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There are numerous important revolutions that have dramatically changed the world that we live in. The decline of feudalism, the emergence of the Renaissance and the Reformation, the expansion of trade with other distant countries and continents, and the discovery and exploration of new cultures awakened a desire to explore the nature and workings of the universe that surrounds mankind. And so, appearing on the scene in Europe at the same time the explorers were searching for new routes to the Spice Islands, to China and India, others were engaged in new scientific studies.
In 1491, Nicholas enrolled at the University of Cracow (Poland), where he took an interest in astronomy. Copernicus is the first to propose a new view of the solar system--the heliocentric view of the solar system in contradiction to the traditional geocentric view. Because Copernicus merely stated his ideas as a hypothesis, he was not considered dangerous to the Roman Church, as Galileo was a generation later.
Even though Copernicus made sense to some, the traditional geocentric scheme simply would not disappear. Kepler was a German mathematician, astronomer and astrologer, and, although a student of Brahe, disagreed with his teacher. He was also one of the first to say that Ptolemy was wrong (Ptolemy taught the traditional geocentric view of the solar system) and maintained that Copernicus was correct--the earth did revolve round the sun, and not vice versa. These announcements, published in his work, Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems, brought Galileo (1564-1642) into conflict with the Roman Church. In 1992, 350 years later, Pope John Paul II stated that errors were made in condemning Galileo.
The case of Galileo is perhaps the best-known illustration of the tension between science and religion.
Bacon is considered by many historians to be the a€?founder of modern science,a€?A  although by training and vocation he was not a practicing scientist.
Empiricism -- the theory that reality is discovered through the senses, through experimentation and testing. Induction -- drawing conclusions from onea€™s observations and testing and from that developing general principles. By Bacona€™s rejection of ancient authorities, namely Aristotle and Ptolemy, a new science exploded on the scene, producing a plethora of discoveries and inventions that has continued nonstop to this day.A Under Ptolemy, there would likely not be television, iPhones, or space shuttles. What Bacon attacked was medieval scholasticism--the idea that everything we need to know has already discovered in the past.
Scholasticism denied the very idea of experimentation and taught that the only thing left for the learned mind to do was to clarify was had already been discovered in the past!
Sir Francis believed that, in fulfillment of Daniela€™s prophecy, man would increase in knowledge in the last days by casting off unbiblical authorities like Aristotle and investigating Goda€™s natural revelation (creation) with minds that had been created in His image. His major works were The Advancement of Learning (1605), Novum Organum (1620) [the New Order], and New Atlantis (1627). Harvey was a physician in England and was a lecturer at the Royal College of Physicians in London and a Christian. Following his death on April 1727, Isaac Newtona€™s body lay in state in great honor n Westminster Abbey for an entire week. He developed the answer, he believed, and published his work in his masterpiece, Principia, published in 1687.
Among the greatest scientific geniuses of all times, Isaac Newton made major contributions to mathematics, optics, physics, and astronomy. To Newton, the very orderliness and design of the universe spoke of God's awesome majesty and wisdom. Seeking to further understand God's methods, Newton studied and developed formulas for specific phenomena such as ocean tides, paths of comets, and the succession of the equinoxes. Newton spent a tremendous amount of time studying the Bible, especially the prophetic portions of Scripture. Though he outwardly conformed to the church of England, Newton privately was an Arian Christian. List and explain what new social and political conditions existed in Europe to make possible the scientific revolution. Explain why the Copernican hypothesis was so startling to the populace and so threatening to the Vatican and to Luther and Calvin.
Explain how the relationship of Galileo to Copernicus was so similar to that between Hubble and Einstein in the 20th century and how they had similar impacts on the thinking of their generations. Describe how the scientific discoveries impacted the world of politics and urged men like Hobbes to pursue a new course of reasoning. The dissatisfaction by many with patterns of government and the practices of absolute monarchies in Europe and Asia created a hunger to find (1) new and better ways to govern, (2) ways that would better cultivate tolerance for diversity in religion and thought, (3) ways that would promote and value progress rather than tradition for traditiona€™s sake, and (4) where processes of social justice would acknowledge and protect natural rights of the individual. In simpler terms revolutionary thinking emerged especially in France, England, Scotland, and Germany which generally sought the following: (1) eliminate absolutism in government, (2) toleration for faith and thought, (3) openness to progress, and (4) freedom for the the individual. Major events in the late 17th century set the conditions in Europe for a revolution in thought.
The New Attitude: By the 1700s Europeans were quite certain that they could make the world a better, more comfortable place to live.
The New Question: If there are natural laws that govern the physical universe, certainly then must there not also be natural laws that govern the spheres of religion and rationality? The new conclusion: If we must use mathematics and the scientific method to discern the natural laws of the physical universe, we must use the same tools to discover the natural laws of the spiritual world. In other words, what can be known about God, eternity, spiritual laws and commandments, and other related items, can be discovered through human reason using the tools of the scientific method. And if we can discover the natural laws of the spiritual world, we can also discover the natural laws of how to live with each other in this world, including how to govern and to be governed.
The Renaissance questioned traditional thoughts and principles and sought to discover better principles by studying the ancient Greek and Roman philosophers. The Enlightenment, likewise, questioned the traditional ideas about how to discover truth and how to live together on earth.
If we are to discover the natural laws governing the spiritual world, how will we discover them? If human reason with the scientific method as its tool can discover the natural laws of the physical universe, why not the same for the spiritual world? They met to discuss and debate, in the spirit of the scientific revolution, what the natural laws were that were to govern all people in their personal, social, and community lives. There were the common people who knew and cared little about those philosophers fortunate enough to sit around and debate natural laws! The printing press that had aided the Protestant Reformation now became the instrument to spread the ideas of the Philosphes.
