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The a€?Middle Agesa€? gets its name from the fact that it falls between ancient times and the modern era.
Missionaries a€“ Christian teachers sent by the pope to teach people in northern Europe about Christianity and convert them to the Christian faith. Monks a€“ religious men who lived apart from society in isolated communities called monasteries.
Monks helped the poor and needy, ran schools, and collected ancient Greek and Roman writings and slowly translated them into modern languages such as English, French, German, etc.
In the late 700s another Christian king of the Franks, Charlemagne, conquered all of France, and parts of Germany, Austria, Italy and northern Spain.
During the 800s and 900s warriors from Scandinavia known as Vikings, raided Britain, Ireland and other parts of Western Europe. Because kings could not defend their lands from Viking, Magyar and Muslims raids, nobles had to defend their own lands. In 1066 William the Conqueror invaded England, won the famous a€?Battle of Hastingsa€? and took control of all of England. Knights allowed peasants to live on their land, farm it and in exchange, live under their protection. Serfs, laborers who could not leave their land without permission from their lord, also worked on the manors and received protection. After 1000 European food production increased, population increased and some towns grew into cities and trade between them increased.
No written records exist but, Romans believed their history could be traced back to a great Trojan hero named Aeneas. According to Roman legend, twin brothers Romulus & Remus were raised by a wolf, adopted by a shepherd and when they grew up founded the city of Rome.
The government the Romans created in 509 BC was a republic, where people elect leaders to govern them. In 494 BC the peasants, craftspeople and traders of Rome formed their own council and elected their own officials. To be fair to all classes of Roman citizens, a tripartite (3 part) government was developed.
Second Branch a€“ Tribunes, elected by the plebeians, had the power to veto laws passed by the Roman officials. All Roman citizens were expected to participate in government by attending assembly meetings and voting in elections.
From 450 BC on, the laws of Rome were displayed on 12 bronze tables (or tablets) in the Forum, Romea€™s public meeting place and the center of live in ancient Rome. As Romea€™s power grew other countries felt threatened and came to see Rome as a rival in the region. Second Punic War a€“ In 218 BC the Carthage general, Hannibal led an attack on Rome via Spain and the Italian Alps.
Third Punic War a€“ By the 140a€™s BC Rome was again concerned about the growing power of the city-state of Carthage.
In the late 100a€™s BC, troops loyal to a Consul named Gaius Marius came into conflict with troops loyal to another Consul, Lucius Cornelius Sulla. No written records exist but, Romans believed their history could be traced back to a great Trojan hero named Aeneas.A  This story is told in The Aeneid, an epic poem written by the Roman writer, Virgil. First Punic War a€“ In 246 BC, Carthage sent ita€™s army onto the island of Sicily.A  Rome countered and after 20 years of fighting gained control of all of Sicily.
By the late Middle Ages, popes had great spiritual power while kings had great political power. The pope was the head of the Christian Church (Roman Catholic) in Western Europe to which most people belonged. Powerful kings ruled kingdoms in England, France and the Holy Roman Empire - German-speaking kingdoms in central Europe. Holy Roman Emperors were put on the throne through election by the empirea€™s nobles, not through inheritance.
Those who chose to follow the Bishop of Constantinople created the Eastern Orthodox Church. The battle between Pope Gregory VII and Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV was to set the tone for church vs. The Crusades were a series of wars between Christians and Muslims for control of the Holy Land. The emperor of the Byzantine Empire asked the Pope for help in dealing with the attacks of the Turkish Muslims. The European crusaders succeeded in capturing Jerusalem and the area around it and set up four small kingdoms. The 2nd Crusade was a miserable failure with the crusaders returning to Europe in less than a year.
The 3rd Crusade saw English king Richard I (a€?Richard the Lionhearteda€?) battle Muslim leader Saladin for control of the Holy Land. The 4th Crusade saw French knights a€?sacka€? Constantinople on their way to the Holy Land.
