with astronomical observation could have affected a real progress and our evidence shows only too clearly that this happy union did not take place. Some light has been thrown on the subject by comparison with later Roman itineraries for the particular areas. The result of this misconception was that the figures for longitude and latitude were simply interchanged.
Agrippa regarded the Syrian coast running northeast from the boundary of Egypt, as running much more in an easterly direction than it actually does. His map represents, says Detlefsen, a moment of historical development, a point in the process of crystallization of the lands of the Mediterranean into the Roman Empire. Agrippa defines the boundaries of his groups of countries in the same way, by the points of the compass, but as regards size he supplies only the length and breadth, thus agreeing with Strabo, already quoted. It is a question whether these itinerary measurements were given, in detail on the map for all the western provinces, not to mention the eastern ones. Tinder is designed to help users make choices as quickly and easily as possible, and then it gets out of the way.
Similarly, if the user decides halfway through the search that she wants ramen rather than sushi, she’ll have to look through many of the same results yet again.
This new DM app would provide a social space for these aspirational interactions3, which is something that the other messaging apps are not able to offer. They would make it easier to jump between Twitter’s conversation spaces and would facilitate discussion of specific tweets. Glass will enable casual, go-anywhere telepresence that helps both wearers and non-wearers feel like they’re with friends who are far away. But whether it was only intended to be imagined by readers or was actually illustrated in the book is not clear.
The map was presumably developed from the Roman road itineraries, and may have been circular in shape, thus differing from the Roman Peutinger Table (#120). The theory that it was circular is in conflict with a shape that would suit a colonnade wall. What purpose was served by giving a width for the long strip from the Black Sea to the Baltic Sea is not clear.
Dilke provides a detailed discussion of Agrippaa€™s measurements using quotes from the elder Plinya€™s Natural History. We do not know the occasion of this dedication, but since it was meant to celebrate a victory it may been intended for the geographical instruction of the Roman public. They are said to allow the conclusion that it had the same dimensions and construction as the adjacent porticus saeptorum, whose dimensions were 1,500 ft. The twelve lines were inscribed on this map and also on an obviously contemporary written version thereof, and it is this written version that has been preserved for us both by Dicuil and in the various manuscripts of the Divisio orbis terrarum, whereas the map has perished.
Klotz, however, believed that be could determine the original succession of countries and groups of countries as treated in the published work of Agrippa by criteria.
The Demensuratio on one occasion gives the fauna and flora of Eastern India, which it calls the land of pepper, elephants, snakes, sphinxes and parrots.
He argues that the Dnieper was used as a line of demarcation between Sarmatia to the east and Dacia to the west only on the map of Agrippa, and neither earlier nor later, and that therefore the parallel from the Don through the Dnieper must derive from that map. Plinya€™s seven klimata are a piece of astrological geography and derive through Nigidius from Serapion of Antioch, who was probably a pupil of Hipparchus, or if not was a student of his work. But there is no vestige of probability or proof that Agrippa made new gnomonic readings to correct Hipparchus.
Schnabel now treats the spherical triangle involved as a plane right-angled triangle, and using the theorem of Pythagoras, he finds that the hypotenuse, that is, the distance between the Varus and the Arsia is 3,291 stadia or 411 Roman miles. Gnomonic readings were often inaccurate, measurement of time was still very vague, and a degree length one-sixth too large did not help. He used the circle of 360 degrees, giving up the hexecontads [a 60-sided polygon] of Eratosthenes. But since we normally do not know by what route Agrippaa€™s measurements were taken, this light may prove to be a will-o-the wisp. Aristotle, Strabo and Pliny all insist on the technical directional sense, as there was the possibility of ignorant people misunderstanding them.
The same thing occurred in the British islands that were regarded as running from northeast to southwest. 1,200, 720 and 410 miles, respectively, running from the unknown north down to the Aegean, but all having approximately the same latitude of just under 400 miles. Therefore the longitude was to him the east-west direction, and the latitude from Seleucia Pieria to Zeugma was the north-south direction.
Partial distances were given from station to station along the Italian coast, but Detlefsen thinks that the summation of the coastal measurements appeared elsewhere on the map.
Where this process is complete we have ready-made provinces, where it is still in progress we find the raw materials of provinces-to-be, which are still parts of large and scarcely known areas, and finally, where Roman armies have never set foot we find enormous, amorphous masses lumped together as geographical units. It is notable, as Detlefsen points out, that Strabo must have recognized this lack of scientific value.