The Philosphes and their disciples tended to occupy seats in the faculties of the universities.
They also tended to arrive at a new conclusion about religion: If we must use mathematics and the scientific method to discover the natural laws of the physical universe, then we must use the same tools to discover through human reason the natural laws of the spiritual world. The Renaissance questioned traditional beliefs and principles and sought to discover better principles by studying the ancient Greek and Roman philosophers. If we are to discover the natural governing the spiritual world, how will we discover them?
While the leaders the scientific revolution were for the most part orthodox Christians (and believed that they were discovering evidences of Goda€™s intelligent design expressed through the laws they discovered and described), many of those who became leaders in the revolution in thought were deists. However, as we shall see, the new thinkers in the Age of Reason were not the only people in town.
In France the philosophes (a€?the philosophersa€?) gathered often in private homes (salons) hosted by wealthy women to read their latest essays.
Although they dealt with a variety of topics, for our discussion we will concentrate primarily on their views dealing with politics and government. He viewed government to be ideally a function of free and rational men -- not simple-minded men who lived as serfs within feudalism or blindly obeyed the dictates of a prince or king. Obviously, his ideas were a direct threat to Roman authority and to the absolutism of Louis XIII and Louis XIV.
Baron de Montesquieu was a member of nobility in France, a judge in a French court, and one of the most influential political thinkers of the 18th century.
In his major work, The Spirit of the Laws (1748), (French, De la€™esprit des lois) he concluded that when all power rests with one leader or even several leaders, despotism inevitably develops and human freedoms disappear. Yet, Montesquieua€™s political thought was one of several basic ideas that was used to found the Constitution of the United States of America. His openness to ideas and toleration was exemplified in his marriage in 1715 as a Roman Catholic to a French Huguenot woman. Montesquieu believed that if natural laws were found that could best explain the natural world, then certainly there are laws that can teach us how to live with one another in peace and harmony in the world of culture and society. He also believed that educated persons best discover what these natural laws are that produce harmony, and, therefore, educated people govern best. Governments are best shaped by the people and their surroundings, the climate, the environment.
Voltaire was an opponent of Roman Catholic religious dogma and spoke strongly against blind obedience to the pope. One of his major and most important works was A Treatise on Toleration (1782) that raised havoc when it was circulated within the last days of the reign of King Louis XVI. After returning to France in 1734 he had to again flee imprisonment due to comments made about the absolutists French government in Letters to the English. These personal examples created in him a hatred for oppression of any kind, whether by a despotic king or a democratic mob rule. Concerning politics, if Voltaire could choose one best form of government, it would be an enlightened monarchy. He opposed war of any kind and called it a€?sophisticated murder.a€? This did not sit well with many in France who basked in the glory of Francea€™s hegemony under Louis XIV, which was achieved in large measure through warfare.
Perhaps his best known work was the novel, Candide (1758), in which the central character, Candide, is a joyful, optimistic world traveler.
Organized religion is led by charlatans who exploit the weak and who foist ignorance on the uneducated.
Religious leaders maintain power by oppressing anyone who disagrees with them on even the simplest theological matters. Material wealth provides some comforts and power but in the long run drifts away at he hands of corrupt government officials (taxes, bribery) and dishonest merchants.
A great earthquake takes place in the story of Candide which was based on a real earthquake that hit Lisbon, Portugal in 1755 with great loss of life.
Voltaire expressed in Candide the opinion that God is either indifferent towards, or lacks the power to prevent evil within human history.
As a youth he was educated by Jesuits, and was not an atheist, as some maintain, but bitterly opposed religious oppression of individual rights, and who believed that what can be known about God comes not through revelation and church dogma but through human reason. It can probably be said that Voltaire was at best an agnostic, that the God who was championed by religion, as Voltaire experienced it, was at the core of a suppression of individual thought and freedom and therefore should be discarded. Voltaire maintained that the only places on earth where there was true freedom of religion and speech were in England, the Netherlands, Prussia, and Switzerland. Diderot was an atheist who believed that all mankind are born with a totally free will to live life as they wish, with no accountability to a divine being. His Encyclopedia was a critical attack on and mocking of Christianity and resulted in his flight from France to Russia where he was protected and supported by the a€?enlighteneda€? ruler, Catherine the Great. Born in Geneva, Rousseau was orphaned while young and placed in the care of a strict uncle. Rousseau was a brilliant thinker who is claimed by Geneva today as one of its most prominent sons.
Probably as a result of the harsh upbringing he experienced while living under his strict uncle, Rousseau had much to say about education and how young children develop.
He promoted the idea that children develop through specific stages and should be raised and educated accordingly.
The truly educated person is one who has been trained to be self-governing by making rationale choices. Rousseau was among the first of the French to promote the ideal family as being a nuclear family (father, mother, and children) with a mother serving at home as the manager of the family affairs.
Rousseau promoted the concept of a democratic, Christian Republic where the rights of the individual were carefully protected and where the Christian faith was part of culture. In his Social Contract (1762) Rousseau describes man as being inherently good, born both free and innocent, who is increasingly corrupted by culture and society. He personally had deep religious roots, first as a boy who was born and lived in Calvinist Geneva, then as a Roman Catholic while living in France, and then returned to Calvinism when he moved back to Geneva in his later years. A great faith arose about the ability of human reason to think, weigh, argue, and conclude rather than mere faith on the one hand and the mere gathering of knowledge on the other.
By observing human behavior we can discover natural laws that govern how we are to live together and then use these laws to draw up patterns for communities and patterns for governments that will produce harmony, order, and the preservation of individual rights and dignity.
