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14.11.2015
The synchronous buck converter achieves high efficiency by replacing the Schottky clamp diode with a low-side MOSFET.
Below are three design tips that, when combined, will reduce system noise and voltage over shoot. New MOSFETs are always coming onto the market with lower gate charge and or lower on resistance for a given Vds voltage rating.
The goal is to modify the high-side gate drive to reduce the stress on the low-side MOSFET.
Coupling the input capacitor very close to the low-side source and high-side drain reduces overshoot and noise radiated through the system. Josh Mandelcorn’s focus is on low-power isolated and non-isolated converters at Texas Instruments where he is a Member of the Group Technical Staff. Anti-ringing circuitry reduces EMI concerns by damping the inductor while in discontinuous mode, and internal soft-start eases inrush current worries.
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The latest natural product showing promise in tinnitus is melatonin as two studies have now demonstrated that 3 mg of melatonin at bedtime significantly improved tinnitus, as well as sleep quality. Researchers believe that one of the ways melatonin may be helping tinnitus is by improving sleep quality.
One study looked at blood levels of vitamin B12 in 100 consecutive geriatric outpatients who were seen for various acute and chronic medical illnesses. These results indicate that measuring the level of vitamin B12 in the blood (serum cobalamin) or measuring the urinary excretion of methylmalonic acid as screening tests for vitamin B12 deficiency appears to be indicated in the elderly.
Tinnitus is,”a condition in which people hear constant or periodic sound not caused by an outside source. This is a ringing that sets in after excessive noise exposure, such as in a rock concert (being too near the speakers) or the explosion of a firecracker. Before we get into what causes ringing in the ears, it’s important to know who is at greater risk of the problem. According to the Hearing Health Foundation: Roughly 90 percent of tinnitus cases occur with an underlying hearing loss. It’s estimated that up to 90% of cases of tinnitus are the result of prolonged exposure, which can lead to noise-induced hearing loss.
The more noise you’re exposed to, the more damage the cochlea takes, and the more your hearing is reduced. According to PDR Health, exposure to more than 60 seconds of noise louder than 110 db can cause hearing loss. If there is a tumor growing in your ear, it may press on the auditory nerve (which sends signals to your brain). If your ear is blocked due to ear infections or wax buildup, these blockages may press on your auditory nerve, to the same effect.
Other parts of your ear may also lose function, or may start detecting signals that they aren’t receiving. Aspirin is one of the many types of drugs that can cause a ringing in your ears, along with quinine medications and a number of anti-inflammatories, antidepressants, antibiotics, and sedatives. This is a disease that causes the small bones in your middle ear to stiffen, thus reducing their function.
The result of this disease is hearing reduction and loss, and thus may be the cause of the ringing in your ears. If you sustain traumatic injuries to your head or neck, the resulting inflammation can place pressure on the auditory nerve. Neck and jaw problems like temporomandibular joint syndrome can also lead to a ringing in your ears. RELATED:  What is Ear Wax and Why Do We Have It?Even eating certain foods can increase the ringing! All of these things may be the cause of hearing loss, and thus may be the reason that you hear ringing in your ears. As the information above shows, the ringing in your ears is likely related to hearing loss or serious medical conditions. Note: You want to have the real root of the problem diagnosed and treated specifically, so home remedies are NOT the way to go. In order to treat the ringing in your ears, your doctor will try to find out what is causing the problem.
If it’s due to a buildup of ear wax or impacted ear wax, removing the wax can solve or improve the problem.
Note: To prevent the buildup of ear wax in the first place, consider getting into the habit of using the Oto-Tip to clean your ears at home.
This may include medication to suppress the disease, surgery to remove a tumor or repair the inner ear, and other treatments. Basically, the doctor will look for what’s causing the problem, and deal with it rather than trying to just stop the ringing. While there are drugs that can cause tinnitus, there are others that can help to reduce the risk of complications or even mute the ringing in your ears. Sold under the names Xanax and Niravam, this medication can help to reduce the ringing in your ears.