It appears from passages in Pliny that Varro had already used the Roman itineraries in his geographical books and Agrippa was only following his example. The entire process requires a lot of tapping, a lot of remembering, and a lot of duplicated effort. THESE VERY SAME ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES, WHO HAVE SWORN TO PROTECT AND SERVE, OUR COUNTRY, AND CITIZENS ,ARE BUT SOME, OF THE CORRUPT,GREEDY TRAITORS .ENGAGED IN THE TYRANNY AND TORTURE. The same applies to possible cartographic illustration of Varroa€™s Antiquitates rerum humanarum et divinarum, of which Books VII-XIII dealt with Italy. The map of Agrippa, however, was set up, not in a sacred place, but in a portico or stoa open to the public, the Porticus Vipsania. Dicuil worked and wrote probably at the Frankish palace at Aix-la-Chapelle in the time of Charlemagne and Louis the Pious. The date of the making of the map was probably the fifteenth consulate of Theodosius II, that is, A.D. One of these was the direction shown in the order of naming several particular countries where several are included in the same section, or the direction shown in the list of the boundaries of the section.
This argument, however, is unsound for a number of reasons, of which the most obvious in this context is that whereas the Dnieper is given by our sources as the west boundary of Sarmatia, it is never given as the east boundary of Dacia. Nigidius was a notorious student of the occult and his astrological geography was contained in a work apparently entitled de terris. At right angles to this he established a meridian running from Meroe northwards to the mouth of the Dnieper, and passing through Alexandria, Rhodes and Byzantium. Yet he did not try to get a more exact value for the degree, although this was the point where theory could most easily have affected practice. Moreover, although the Roman roads may often have rationalized the native roads by new road-construction or by bridging, yet in general they continued to be town-to-town roads, and if the itineraries ever correctly represented the longitude and latitude of a province it would be by pure chance. But, you may object, this technical sense is only suitable for describing rectangles and not all countries fall into that convenient form.
Here again longitudo is the long axis and latitudo the short axis, not because of a misuse of these technical terms, but simply because their general position was misconceived. Further east again Sarmatia [Russia], including the Black Sea to the south, measures 980 by 715 miles, Asia Minor 1,155 by 325, Armenia and the Caspian 480 by 280.
Any doubt on this matter is removed when we look at Pliny (VI, 126), where he gives the latitude from the same point, Seleucia Pieria, to the mouth of the Tigris.
It is probable that Italy and the neighboring islands were given in greater detail than other areas. Of the first class, the ordered provinces, we have eight in Europe, three in Africa, and three in Asia.
He gives us from Agrippa, a few lines along the coasts of Italy and Sicily but not a single one of his reckonings for the provinces.
Since so little of the materials of the ancient geographers bas been preserved it is mostly a matter of chance whether we know or do not know whether Agrippa agreed or not with the measurements of a particular earlier geographer. If these services maintained state for each new decision and kept track of what the user had seen, then the user would only need to look at each option once.
But at least we know that he was keen on illustration, since his Hebdomades vel de imaginibus, a biographical work in fifteen books, was illustrated with as many as seven hundred portraits. Plinya€™s most specific reference to the map is where he records that the length of BA¦tica, the southern Spanish province, given as 475 Roman miles and its width as 258 Roman miles, whereas the width could still be correct, depending on how it was calculated. It was not a map of a part of the Empire, not even a map of the Empire as a whole, but rather a map of the whole known world, of which the Roman Empire was merely one part.
The Porticus Vipsania was, therefore, an enormous colonnade and it follows that the map with which we are concerned was only one decorative item among the many that adorned it. Thus he says that the order Cevennes-Jura for the northern boundary of Narbonese Gaul shows motion from west to east, and again the list Macedonia, Hellespont, left side it the Black Sea shows the same movement. This work seems to have included his commentary on the sphaera Graecanica describing the Greek constellations and his sphaera barbarica on the non-Greek constellations.
From the coincidence of the figures Schnabel strongly argues that Ptolemy must have taken over the figure of 411 miles from Agrippa. The establishment of these two lines provided the theoretical basis for a grid of lines of parallels and meridians respectively, points being fixed by longitude and latitude as by the coordinates in a graph. The measurements of Agrippa should, therefore, be reduced but it is not easy to say by what factor. This is true indeed, and here we have to consider a few ancient misconceptions about the shapes and positions of particular countries. The distance is 175 miles from Seleucia to Zeugma, 724 miles from Zeugma to Seleucia and Tigrim and 320 miles to the mouth of the Tigris, that is, 1,219 in all. Of the second class, where the Romans had recent military campaign we have three in Europe, that is, Germany, Dacia and Sarmatia, one in Africa, Mauretania, and one in Asia, Armenia. Klotz has shown that he used Eratosthenes very often, but that on occasion he disagreed with him, and that Artemidorus apparently he did not use at all. The more ambient context the participants share for a conversation, the more rich and natural that conversation can feel. Since we are told that this work was widely circulated, some scholars have wondered whether Varro used some mechanical means of duplicating his miniatures; but educated slaves were plentiful, and we should almost certainly have heard about any such device if it had existed.