Once these natural laws are discovered and agreed upon, the common people are to be taught these newly found laws and trained in the use of reason. Once this system is at work, old institutions that rely upon traditions, unjust rules, and unreasonable patterns will be swept away for they keep the human race from progress.
A new world will be created, a new society will be built, governments will be reshaped, and there will follow unlimited human progress. Every person is (1) capable of reason and the human mind can discover any truth and the human spirit can achieve any ambition; (2) innately good, potentially virtuous, and every society can become perfect.
While some rejected religion altogether (Descartes and Hume), most still held to the values and principles of traditional Christianity. The printing press, which greatly promoted the ideas of the Reformation, now also greatly enabled the philosophes to spread their ideas quickly, inexpensively, and widely throughout Europe.
Locke lived during the time of the restoration of the monarchy under Charles II and James II and was a strong supporter of the Glorious Revolution of 1688.
Locke taught that all people have innate, natural rights that no one has the right to diminish or deny. Locke transferred these observations about the nature of each person to how he or she is to be governed--each person is to be in charge of how he or she is governed and to participate in how society as a whole is governed. Lockea€™s ideas about government were contained in his work, Two Treatises of Civil Government. He also opposed the idea held by those who supported the divine right of kings, that men are not naturally born to be free.
However, in order to preserve his life and his property a man has to choose to enter into society and to live happily with others in a government where the will of the majority rules. Government, therefore, is a social contract between those who govern and those who are governed.
Because men tend to misuse one another, Locke saw the necessity for a government that contained (1) a written code of laws, (2) laws that exist for only one purpose -- to protect the good of the people, (3) legislative and judicial branches in government to enforce and define those laws, (4) no taxation without the consent of the people, and (5) no war or treaty powers are given to anyone without the consent of the people. Together with Montesquieu, Locke provided three of the foundational concepts that formed the new United States: (1) the necessity for a division of powers (Montesquieu and Locke), (2) the necessity of government to protect the natural rights and property of the individual (Locke), and (3) the formation of a commonwealth as a social contract where those who govern are selected by the people and remain in office so long as the people agree to such (Locke). Locke was not an atheist, but he resisted any religion that did not grant freedom of thought and belief, especially the Roman Church.
He pictured in his work, Leviathan (1651), the all encompassing necessity of a strong central government that extended into every area of life. And yet Hobbes also called for the preservation by government of the natural rights of all citizens, and viewed the monarchy as existing only at the will of the people through a social contract. The absolute monarchies of Europe, and France in particular under Louis XIV, tended to practice mercantilism in the realm of economics and industry. Adam Smith took on the mercantilistic establishment with the publication of his work, The Wealth of Nations in 1776. In his work, Smith maintained that man is at heart selfish in the sense that if given the opportunity, he will use industry to further his own economic well-being. Smith maintained that mercantilism is contrary to human nature and is ultimately destructive to a nationa€™s economy.
Rather than the governmenta€™s hand, there would be an invisible hand to guide a free market, marked and fueled by competition. Competition among producers to acquire the best workers raises the level of salaries of workers. Competition among producers increases not only their own wealth but that of the nation which taxes their profits. Producers, if allowed to reinvest their profits back into increased machinery, workers, research and development, produce a better quality of goods, sell more of their products, and make a greater profit. Money should circulate freely among men as blood does in the human body, a concept he learned from the revolution in science.
Colonies in North America where free enterprise was either allowed to occur, or occurred because the people were too remote to be controlled, tended to become more prosperous than the economies they left behind in Europe.
Adam Smitha€™s theory became the economic policy of the newly formed United States of America. Deism was a popular religious belief based on a God who created the universe, set it in motion with a set of specific, orderly, natural laws, then stepped back to let it operate itself.
The Deists often compared their view of God to that of a clockmaker who, having once created a clock, then wound it up, moved off, and let it operate in an orderly fashion on its own, governed by natural laws. Deists believed that all religions could be reduced to the worship of an orderly, rational God who does not perform the miraculous in violation of or apart from his natural laws (hence, no virgin birth, no miracles, no resurrection), and a moral code that human reason and common sense can agree on. While some of the philosophes rejected the notion of any kind of God at all and became atheists, most remained loyal to the Christian church. To Diderot and the contributors to the Encyclopedia all religious dogma was absurd and the result of human imagination.
Voltaire disagreed with the atheists and said their atheism had a religious dogma of its own.
If religion is either not important for good government or not important for good society, and if principles for living together in society is based upon a commonly accepted set of values derived from common sense, what happens to people who my their own free choice choose not to live by those principles or standards? The general conclusion was that if someone disobeys a€?reasona€? or what the majority decides is a€?natural law,a€? that person has to be either removed from the perfect society or be a€?re educateda€? so that they use more enlightened reason. The Enlightenment thinking led not only to societies and governments where great, unheard of levels of human freedom were to be realized (which took place in Englanda€™s Glorious Revolution and which we will see in the American and French Revolutions), but in reality also produced some of the most cruel and totalitarian governments ever before realized in human history.
The Enlightenment that helped to produce both the United States of America also led, as well, to Hitlera€™s Nazi Germany!!


The Big Question: Was this really an a€?enlightenmenta€? or is it better called the age of deifying human reason?
There was another side to the Age of Reason where Christian men and women lived and taught and where spiritual movements took place at the same time as Locke, Voltaire, and Rousseau.
The outbreak of Christian revivals in England and America in the 18th century greatly impacted the social, moral, financial, spiritual, and political aspects of culture in Great Britain and America so that these cultures differed significantly from those of Italy and France.