Many Christians wanted to go on a pilgrimage to places in the Holy Land such as Jerusalem, Rome or to Canterbury Cathedral near London, England. Monks were men who withdrew from the world and dedicated themselves to worship and religious service.
Friars were men who belonged to religious orders and lived and worked among the general public.
The Church established universities to teach about the Christian faith in addition to law, medicine, astronomy and other subjects. During all of the Middle Ages the Church had a very strong influence on both art and architecture.
In 1215 a group of English noble forced King John to sign the Magna Carta (The Great Charter). Over time a council called the English Parliament was created and gradually became the law making body that governs England. Although the Magna Carta changed Englanda€™s government, it had no effect outside of England.
The Hundred Years War resulted in English kings being further weakened and French kings strengthened. While the 100 Years War was going on, an infectious plague that originated in central and eastern Asia swept through Europe between 1347 and 1351.

The Church dealt harshly with those guilty of heresy, ideas that oppose accepted church teachings. Between 1000 and 1300 Spanish Christians fought and drove out Spanish and Portuguese Muslims called Moors, from the Iberian Peninsula. To insure that Christianity was the only religion practiced Ferdinand and Isabella created the Spanish Inquisition, an organization of priests that looked for and punished anyone in Spain suspected of not being Catholic. Blamed for the death of Jesus, Jews faced discrimination throughout Europe during this period. The pope was the head of the Christian Church (Roman Catholic) in Western Europe to which most people belonged.A  People saw the pope as Goda€™s representative on Earth. Some Popes began to act like royalty and had great political power to govern.A  This made some kings mad.
Friars were men who belonged to religious orders and lived and worked among the general public.A  They taught about generosity and kindness and set a good Christian example.
Some wondered if religious faith and human reason could exist together.A  Saint Thomas Aquinas of the University of Paris said that God created Natural Law that governed the way the world operated. Grand churches called cathedrals were built for bishops to hold services in.A  Beginning in the 1100a€™s a new style of architecture called Gothic came into existence. Over time a council called the English Parliament was created and gradually became the law making body that governs England.A  Kings in England could do little without its support. Although the Magna Carta changed Englanda€™s government, it had no effect outside of England.A  Other kings continued to rule as they always had. There seems to be a bit of a mystery surrounding the birth and youth of our ancestor, Albert Raymond Morton. The earliest events that any of his family knew of him was that, when a young man, he worked as a steamfitter on the Trans-Canadian Railroad. But, as to his birth, youth and parents, there are some real gaps in what is definitely knowna€”these were not topics of discussion in his home, and it simply did not occur to anyone to quiz him about his early life.
Wea€™ll keep these vague impressions in mind as they may generate some leads in our search, but we must also guard against the assumption that they are all correct. So, with the little that we know of him, we have started to collect, and sort out, the few documents we have been able to find regarding his origin. At the time of his birth (in the 1880a€™s) states were not yet keeping actual birth certificates.
Again, remember that this information was provided from Raya€™s understanding of what happened when he was an infant, and given to the state many years later. Ira Homer Morton (Alberta€™s father) is buried there, next to Iraa€™s sister, Irene Morton Crankshaw. The next document that we will discuss is his application for a Social Security account number [2].
Just below this document, we will attach another, which Albert completed just a few months later, in which he applied to the Social Security board to make a correction in his date of birth. This leaves us wondering why he would intentionally give an older date to the state of Kansas (and to several others) and a later date to the Social Security office.
But, an even more important discrepancy arises in the names, ages and places of birth of his parents.
Based upon the research we have done so far, we cannot pinpoint the exact year of his birth with any certainty, and the following list will help to show the difficulty in determining that year. We have searched the records of the 1885 KS State census for Franklin Co., and have not yet been able to find him, or his family. We did find a record of his father, Ira Homer Morton, in the 1885 KS State census in Franklin Co., KS but in that record Ira stated that he was still a single man, unmarried, and he was living with his married sister, her family, and their aunt and a cousin. One thing that has been very consistent about Raya€™s documents is that he invariably lists his mothera€™s name as Ida Louise Easley. We searched for twenty-five years to find any record of this woman, other than those listed by Raymond, and were infuriatingly unsuccessfula€¦ until June 2012.