This includes both nortriptyline and amitriptyline, which have been used to treat severe cases of tinnitus.
While the doctor is treating your tinnitus, he may recommend something to help you deal with the ringing in your ears.
Constant ringing in your ears can be quite hard to cope with, but the information above will make it easier to understand what’s going on. Get treatment now, and you may be able to prevent the hearing loss that is causing the ringing in your ears! The group of Tundra swans inhabiting Taimyr Peninsula, eastern Russia, are occasionally classified as sub-species but is mostly kept under the Bewick’s family. Those ones living bog lakes and similar aquatic territories have a splash of rust or golden color near their heads and necks, due to excessive iron content in water. It is very interesting to observe their behavioral characteristics along with their gracious beauty. During the breeding seasons they prefer to sleep on land unlike winter months, when they sleep frequently in water. During flight, the Tundra swans stretch their necks and rhythmically flap their wings in rapid movements to make a clattering sound. Experts claim that these birds can fly at a constant speed of 70 km an hour and can even reach up to 135 km per hour speed occasionally. The Bewick’s Swans are commonly found in the Palaearctic habitat zone which includes many places in Asia, Europe, northern Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. The Bewick Swans spend their breeding seasons in coastal lowlands of Siberia and in September they fly to the wintering grounds.
Swans breeding along the coasts of Arctic Ocean fly via Canada and the Great Lakes while migrating to the Atlantic coast of USA, primarily from Maryland to South Carolina. Gulls, foxes, jaegers, coyotes, minks, river otters, raccoons, skunks and weasels are some of their main predators. These birds are humble in nature and they avoid their predators rather than fighting them down. They are also agile swimmers and flyers, which means that if they spot their predators nearby, they can fly away or escape quickly to save themselves. During the incubation period the males guard the nests and alarms the females any sign of danger by making a high pitched vocal sound. Bewick’s Swan off-springs take about 40 to 45 days to fledge while those of Whistling Swan take around 60 to 75 days.
These birds tend to sleep on land during the breeding season but prefer to sleep in water during the winter months. The male swans are known as cobs, the females are called pens and the juvenile swans are termed Cygnus. These birds are frequently confused with trumpeter swans as the two species are highly alike in their appearance. The input capacitor must bypass the main switches very closely, and the snubber must be close to the low-side MOSFET.
However, the general trend has always been that for the same current carrying capability you save on die size, cost and gate charge, if you can reduce the Vds rating. Also, it allows rapid turn on and off from controllers with weaker gate drive capabilities without requiring an added gate drive stage. The rapid turn off of the high-side MOSFET can put stress on the high-side MOSFET drain to source. This is because the gate drive current flows through the boot capacitor during turn on, but not during turn off. Even if the ringing is not suppressed with a snubber, the close coupling reduces the size of the radiating 50–100 MHz antenna.
Ideal for applications where space is limited, it switches at 1.2MHz, allowing the use of tiny, low cost and low profile external components.
Internal frequency compensation is designed to accommodate ceramic output capacitors, further reducing noise. Solder plated terminal finish (SnPb) versions are non-standard and special terms and conditions and pricing applies if available.
If the ringing in the ear is due to long-term exposure to loud noise or music, scuba diving or other causes of damage to the ear drum it is more difficult to treat.


Supplementation with zinc (20 to 30 mg per day) can relieve or eliminate tinnitus in those with zinc deficiency—a common occurrence in many cases of tinnitus.
In the most detailed conducted at The Ohio State University Eye and Ear Institute, 61 adults with chronic tinnitus were randomized to receive 3 mg melatonin or placebo nightly for 30 days followed by a one-month washout period before switching over to the other treatment. That is an interesting mechanism of action, especially since tinnitus is often a side effect of prescription sleeping pills. Not surprisingly, researchers have found that if either melatonin or B12 are low in the blood, that they are associated with tinnitus.