The Great Awakening in America turned the colonies upside-down and prepared the way for independence from Great Britain. The Baroque Age in Music broke with tradition, and produced a radical departure from the music of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. Spener was born in Alsace, whichat that time was a part of Germany, but is now a province in Eastern France. Later posts in Berlin exposed Spener to much criticism from other Lutheran ministers because of his emphasis upon personal transformation and cleansing through a spiritual rebirth. Although he is called the a€?father of pietism,a€? he, himself, did not teach nor practice what the later pietists called for--an emotional experience of salvation as a proof of conversion and the separation of the Christian from all secular life. Spener founded the University of Halle, a center of opposition to the ideas of the French philosophes. Early in his career Spener became widely known as a vocal opponent of the philosophy of Thomas Hobbes (see Hobbes above). The Age of Reason had begun to infiltrate Lutheran Germany and presented a new threat to the Lutheran churches. Spener taught that the cure for the cold dogma in the Roman Church and the dogma increasingly developing in German Lutheranism was not rationalism or human reason, but a deeper, personal commitment to Christ.
His grandfather moved the family to Germany to avoid forced conversion to the state-religion, Catholicism. With wealth received from his family Zinzendorf purchased an estate in East Saxony, Germany (at the intersection of Saxony, Poland, and Czechoslovakia) where his intention was to create a community of people who desired to follow the teachings of Spener and to publish books which might awaken Lutheranism from what he felt was its stupor. Within months a request came from Moravia and Bohemia, now sections of present-day Czechoslovakia, from a group of Protestants who were the dominant group in Moravia and Bohemia before the Thirty Yearsa€™ War (1618-1648), but were now a persecuted minority. Zinzendorf worked diligently to unite the various groups coming from a variety of cultures and Christian backgrounds into a unified Christian community. Zinzendorf continued to view the new community, not as a new reformation, but as a means to breath new life into the Lutheran churches.
When civil authorities grew suspicious and concerned about Zinzendorfa€™s community, they banished them from the estate. Zinzendorf is mentioned here because, like his godfather, Spener, he emphasized the necessity of the new birth and of an intimate, personal relationship with Christ as the cure for the cold dogmas of Rome and the increasing coldness of the Lutheran Churches. Rather than an emphasis on human reason, Zinzendorf was faithful to biblical teachings and to cultivating the spirit and the new heart. Edwards is considered to be one of the most brilliant Amercian-born philosophers and theologians. Edwards was a Calvinist minister in Northampton, Massachussetts and preached during some of the first revivals connected with the Great Awakening in (c.
As with pietism in Europe, the Great Awakening emphasized an intensely personal relationship with Christ, brought the Christian faith to the common man, and was marked by prayer, bible study, intense introspection, and a personal commitment to a biblical standard of morality.
The Great Awakening impacted the attitudes of the colonists towards authority and especially to the government of England.
The impact of the Awakening produced a revolution in the American colonies that was totally distinct from the revolution in France that occurred about 15 years later. At Oxford he joined the Holy Club, a group of deeply committed Christian students who met regularly to pray and study the Bible. Because he was not assigned a pulpit by the Anglican Church, Whtiefield preached wherever people would gather, in parks, in public squares, in marketplaces. One of Whitefielda€™s most ardent supporters was Benjamin Franklin, who published all of Whitefielda€™s sermons and tracts in his Gazette.
On one occasion in Philadelphia, Franklin walked from the outdoor pulpit area where Whitefield was preaching on Market Street down to the Delaware River, just to see how far his booming voice would carry.
Although Franklin did not agree personally with Whtiefielda€™s message of repentance and faith, he nevertheless admired him as a friend. It is said that Whitefield preached to more people in his lifetime than another other person prior to Billy Graham, and all without the benefit of air conditioning, PA systems, and closed circuit TV!
Whitefield crossed the Atlantic to the American colonies numerous times to conduct preaching campaigns from Massachusetts to Georgia. His preaching in Wales and England did much to prevent English society from being impacted by the humanism of the French philosophes.
Earlier, the Wesleys had traveled to Georgia in the American colonies to do missionary work among the native Americans.
It is understandable, therefore, that under the direction of the Wesleys many of their followers became leaders in major service projects and organizations, leading the way in prison, orphanage, hospital, and social reform. The Wesleys were abolitionists and were friends of William Wilberforce and John Newton, other English leaders in the anti-slavery movement in England. It can be safely stated that the words of John Wesleya€™s hymns have been sung by millions around the world and are words memorized by millions. List five major members of the Philosophes in France, England, and Scotland and explain their particular contributions to the Age of Reason.
Explain the roles that natural reason and the newly discovered laws of nature played on the thinking of the leaders of the Age of Reason. Discuss specific Christian thinkers of the 18th century who opposed the French philosophes. In a brief statement be able to summarize the impact of Montesquieu, Rousseau, and Locke on the framing of the American government.
Explain how Hitlera€™s Nazism and Americas democracy could flow from the same fountain called the Age of Reason. Explain why many of the philosophes had trouble accepting the claims of the Scriptures concerning the virgin birth, the resurrection, Jesus walking on water, etc. And so, appearing on the scene in Europe at the same time the explorers were searching for new routes to the Spice Islands,A  to China and India, others were engaged in new scientific studies. Thankfully we live in the day and age where video chats on Skype are free, easy, and readily available. After two years of Long Distance Relationships – these are the things that work for me. He lays out a good way to approach LDRs – regardless of whether you expect to be in an LDR for a couple of months or a couple of years. I’ve noticed as soon as we starting Skype once a day, the number of (and the magnitude of) our fights decreased drastically. Just remember: 20 minutes of quality Skype time + 20 minutes of quality study time is MUCH better than a crappy hour of Skyping and “studying” where nothing much gets done. I’ve found the best way to keep Skyping new and fresh (even after 13 months of it) is to not always do one-on-one chats. I’ve met most of his friends in Japan; when they have “boy’s nights out” they will typically Skype me before they leave. We don’t Skype with friends for long, maybe five to ten minutes max – once or twice a month. He physically can’t be here for me when I need him – which is a depressing, but unfortunate, barrier in our relationship. Me and my girlfriend started a long distance relationship after our high school graduation. Its a really good advice… Im starting to be in a LDR we just have a month apart and I miss him so much. Some times it’s really difficult to skype everyday because of worktime or something else.