She was thirteen years old in the 1870 Federal census for Chetopa, Neosho Co., KS and still livng with her parents and siblings at that time. In the 1880 Federal census for Lincoln, Neosho, Kansas, we find Aaron and Ida Bonham with a new set of twin boys, just a few months old, Clarence and Lawrence, born in early 1880. At about the same time, Aaron Bonhama€™s parents had settled in Franklin Co., Kansas, about 80 miles to the north. After this time, we can find no document to indicate that Aaron Bonham was still alive, but neither can we prove that he had died. Aaron and Ida could have divorced, she then quickly married Ira Morton in the fall of 1885 (after the census) and they could have had a son, Raymond, the following year--Sept 1886. Aaron could have been away for an extended period and Ida could have met Ira Morton and had a child out of wedlock before Aarona€™s return.
Now, keeping that dilemma in mind, leta€™s proceed with the other documents that we have been able to find for Ida L.
Note that at the time of this marriage, she was still going by the name of a€?Bonhama€? -- not Morton.
The 1890 Federal census would have been very helpful to us here, but unfortunately, it was destroyed.
We would never have thought to search for this record under the names of a€?Holmesa€? without first finding the record of her marriage.
In the very same year, and census for the same county, we find that by the time the census taker had moved on to the home of Martha Bonhama€™s (the widowed mother of Aaron Bonham--and mother-in-law of Ida L.
Now, this census was just a very short time after the previous exhibit (above) but here, Ray is listed as being 10 years old, and with the surname of a€?Bonham.a€? It is the same young boy. Even though Raya€™s mother had moved west, to Arizona, Ray continued to live with Martha Bonham.
The questions must arise, that if Ray was born a€?out of wed-locka€? while Marthaa€™s daughter-in-law was still married to her son, Aaron, one might think that of all of the children, Martha might be the least likely to take this young boy into her home to raise. Whether Ray was actually going by the Bonham name, as indicated above, or whether the census taker once again made an assumption of that, is not known. In the 1905 KS State census we again find this family still living in Stafford Co., KS with Frank Bonham now showing as the head of the household, and Martha was still alive at age 78, but Ray is no longer living with them. It is interesting that Ida stated that her parent were born in KY, because in prior census records she had always correctly stated they were born in Tennessee. In the 1920 Federal census for Bakersfield, Kern Co., CA we find the family has moved inland. Note that Margaret Bonham Kelly had named her oldest son, William Raymond Kelly, with his middle name being a remembrance of her younger brother, Albert Raymond Morton.

We have heard that Ida Louise Easley Bonham (Morton) Holmes Hamilton passed away in Bakersfield, CA in the 1930s but we do not have a specific date for her death at this time. In only one record, his a€?Delayed Certificate of Birtha€? did Ray give an estimated age for his father. We have searched all the available records to try to find anyone by this exact name who may have lived in Kansas, Missouri, Ohio, or any other surrounding state during this period of time and have found no one with that exact name. We previously mentioned the 1885 Kansas State census [9] in which a€?Ira Mortona€? was living in Williamsburg, Franklin Co., Kansas with his sister, Irene E. From this record, we have been able to go back to both Wisconsin, and New York, and find many records for this particular man. The purpose of this article is to document Raya€™s life, so we will not list all of the documentation for his parents, but merely summarize the key points that are pertinent. This connection, through Ohio, may account for why Ray understood that his father may have come from, and even been born in Cleveland, Ohio, and listed that city as the birth place of his father on one of the documents cited earlier.
One other brief comment about this family: When Aunt Shirley Morton Donaldson, Raya€™s youngest daughter, went to Kansas on her research trip, and found the reference to George and Irene Crankshaw living in Williamsburg, she said that that name seemed to have a familiar ring to her from hearing comments made by her father years earlier.