Several studies have found the level of vitamin B12 declines with age and that vitamin B12 deficiency is found in as high as 40 percent of persons aged 65 and over.
Alternatively, I would recommend anyone over the age of 65, or a vegetarian at any age, to take the active form of vitamin B12, methylcobalamin, at a dosage of 1,000 to 3,000 mcg daily. The most common forms are cyanocobalamin and hydroxocobalamin, however, these two forms must be converted to methylcobalamin by the body and may not be the best for older people as many may have a reduced ability to convert cyanocobalamin and hydroxocobalamin to methylcobalamin. That said, a new study examining data from the UK Biobank resource, a very large cross-sectional study of adults aged 40-69 living in the UK provides some interesting clues.
Murray, ND, is widely regarded as one of the world’s leading authorities on natural medicine. None of the information in this web site is intended for or should be used as medical advice.
The sound can also be described as a ringing, buzzing, or clicking noise that occurs inside the head. Loud noise damages the cochlea, the spiral-shaped organ in the inner ear that is HIGHLY sensitive to noise. It can lead to malfunction of this sensitive inner ear organ, affecting your hearing and thus causing the ringing in your ears. This automated spinning swab cleans the wax from the ear without pushing it deeper into the canal. However, side effects include blurred vision, dry mouth, constipation, and even heart problems! This will reduce the irritation of the ringing, improving your quality of life as the doctor searches for the root of the problem.
They can reduce the irritation of the ringing, or allow you to live a healthy, happy life despite the ringing. Now that you know what the ringing is, what causes it, and how to deal with it, it’s time to pay your doctor a visit. The image is Fourier transformed, multiplied with the filter function and then re-transformed into the spatial domain. These swans are normally divided into two taxa which are commonly considered to be conspecific. These swans consume aquatic creatures such as shellfishes, mollusks, clams, mussels, worms, dragon flies, aquatic beetle larvae. They can be seen in most parts North America, Greenland, Mexico, Central America, Caribbean islands and parts of South America. Birds living near the Taimyr Peninsula normally winter in the British Isles, in Denmark and in the Netherlands. They migrate to more inland areas of Californian Central Valley, Utah, Texas and northern areas of Mexico in October. Young swans of the previous breeding seasons also reunite with their family while wintering. However, because its internal diode is not a Schottky, when it turns off and the high-side MOSFET is turned on, a large ringing in the waveform occurs.
In a large volume application the ability to use a less costly controller with weak gate drive can be critical in meeting cost targets. In one application with several 6V input converters and a sensitive high frequency radio, this improvement of close coupling to the input capacitors was enough to solve a serious system level noise issue. Its internal 2A, 100m? NMOS switch provides high efficiency even at heavy load, while the constant frequency, current mode architecture results in low, predictable output noise that is easy to filter. For volume-specific price or delivery quotes, please contact your local Linear Technology sales office or authorized distributor. However, some studies have shown magnesium supplementation may help in these cases (150 to 250 mg three times daily). People with recent-onset tinnitus are more likely to respond to GBE compared to those who have had tinnitus for at least three years.
Many people with low B12 levels experience complete resolution of their tinnitus when given a methylcobalamin form of B12.
Results demonstrated very convincingly that melatonin was associated with a statistically significant decrease in tinnitus intensity and improved sleep quality in these patients with chronic tinnitus.
The deficiency may be the result of reduced dietary intake, but a more likely explanation is as we age there is reduced secretion of a compound known as intrinsic factor that facilitates B12 absorption. In animal models of aging, while methylcobalamin led to significant increases in lifespan, cyanocobalamin had no effect. After controlling for lifestyle, noise exposure, hearing, personality and other factors; a relationship between persistent tinnitus, defined as present at least a lot of the time, was reduced with fish consumption indicating another possible benefit from fish oil supplementation.
He is a graduate, former faculty member and serves on the Board of Regents of Bastyr University in Seattle, WA.