For a long time, monogamy and marriage were considered inseparable, at least in most modern Western societies. But a growing body of research shows that couples are starting to consider that monogamy may not be for everyone a€” and in some marriages, partners are starting to actively discuss whether they want to be sexually exclusive. Of course, our understanding of marriage is constantly evolving: These days there's a much larger emphasis on equality between spouses and mutual emotional and sexual satisfaction than in the past, for example. And now research published in the Journal of Marriage and Family suggests that another big change is happening in how people think about marriage: Some no longer consider monogamy an absolute essential.
That's the conclusion of a study in which a team of psychologists interviewed 90 Canadians and asked them questions about monogamy and marriage. The sample is small and specific, so we can't use it to draw any conclusions about the population at large.
Still, the study is alluring: It builds on earlier research and provides interesting insights onA how some people are starting to think differently about these issues. The first questions the couples answered revealed that people are becoming more open to the idea of nonmonogamous marriages. Most people interviewed thought that monogamy isn't something that a marriage necessarily requires. Neither of us wants to deprive the other of something thata€™s important to them, because knowing that we were both in this for the long haul, we didna€™t want to say this is the rule, you know what I mean?
While it wasn't apparent in this study, other research suggests that more and more heterosexual couples are heading in this direction, too, even though nonmonogamous relationships are still somewhat stigmatized, researchers have found.
It's unclear exactly how many couples are in consensual nonmonogamous relationships or marriages.
While measuring the popularity of nonmonogamous marriages is difficult, it does seem like people are becoming more open-minded about the concept a€” something in line with what researchers have found so far about the relative benefits of these relationships. It's no wonder that some of those alternatives are starting to gain a foothold in the way people think about and understand this core social institution. Stop including gay people in those tests and you will see how the normal people will never choose polygamy over monogamy. After struggling to wake up, Julie misses her train and, raging, buys a new ticket and jumps on the next one.
Life and the encounters which punctuate our existences are a mix of both order and chaos, of gambling and determinism. According to Jung, the famous psychoanalyst, who spent his time exploring the deepest layers of the unconscious, these lucky occurrences are examples of “synchronicity”. Example: Get talking to that young woman you don’t know, especially if this is not your thing. No longer were men and women content to simply trust the traditional explanations for what seemed to drive the universe around them.
The magnetic compass and astrolabe and new maps were enabling ships captains to better navigate the uncharted waters of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. He then continued his studies at the University of Bologna (Italy) where he met scholars who challenged Aristotle's traditional cosmologya€”that the earth was at the center of the universe known as geocentrism. It was thought to be genuinely a€?Christiana€? and a€?biblical.a€? Brahe came up with a variation of an earth-centered model that was satisfactory to many.
He disagreed with the Copernican idea that the planets travel in circular routes around the earth.
He heard of a new spyglass that had been invented in the Netherlands and set out to build his own.
The Jesuits saw in his teaching the worst consequences for the Church of Rome--they would be seen to have been in error and that their interpretation of the Bible was in error! There were others before and since, but whenever the topic of science and Christianity is discussed, Galileo usually is introduced into the argument as the primary example of one who proved the Church wrong.
He is credited with being the first researcher in the Western world to describe in exact and correct detail the circulatory system of the human body and the process used by the heart in pumping blood around within the body. At the funeral, his coffin was carried by three earls, two dukes, and the Lord Chancellor of Great Britain. If the planets revolve around sun in elliptical orbits, and all at different rates of speed and tracking different pathways, how is it that this is all so orderly? Everything tells us mathematically, said Newton, that once on a trajectory, the planets they should continue on out in a straight line, like an arrow or a missile, and never return. He concluded that the same force that drew the apple downward was the same force that kept the planets and the earth in orbit -- gravity.
He discovered the law of gravitation, formulated the basic laws of motion, developed calculus, and analyzed the nature of white light.
This theory explained quite fully everything from the movement of the planets through the skies, to the movements of the tides, to the velocity of falling objects--and more. The design of the eye required a perfect understanding of optics, and the design of the ear required a knowledge of sounds.
He believed history was under the dominion of the Creator, and prophecy showed how the Creator was to establish His earthly kingdom in the end. He believed Jesus Christ was the Savior of the world, but he did not believe He was very God.
Whatever forms of government the nations had used to govern, it seemed to the new thinkers that inevitably they always resulted in war. The so-called Enlightenment began in the late 17th century and continued through most of the 18th century. In other words, what can be known about God, about eternity, about spiritual laws and commandments, can be discovered through human reason using the tools of the scientific method.
The Reformation questioned the traditional beliefs, teachings, and authority of the Roman Church. A deist is one who believes in a God who created the universe, wound it up like a clock, and then walked away from it, allowing it to operate on its own under fixed laws.
The common people of Europe knew and cared little about the philosophers who could sit around and debate natural laws: a€?We have to work for a living!a€? There were also great ministers and Christian theologians, especially in England and Scotland, who challenged the conclusions of the new thinkers. It was more or less an undercover exchange of ideas within the context of an absolute French monarchy that was generally opposed to the ideals being discussed by the philosophes. Some were committed to the basic truths of the Bible but knew that something other than absolutism had to be embraced (whether absolutism in government or the Roman Church) if God-given individual rights were to be set free. Although he did not fully develop his ideas concerning government, the later philosophes claimed Descartes as their forerunner.