Pliny continues: a€?Who would believe that Agrippa, a very careful man who took great pains over his work, should, when he was going to set up the map to be looked at by the people of Rome, have made this mistake, and how could Augustus have accepted it? The second criterion is that the use (the alleged use) of the term longitudo for a north-south direction or for any direction other than the canonical one of east-west, shows us the direction of Agrippaa€™s order in treating of the geography.
Nigidiusa€™ a€?barbaric spherea€? was derived from the like-named work of Asclepiades of Myrlea. The two main passages from Straboa€™s second book may reasonably be regarded as a transcript of contemporary geographical practice and since between them they give an exact description of the methods followed in the ancient remains of the map of Agrippa, Tierney thinks that they may rightly be regarded as a strong proof that the views held on this map by Detlefsen and Klotz are generally correct. In somewhat similar circumstances Ptolemy reduced the figures of Marinus in Asia and Africa by about one-half. This distance, he adds, is the latitude of the earth between the two seas, that is, the Mediterranean and the Persian Gulf. For it was Augustus who, when Agrippaa€™s sister had begun building the portico, carried through the scheme from the intention and notes [commentarii] of M.
Tierney does not believe that either of these criteria can show us the order of treatment in the original publication, presuming, that is, that there was an original publication. The detailed extension of the Greek parallels into the Roman west is apparently due to Nigidius. Agrippa, he thinks, took the itinerary figure for the distance from the Varus to the Arsia, which is given as 745 miles by Pliny (III, 132) and reduced it to a straight line of 411 miles by astronomical and mathematical measurement.
We are prone to forget that all ancient geographers were necessarily map-minded, and even when the map was not before their physical eye, it was before their mental eye.
This proves, therefore, that Agrippaa€™s map was not a purely itinerary map, but that Agrippa reduced the itinerary measurements in the way described. Augustus, as he was ill, handed his signet-ring to Agrippa, thus indicating him as acting emperor. The order of countries within a section would, I think, very much depend on the momentary motions or aberrations of that mental eye. It is unfortunate, however, that nearly all Agrippaa€™s figures come down to us in a non-reduced form that makes it impossible to reproduce his map. The same year Agrippa was given charge of all the eastern parts of the Empire, with headquarters at Mitylene.
The school district has moved to a biometric identification program, saying students will no longer have to use an ID card to buy lunch.A  BIOMETRICS TO TRACK YOUR KIDS!!!!!i»?i»?A TARGETED INDIVIDUALS, THE GREEDY CRIMINALS ARE NOW CONDONING THEIR TECH! Paul Weindling, history of medicine professor at Oxford Brookes University, describes his search for the lost victims of Nazi experiments.
The chairman of the board at ESL a€” then proprietor of the desert wasteland in Nevada known as a€?Area 51a€? a€” was William Perry, who would be appointed secretary of defense several years later. EUCACH.ORG PanelIn a 2-hour wide-ranging Panel with Alfred Lambremont Webre on the Transhumanist Agenda, Magnus Olsson, Dr. Henning Witte, and Melanie Vritschan, three experts from the European Coalition Against Covert Harassment, revealed recent technological advances in human robotization and nano implant technologies, and an acceleration of what Melanie Vritschan characterized as a a€?global enslavement programa€?.Shift from electromagnetic to scalar wavesThese technologies have now shifted from electromagnetic wave to scalar waves and use super quantum computers in the quantum cloud to control a€?pipesa€? a reference to the brains of humans that have been taken over via DNA, via implants that can be breathed can breach the blood-brain barrier and then controlled via scalar waved on a super-grid.
