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Not a single LED was involved in that project, as I find those to be a disgrace when mixed up with neon indicators. I’ve decided to use IN-12 type Nixies as those are very popular here in Eastern Europe, but can also be easily bought on ebay and shipped worldwide. As for the separating colon I went for INS-1 Neon lamp, which has the advantage of being similar in height as the glassy part of IN-12, so it will make a perfect separator. Every clock needs a way of setting the time, and the simplest way of achieving this is to embed buttons (like micro-switches). Although there are some ICs dedicated for driving cathodes of Nixie lamps I decided to go for transistor level solution, so every cathode has its own transistor with a current limiting base resistor.
Diode – component responsible for transferring the energy from inductor to filtering capacitors. Now, lets make some assumptions: I chose to use 12V wall brick power supply, which are widely available, so that makes for the input voltage. A compromise needs to be made when choosing the inductor value especially for a given maximum size, which in my design is about 5x5mm. Low inductance would require very short (sub microsecond) gate pulses in order to stay below the saturation current. It would also cause a large current to flow through MOSFET, as well as being drawn from input voltage rail.
High value inductors will saturate later which eases the timing requirements, but they present higher DC resistance. The information about energy lets us derive the actual cycle period, knowing the golden rule of energy conservation. One needs to know that not all of the energy will be transferred to output. This is just at the edge of audible frequencies range, and we know that circuit will not always draw full 5mA. Ringing is initiated by reverse recovery of the diode and sustained by resonant circuit, formed by the inductor and parasitic capacitance that is present in MOSFET transistor.
Incorporating snubber circuit will always come at the expense of efficiency, but please keep using it Another good practice is to keep the switching node as short as possible, and use a lot of good input filtering (low ESR caps). As it can be seen from the code above the regulation algorithm is very simple, in fact it is no more – no less than a simple Proportional Regulator which compares accumulated ADC readouts with the magic value of 2900.
I’ve placed a test point on PCB where you can measure your reference clock frequency with some accurate frequency counter. Not much going on on the front side since I don’t have the Nixie model, and I was too lazy to make one. Please make sure that, after soldering you’ve removed all the residual flux as it might disturb the operation of all high impedance networks present in this circuit (like step up feedback network).
That’s right, IN-12 lamps can be soldered easily (no acidic fluxes are required), so there is no need for sockets.
In a way, social media has helped bring customer service to the very front end of business. The customer service department today is capable of making your company a success story or simply destroy it.
About Francisco RosalesFounder and author of SocialMouths and Rock the Inbox - The Ultimate Email Marketing Course. Hey Nick, I agree… fixing an issue on the phone is easy, doing in public is another story. I think there is so much competition out there these days compounded by the fact that with social media transparency has become the norm that it’s tougher and tougher for companies to get by with sub standard service. Grow your email list faster, keep your subscribers engaged and turn them into customers over and over again.