The most fundamental idea of Montesquieu was the idea that all men are prone to evil and men with power are exceptionally prone to evil. For in his day, Rome was enamored with absolutism--especially if the Roman Church was in charge or if one of its hand-picked monarchs was on the throne. Montesquieu was widely read by the American colonists and was the most frequently quoted author in the letters and books of colonial writers in the period 1740-1780.
Her belief system greatly impacted his view of government and faith, and he saw no reason why she should be suppressed and censored because of her beliefs.
If we can tame the natural world, then we can do the same with government, society and culture. Thomas Jefferson picked up on these ideas from Montesquieu and championed the idea that in the new America only the educated should be given the right to vote and to serve in public office.
There is no one system that fits all, he concluded, BUT whatever form of government is used, it MUST grant freedom to all of its citizens. He advocated religious freedom for all and the guarantee of civil liberties, fair trials and freedom of thought and speech.
There he learned to admire the freedoms that the English enjoyed under the parliamentary monarchy, where, he said, "The English, as a free people choose their own road to heaven.
He distrusted a democracy as much as a despotic king, because mob rule, to Voltaire, was as despotic as one-man rule. What he soon finds is hardship, disappointment, and treachery everywhere as part of the human condition. That it occurred is an indication of to Voltaire of Goda€™s indifference towards mankind and perhaps even his cruelty. The true God of heaven was suppressed by the false gods created by religions--especially the Roman Catholic Church. Of all the philosophes, Diderot was the most outspoken critic of all religion, not simply because of the arguments raised by Voltaire and others, but simply because he believed that human reason excelled all forms of human religion.
She did so in exchange for his willingness to sell to her his extensive and expensive art collection, something needed, she felt, if Russia was to enter the 19th century as an enlightened nation of Europe.
As suggested by Locke earlier, both the rulers and those ruled should live by means of a social contract. His trust in the general will of the majority to do and to rule in a good fashion was viewed as extremely idealistic.
They valued the concept that all men were created in the image of God with certain innate, inalienable rights. Each person enters the world as a blank page, a tabula rasa, but as each grows older his or her experiences in life shape their personalities.
Second was a mana€™s right to work his property and to own and control what he makes from it. This was an excuse, per Locke, to justify some men ruling over other men without their consent. One of his important works was the defense of the Christian faith in his work, On the Reasonableness of Christianity (1695). Written during the English Civil War (1642-1651), Leviathan presented an absolute monarchy as the only hope to prevent mankind from self-destruction.
In this system the government controlled production of goods, the pricing of goods, setting of tariffs and taxes to control the flow of goods in and out of the country, and in general controlled most aspects of the economy. If the government allows its citizens to use personal greed in production and in buying and selling, it will motivate towards great economic progress. The most healthy and prosperous economies, said Smith, would be those were government takes its hands off of the economy.
Investors will purchase stock to enable the producer to even further invest in machinery, workers, and research and development. When Thomas Paine moved to France from America, where, complained, the new nation was too religious, he joined them. While many of the concepts of Locke and Montesquieu helped shape the new government that was created in the United States of America, the message of the philosophes in France created an increasing agitation that led to the French Revolution and to the European revolutions of 1848.


So heavily involved were ministers in this movement towards American independence, that the resulting war between Great Britain and America was called a€?the Presbyterian Revolta€? in the Parliament of England. Music in England and Germany tended to strengthen the spiritual dimensions of culture and inspired people to faith.
It resulted in new musical forms: polyphonic music, the opera, the ballet, the oratorio, the symphony, and compositions where instruments accompanied vocal music. He was troubled by the worldly attitudes of many Lutherans, by the wide-spread reliance upon infant baptism as a guarantee of salvation, and by the seeming coldness of many towards private communion with God. Any idea that unaided human reason could arrive at absolute truth, or that mankind could achieve harmony and a just society apart from God, were ludicrous for Spener.
He began to advocated communal living and taught that the community was more important to onea€™s spiritual and emotional development than even the nuclear family. Many resettled in other areas of Germany, but many settled in the new colony of Pennsylvania in English America. He was among the first 29 persons to be inducted in 1900 into the Hall of Fame of Great Americans.
Edwards son-in-law, David Brainard, became a missionary to the native Americans in New England. Because he had no funds, he entered Oxford University as a sevitor, or student of the lowest rank who earned his tuition by serving the needs of tuition-paying students.
There he met the two brothers, Charles and John Wesley, and together with them formed the Methodist movement within the Anglican Church, which later separated and became the Methodist Church. And on another occasion when Whtiefiled urged the immense crowd to give financially to the spread of the Gospel, Franklin emptied his wallet! He once admitted to Whitefield that, a€?You have almost persuaded me!a€? Franklin once remarked that after Whitefield had preached in Philadelphia, Franklin walked through the streets and almost everywhere heard families in their homes singing psalms. Together with his brother Charles he framed an outline of Christian disciplines, which, if followed, could lead a person into a deeper, more intimate relationship with Christ. Upon returning home, however, they both realized a deep emptiness in their hearts, and spoke about this with a Moravian in England who was waiting for a ship to sail to Georgia. They are still sung today and remain to form far more vibrant ideas than anything written by their contemporaries, the French philosophes. You can’t just jump into it – assuming it will be the same as a “normal” relationship and expect everything to work out. Just because you live across the world (in a different country, time zone, or culture) doesn’t mean you can’t still have a close, loving relationship… fostered by Skype calls.
The book is chalk-full of the stories of other couples who have successfully gone the distance.
I noticed that if it has been more than 12 hours, I forgot to tell Ryosuke things about my day. That’s just disrespectful to your significant other – and you won’t be able to get much work done anyways.