Eventually, such 'subvocal speech' systems could be used in spacesuits, in noisy places like airport towers to capture air-traffic controller commands, or even in traditional voice-recognition programs to increase accuracy, according to NASA scientists."What is analyzed is silent, or sub auditory, speech, such as when a person silently reads or talks to himself," said Chuck Jorgensen, a scientist whose team is developing silent, subvocal speech recognition at NASA Ames Research Center in California's Silicon Valley. We numbered the columns and rows, and we could identify each letter with a pair of single-digit numbers," Jorgensen said. People in noisy conditions could use the system when privacy is needed, such as during telephone conversations on buses or trains, according to scientists."An expanded muscle-control system could help injured astronauts control machines. If an astronaut is suffering from muscle weakness due to a long stint in microgravity, the astronaut could send signals to software that would assist with landings on Mars or the Earth, for example," Jorgensen explained. These are processed to remove noise, and then we process them to see useful parts of the signals to show one word from another," Jorgensen said.After the signals are amplified, computer software 'reads' the signals to recognize each word and sound. Our Research and Development Division has been in contact with the Federal Bureau of Prisons, the California Department of Corrections, the Texas Department of Public Safety, and the Massachusetts Department of Correction to run limited trials of the 2020 neural chip implant. We have established representatives of our interests in both management and institutional level positions within these departments. Federal regulations do not yet permit testing of implants on prisoners, but we have entered nto contractual agreements with privatized health care professionals and specified correctional personnel to do limited testing of our products. We need, however, to expand our testing to research how effective the 2020 neural chip implant performs in those identified as the most aggressive in our society. In California, several prisoners were identified as members of the security threat group, EME, or Mexican Mafia. They were brought to the health services unit at Pelican Bay and tranquilized with advanced sedatives developed by our Cambridge,Massachussetts laboratories. The results of implants on 8 prisoners yielded the following results: a€?Implants served as surveillance monitoring device for threat group activity.
However, during that period substantial data was gathered by our research and development team which suggests that the implants exceed expected results. One of the major concerns of Security and the R & D team was that the test subject would discover the chemial imbalance during the initial adjustment period and the test would have to be scurbbed. However, due to advanced technological developments in the sedatives administered, the 48 hour adjustment period can be attributed t prescription medication given to the test subjects after the implant procedure. One of the concerns raised by R & D was the cause of the bleeding and how to eliminate that problem. Unexplained bleeding might cause the subject to inquire further about his "routine" visit to the infirmary or health care facility. Security officials now know several strategies employed by the EME that facilitate the transmission of illegal drugs and weapons into their correctional facilities.
One intelligence officier remarked that while they cannot use the informaiton that have in a court of law that they now know who to watch and what outside "connections" they have.
The prison at Soledad is now considering transferring three subjects to Vacaville wher we have ongoing implant reserach. Our technicians have promised that they can do three 2020 neural chip implants in less than an hour. Soledad officials hope to collect information from the trio to bring a 14 month investigation into drug trafficking by correctional officers to a close.
Essentially, the implants make the unsuspecting prisoner a walking-talking recorder of every event he comes into contact with. There are only five intelligence officers and the Commisoner of Corrections who actually know the full scope of the implant testing. In Massachusetts, the Department of Corrections has already entered into high level discussion about releasing certain offenders to the community with the 2020 neural chip implants.
Our people are not altogether against the idea, however, attorneys for Intelli-Connection have advised against implant technology outside strick control settings.
While we have a strong lobby in the Congress and various state legislatures favoring our product, we must proceed with the utmost caution on uncontrolled use of the 2020 neural chip. If the chip were discovered in use not authorized by law and the procedure traced to us we could not endure for long the resulting publicity and liability payments. Massachusetts officials have developed an intelligence branch from their Fugitive Task Force Squad that would do limited test runs under tight controls with the pre-release subjects. Correctons officials have dubbed these poetnetial test subjects "the insurance group." (the name derives from the concept that the 2020 implant insures compliance with the law and allows officials to detect misconduct or violations without question) A retired police detective from Charlestown, Massachusetts, now with the intelligence unit has asked us to consider using the 2020 neural chip on hard core felons suspected of bank and armored car robbery. He stated, "Charlestown would never be the same, we'd finally know what was happening before they knew what was happening." We will continue to explore community uses of the 2020 chip, but our company rep will be attached to all law enforcement operations with an extraction crrew that can be on-site in 2 hours from anywhere at anytime. We have an Intelli-Connection discussion group who is meeting with the Director of Security at Florence, Colorado's federal super maximum security unit.
The initial discussions with the Director have been promising and we hope to have an R & D unit at this important facilitly within the next six months.
Napolitano insisted that the department was not planning on engaging in any form of ideological profiling.
I will tell him face-to-face that we honor veterans at DHS and employ thousands across the department, up to and including the Deputy Secretary," Ms. Steve Buyer of Indiana, the ranking Republican on the House Committee on Veterans' Affairs, called it "inconceivable" that the Obama administration would categorize veterans as a potential threat.

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