If you are looking for advice that is unique to your business instead of the general information you get from blogs, this is for you. Despite being quite hard to obtain and utilize I’ve decided to make a nice looking clock which (hopefully) would make a perfect Christmas present, and since the Christmas is all about sharing I thought It would be nice to go Open Source about it.
All of the circuitry is laid out on the back of the clock so it does not interfere with the old-school look of the Nixie displays.
A naive approach for four Nixies would require 40 driving signals (40 catchodes, all anodes connected directly to high voltage rail) while multiplexing four tubes requires only 14 signals (10 cathodes, 4 anodes).
This is actually quite beneficial, mainly because It gives the possibility to spread out the parts along the PCB, and since SMD transistors are small, they can be distributed almost anywhere on the PCB.
This is because of the leakage current of the NPN transistor, which although being very small (in range of nA) gets amplified by the factor of PNP’s beta which might be sufficient for the Nixie lamp to be ignited, resulting in unreadable display!
Seeing that, I knew it was at least worth a try to design my own converter, as those solutions would’t even fit onto my PCB! It’s contribution to whole circuit is often neglected which may lead to many problems.
I chose to operate the converter in so called Discontinuous mode, which has the advantage of being easy to implement in software. The input voltage and the inductance will determine the rate at which the current is being build up in the inductor.
This is the point where inductance suddenly decreases (at least by a factor of 10% – 20%) because of the magnetic core being saturated.
I did some research among different component suppliers and got my hands on SRN5040 Series from BOUNRS. The process of fully opening and closing the high voltage MOSFET is a sub microsecond manner is not an easy thing to do. Less current is required to store the same amount of energy as in low value inductors, so MOSFET does not need to handle large currents. In fact it offers the greatest energy storage capability of 60 micro Joules, at least when SRN5040 series is considered. Some of that energy will be wasted, mostly into heat (can be problematic), some will be radiated as electromagnetic waves (can be very problematic). When it uses less current this frequency will drop (energy portions from inductor will be required rarer) and become even more audible and annoying as well. The best way to validate all the assumptions made is to simulate the converter circuit and do some measurements. I’ve even added a ferrite bead on the input voltage rail, to prevent any high frequency garbage from traveling along the power cord. It’s a good practice to measure voltage just in between switching cycles, and not during current pulses. With traditional channels if a customer has a bad customer experience via phone or email, it is an isolated form of communication. Using higher ratios will likely result in sudden drop in efficiency, and will involve high input current spikes, that may even get radiated from power cord!
Most important factor is Reverse Breakdown Voltage which tells us about the maximal voltage that can be present between cathode and anode. The whole regulation process will be based on adjusting the frequency of MOSFET gate pulses that have constant width. Inductor then starts to behave more and more like the pure resistance (heats up, stores little energy) as no more magnetic field can be build up!

Diode recovery times will contribute greatly to conversion losses, if they are becoming comparable to overall cycle length. Since the overall cycle will be longer the output voltage ripple will get higher for the same output capacitance.
It is safe to assume the efficiency (often denoted with greek letter Eta, ?), of such simple, discontinuous mode, converter to be around 60-70%.
This will help to get around all the switching noise that might have some serious impact on accuracy.
ST Microelectronics thought of that problem and prepared a nice detailed paper about their RTC that deals with calibration which could be done entirely in software. I needed to solder lamps as they would be SMD (as opposed to THT) components in order to match their height to the height of the whole micro switch – nixie lamp construction. However if a barrage of angry tweets go unnoticed, it shows all of your other followers that you aren’t connecting with your customers and addressing their comments or concerns in a timely fashion. Whats more mind blowing is how only 4% of people complain to the company, but you can be sure that 100% of those people will complain to their friends. Anyway, A new online revolution has finally come, The YourPollz, An innovative website that allows individuals and businesses to create polls and invite others to participate.
I went for voltage range of 10-16V, which is dictated by lowest acceptable operating voltage of MOSFET driver and by the voltage rating of the capacitors used for filtering input voltage.
Exceeding this voltage will essentially lead to voltage being fed back to input voltage rail!
The only way around it is to add more capacitance to output, but keep in mind that high voltage capacitors can get pretty darn big! It’s a common practice to implement so called snubber circuit (parts C11, R36 on the main schematic). This can be easily achieved by triggering ADC conversion with Timer Output Channel Compare feature (one channel generates MOSFET pulses, the other, slightly delayed, generates ADC trigger pulses). ADC conversion results will therefore be produced at rate equal to conversion cycle frequency which might result in too much computational load used just for reading ADC data register.
Treating your customers well and taking the time to build a relationship really is money in the bank. When people do actually complain, companies should do everything they can to correct their mistakes. Maintaining a high standard for employees and service both in the store and online are critical for profitability.
Another important factor is Reverse recovery Time which describes how much time it takes for a suddenly reverse polarized diode to start blocking the current flow.
Maybe this way consumers will correct themselves and spread the good news, instead of the bad. This parameter will have a very significant impact on the efficiency since it tells us about how much energy stored in output capacitors will leak back to input power rail after the switching cycle has completed. Seeing familiar faces (or talking to familiar voices) allows both the employees and the customers to feel more comfortable in the work environment and ensures a better experience for all.

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