I sit in a chair, lay on the bed, spread out of the floor, or walk around the room with the laptop.
How I Met Your Mother is one of the few shows he will actually watch – so we try to watch an episode once a week (during the season).
They can be brought on by anything – a missed deadline, homework piling up, or getting sick. I love waking up in the morning to find videos of Ryosuke awkwardly lip-syncing to something by Maroon 5, chatting about his day, or dancing around his room. I have a lot of friends in long distance relationships – half of which (on average) cheat on their significant other without meaning to.
We were both in the same time zone; when we got back to our respective apartments at night, we would launch Skype, chat about our day, and unwind over a can of beer or glass of wine. I would put my laptop next to the stove while I made stir fry, cut vegetables, and fried meat.
I’m sure to single people it doesn’t make sense – but to me it was the favorite part of my day. Now I live in the countryside near Tokyo with my husband, Ryosuke, where I draw comics, blog, and make videos about our daily life. Currently my boyfriend lives in Canada and I live in Texas but he’s planning on moving over to Hong Kong for a new job and honestly I freaked out over that because of the time zone and stuff. We have gone many long hours skyping each other and we actually sleep together with the camera on. LDR are becoming more and more practised cos more and more people travel (for studies, work, pleasure, etc.) I know a lot of people who have been in a LDR for some time (months? I am not in an LDR at the moment, but I am in Long-Distance Family, with my family in New Zealand.
He lives in Minnesota, I’m in Michigan, and he works third shift, so we only get a few minutes to talk every day.
My favorite things to do with him is show him special places for me in my town and have lunch with him there on the phone. The group included 26 heterosexual females, 21 heterosexual males, 21 gay males, and 22 lesbians.
Less than half of all the heterosexual female respondents, about one-third of the heterosexual male respondents, and "relatively few" homosexual couples felt that marriage and monogamy were inseparable, the researchers concluded.
No" is telling: Even though a majority of couples didn't think monogamy was essential to a marriage, the vast majority of heterosexual women and men still considered it the default setting in their own marriages. The researchers think this might be connected to how same-sex couples were treated in the past. In the buffet carriage, she comes across Mario, her old childhood friend, when she was just thinking about him that very morning. This term describes apparently independent events which occur at the same time and are tied together by meaning. Be on the lookout for every little whisper around you, and you will see that when you pay attention the ‘coincidences’ multiply. Take the metro; you have more chance of running into old friends – what a coincidence! They are mankinda€™s achievements as we attempt to fulfill Goda€™s command to subdue the earth and have control over it -- germs, bacilli, water, weather, steam, fire and all the other resources that God has so graciously given to us.
But an increased interest in astronomy to further assist navigation also resulted in a re-thinking of astronomy itself.
Medieval theologians embraced the teaching that the earth was the center of the solar system, proof that humankind was the center of God's attention. He proposed a model in which the eartha€™s moon and the sun revolved around the earth, while the planets revolved around the sun.
His mathematical calculations convinced him that the planets moved in elliptical orbits around the sun.
Man, created in Goda€™s image, said Bacon, has the responsibility to observe Goda€™s creation and learn from it and learn about it. Behind all his science was the conviction that God made the universe with a mathematical structure and He gifted human beings' minds to understand that structure. His Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms Amended used astronomical data to argue that the Bible was the oldest document in the world and that the events of Biblical history preceded all other ancient histories. Newton believed the Athanasian creed and the doctrine of the Trinity diminished the sovereign dominion of the Almighty and corrupted the purity of the church for centuries. The lives of common people were turned upside-down, agriculture and industry destroyed, and all of Europe involved in military buildup. The Enlightenment, or Age of Reason, questioned the traditional ideas about how to discover truth and how to live together in harmony on earth.
Some of the philosophes were skeptics, questioning much of everything, including Christianitya€™s basic claims. He also concluded that not only religious people can do this but all can engage in it, hence, religion is not necessary to harmony in society. Here the nobles are great without insolence, and the people share in the government without disorder" (Voltaire, Letters on the English, 1733). In the end, these events do not seem to achieve any apparent good except to point out clearly the cruelty and folly of mankind and the apparent indifference of the natural world and its God. However, he also predicted that Newtona€™s law of gravity would eventually (within one century) overthrow Christianity as it was then known and practiced. He advocated allowing children to set their own agendas in school and granting them freedom to study what was of interest to them. In his own personal life, Rousseau had four children by his live-in a€?wifea€? who bore him four children. This was in opposition to the Calvinism of Geneva with its twin doctrines of original sin and predestination.
Every person, if allowed to live a life of freedom, has the innate ability and capacity to reach perfection here on earth and to share that perfection with his or her fellow humans!
The duty to preserve onea€™s life is so strong that he neither has the right to end his own life or to subject his life to slavery.
As creatures of God each person has the capacity to take charge of their own destiny and can regulate and improve their situation in life. However, he did not say that a man could amass property without limits or to the hurt of others.
The king and queen would be subject to the input, the laws, and the regulations of those who they governed.
His view of government, therefore, called for a strong central government necessary to thwart mindless revolts. Although Austria was a Roman Catholic country and Vienna was the seat of the Holy Roman Empire, the Zinzendorfs had converted to Lutheranism.
His father was an official in the government of Saxony but died several weeks after Nikolausa€™ birth.
The American War for Independence was heavily impacted by the Great Awakening, and whatever impact the French philosophes and the Enlightenment had on American thinking, it was greatly tempered by Edwards, the Wesleys, and George Whitefield.