We really know very little about Raya€™s youth, but with his consistent statements that he was born in Ottawa, Franklin County, Kansas, that is the first place we began looking. We actually have no other record for him anywhere between the 1900 census record mentioned earlier (for Stafford Co., KS) and the next one in 1915. We did find one interesting record from 1912 that showed a Raymond Morton tried to cross over the boarder into Canada but was turned back by the authorities.
Although the Canadian recruiter judged him fit for duty at the time of his enlistment, Ray was in fact discharged from the army on 18 June 1916 in Toronto, Ontario with the comment that he was a€?medically unfit.a€? He had been entered on the a€?Casualty Forma€? on 22 May 1916 before the actual discharge came through about four weeks later. From this point we know that Ray made his way back to Big Valley, Alberta and went to work in the mines.
This couple moved from place to place seeking work primarily on government jobs, particularly thoughtout the great depression.
From this point on, the family has a clear knowledge and recollection of Raya€™s life, and so we will not go into that in this article. It appears that from about 1895, when Ray was approximately 8-10 years old, that he left his mother and siblings to live elsewhere. We hope this presentation is helpful to any of Alberta€™s posterity in future efforts of trying to find and document his life and his ancestry.
Note that at the time of this marriage, she was still going by the name of a€?Bonhama€? -- not Morton.A  This adds credence to the supposition that she may not have actually married Ira H. The Capricorn symbol (also called Capricorn glyph) is a shorthand representation of the Capricorn zodiac animal (see below).
The word 'Zodiac' means circle of animals (though note a couple of signs aren't animals in the normal sense). Due to this although Capricorn will always be represented by a (sea)goat, there isn't any one 'correct' shape or design for that goat.
Any picture of the shape, head or profile of a goat can therefore be comfortably used here.
Below is a representation of Capricorn the goat (and the Capricorn symbol, inset) from a medieval wood carving from the 16th century. Are we compatible?Find out what astrology has to say about your unique partner and relationship beyond just sun signs.
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Bushido required samurai to be loyal to onea€™s daimyo (lord), practice extreme self discipline, and, above all, uphold personal honor to the point of death. The outcome of these wars would determine which city-state would control the Mediterranean region. In the second document, he changed his year of birth to 1883--which now coincides with his recreated birth certificate. Morton Crankshaw and her family, as well as their widowed Aunt Sarah Cather, and her son, Henry Cather (a cousin of Iraa€™s).
1915, Raymond was standing in the Army recruitera€™s office in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, where he enlisted in the Canadian Over-seas Expeditionary Force. Easley Bonham--the twins who died at just a few months old, and the four living children, three of which (# 1, 2 & 4) all claim that Aaron Bonham was their father, but #3 (Raymond) always claimed that his father was Ira Morton. Aaron and Ida could have divorced, she then quickly married Ira Morton in the fall of 1885 (after the census) and they could have had a son, Raymond, the following year--Sept 1886.A  We know Ira died in 1888, and Ida could have been reconciled to Aaron and remarried him with Bernice born to them in 1888-89. However, as with the animal itself, much is based both in interpretation and the preference of the writer, and can range from simple to extravagant.
Each of these is equally valid - there is no 'correct' version as long as the general shape is maintained.
These 'animals' were based originally on the pattern of the stars in their corresponding star constellation. It's a cosmic game of join the dots, and some constellations even have alternative ways to form the animal from the dots (stars). Designs range from the space-age to the ancient, and are limited only by the imagination of the artist, as long as it gets the point across. While it's not suggested this is a great picture (hey, you try carving something into the side of a tree which will look sexy in 400 years time!) it does show how the basic concept of Capricorn the goat hasn't changed much over the centuries.
Eastern Orthodox Christian) They did not succeed in retaking any territory in the Holy Land.
Basically what the earliest astronomers and astrologers saw when they squinted at the night sky. Hamilton.A  It could be that for personal safety reasons, that she listed the name of her deceased husband as if he were still living, but there is another listing with the date of 30 Nov.

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