They later parted company with the Moravians because they rejected the a€?quietisma€? emphasized by the Moravians. The hymns emphasized the free grace of God expressed through the death and resurrection of Jesus, emphasized the personal relationship that the Christian is intended to enjoy with God through Christ, and those practices of the Christian life that Methodism developed. If we only Skyped twice a week, I had a hard time prioritizing what was important and what could be left out.
Think of all the times you tried to “study” together when you lived together (or think back on previous relationships).
I like to pass the laptop with Ryosuke around to other friends once a month, so he still feels like an integral part of my life here. The hardest part about being in a long distance relationship (aside from, you know the normal horrible parts of a relationship) is the fact they can’t always be there. Of course Skype can’t fill the void you miss by cuddling, falling asleep in each other’s arms, or kissing – but there is no reason to make yourself sexually frustrated.
Then we would “eat dinner” together – with a plate of food on the table in between us and the laptops.
But I see that many people have been able to overcome the time zones and were able to make it work out.
I actually recommend it for some people because we both have night terrors frequently and comfourt each other in the later hours.
It took me over a year to realize that eating together, via Skype, is one of the most wonderful things I could do to reconnect long-distance. I have the added frustration of having NEVER met my boyfriend in person… we fell in love online, and our Skype dates are the closest we get to eachother. Many assumed that getting married implied monogamy, and didn't think it was something that needed active discussion. Since they were excluded from marriage for so long, past research suggests these couples may have an easier time establishing relationships that don't automatically conform to traditional rules. For example, a friend tells you about her trip through the desert, the mythical film ‘Lawrence of Arabia” is shown on TV, and at lunchtime, when you were in the supermarket, you went wild for some serviettes with beaches and camels on them… From the mass of external information you get every day, life is drawing your attention to something important.
It is just when you are looking for a roof over your head that you realise your friends are moving house. Your mind works on the matter and this exercise allowsyou to find, by “chance”,  exactly what will help you to get that big break. They have just been signed up by the club of your dreams and are looking for new people to work with. Or that you were in Ethiopia at the same time, she studying archeology, you for a photo-journalism piece… Invite her to dinner without thinking too much about it, and without too many expectations either. Chinese and Arab insights and discoveries often suggested new explanations for natural phenomena.
The telescope, first produced in the Netherlands and improved by Galileo in Italy, led to the discovery and confirmation of the new way to conceive of our solar system--heliocentrism (literally: a€?sun-centereda€™). He was the first to discover the moons of Jupiter, the first to see spots on the sun, the first to realize that the Milky Way is made up of a myriad of stars and to suggest that the moon is mountainous.
If something is empirically true, it has been proven to be so through the senses, through experimentation and testing. Man is to trust God for new insights and new revelations about Himself and his created universe. They remain in motion due to an immense force that set them into motion and, they remain in their course because of a law that holds them in orbit. Therefore, onea€™s religious beliefs should not be the test of being a good, acceptable citizen.
Corrupt government officials work hand in hand with dishonest clergy against the common people. Violating his own stated ideal for children and the family, he required her to place them in homes for orphans. Coupled with this was the notion that a nationa€™s economic health was directly measured by the amount of gold and silver it was able to accumulate. His mother requested Philipp Jakob Spener to serve as Nikolausa€™ godfather, and sent the child to live with her mother, who was a godly, pietistic Lutheran. Between school, work, friends, and studying – it is hard enough to block out 20 minutes for your favorite trashy reality television show, never mind an hour to chat with your significant other. Sometimes if I have to go the bathroom or buy a drink, I will drop my laptop off with a friend to keep him company.
We open Skype in one window, the episode in another window, and chat throughout the episode. I’d just like to ask you, how often do you meet Ryosuke in person during your relationship? 14 hour time difference from the east coast to Japan… any tips for everyday communication? I LOVE tip number 6, as we’ve only been able to skype a few times, which is a lot harder to do on such different schedules. In being surprised by an improbable event, a meeting or a series of coincidences, you will get going again at a point in your life when you are either trapped or about to get stuck in a rut. There are many different experiences to be had in this vast world, where everything is possible. If human reason coupled with the scientific method can discover the natural laws of the physical universe, why not the same for the spiritual world? Montesquieu attributed Polybius, ancient Greek philosopher, for many of his foundational principles. Newtona€™s discovery completely overturned ancient superstitions, including those of the Roman Church.
Dead formalism was replaced by excitement, enthusiasm, spiritual fervor, and individual commitment to Christ. I have much better time management skills, because the only constant thing in my life are my Skype dates. Even when we both DID live in Japan, we still lived a 13 hour bus ride away from each other (Akita to Tokyo). But his parents seems to be against us dating and after he talked to them about it he suddenly has changed his mind and thinks he’s not ready to be in a serious relationship. It’s done wonders for feeling more connected, particularly when they are eating and cooking as well, in a different hemisphere. Along with a bunch of his friends, we climbed a mountain and camped out in an old WWII bunker. Which means starting in February, i will study abroad in Taipei for a year while he’s in Germany. We would have no plastics, no machinery, no cures for infection, no successful surgeries, we would walk everywhere, and have very limited knowledge about and communication with the rest of the world -- and even with communities that exist only 100-200 miles away!
Granted – it’s a bit harder to manage because of the Long Distance Relationship aspect – but long distances do not have to be painful and lonely. I’ve never been happier in a relationship, or had someone who showed they care about me as much as he does. We built a fire and all sat around it as the Sun was going down over the ocean, just telling stories, drinking and laughing. In order to be able to get something out of them, the first step is to be able to spot them. There are many problems like me needing to support my parents, distance , religion issue etc.
My love and I watched the sunset and talked about our future and how incredible it felt to finally be in each others arms. He seems like he’s only listening to his parents and what they say instead of thinking about what he really wants and feels. It’s just scary to know that he might want to back out of this so soon even though he claims he loves me.



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