The tinnitus will usually clear up on its own, and will last anywhere from minutes to hours. All of these people are at a higher risk of developing tinnitus for one simple reason: they are more likely to suffer from hearing loss.
While there are home remedies for most of the diseases and disorders mentioned above, they won’t do the job as well as a doctor. Cleaning with things that do push wax deeper into the ear canal is currently how some of those large wax buildup plugs are formed.
Attenuating high frequencies results in a smoother image in the spatial domain, attenuating low frequencies enhances the edges. Sometimes they are also considered to be two distinct species namely the Whistling Swan and the Bewick’s Swan. They tend to eat sago, widgeon grass, mannagrass, marine eelgrass, clasping leaf pondweeds and wild celery. Birds living in eastern Russia migrate through Mongolia in the coastal regions of Japan, Korea and southern China as well as in Taiwan. While the females incubate the eggs, the males guard the territory and signals any sign of potential danger.
Tundra swans grow faster due to their nesting habits in colder regions as compared to those that breed in warmer zones.
This is because the low-side MOSFET needs to be completely off before the high-side MOSFET turns on to prevent cross conduction.
Also, the speed of turn off of the high-side MOSFET affects efficiency in a substantial way. However, it has been shown that adding a snubber can reduce overshoot for less added losses than further slowing down the gate drive turn on. The lower voltage FETs can improve efficiency more than the added losses due to the slower high-side turn on and added snubber.
Take 3000-5000 mcg daily for one month and then reduce it to 1000 mcg daily as a maintenance dose.
For example, melatonin has been shown to protect against inner ear damage caused by various drugs including antibiotics and chemotherapy agents. Low vitamin B12 levels can be devastating at any age, but in the elderly it can lead to significant impairment in nerve function and mental capacity. Methylcobalamin has also produced better results in clinical trials than cyanocobalamin and should, therefore, be considered the best available form whenever specific benefits of vitamin B12 are desired. The author of more than 30 books on health nutrition, Murray is also director of product development and education for Natural Factors Nutritional Products. This species is generally categorized under the genus Cygnus and sometimes under Olor, with other Arctic swans. The choke current flows briefly in the internal non-Schottky diode until the high-side MOSFET turns on.
Dealing with noise problems consumes a great deal of time in the product development cycle. On the other hand, the speed of the turn on affects the overshoot of the switch node, which can be up to 2.5 times the input voltage. In another application with a load current of 16A, adding a 2200pF in series with 0.68 Ohms worked best.
It remains the customer’s responsibility to verify proper and reliable operation in the actual end application.
Causes of tinnitus include hearing loss, exposure to loud noises or medicines, (particularly valium-type drugs [benzodiazepines], as well as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs like aspirin and ibuprofen). In one study, melatonin was shown to be up to 150 times more effective in limiting the inner ear side effects of drugs than a mixture of antioxidants that included vitamins C and E, glutathione and N-acetyl-cysteine. Tinnitus for many elderly folks may be the tip of the iceberg if it is related to low vitamin B12 levels.
This diode builds up stored charge, which when pulled out by the high side switch, creates a large ringing. Further, the speed of turn on of the high-side MOSFET has less of an effect on the efficiency.
A resistor and series capacitor connected from the switch node-to-GND is used for the synchronous buck circuit. Tinnitus may also be a symptom of other health problems, such as allergies, high or low blood pressure, tumors and problems in the heart, blood vessels, jaw and neck.
Given that drugs are often a cause of tinnitus, it may be that anyone taking a drug that is associated with tinnitus should also take melatonin to protect inner ear function and possibly prevent tinnitus.


Frequency filtering is more appropriate if no straightforward kernel can be found in the spatial domain, and may also be more efficient. Hence, a means of slowing down the turn on and not the turn off of the high-side MOSFET is needed.
The traditional approach of adding a gate drive resistor very often slows down the turn off more than the turn on. In one set up moving the snubber from near the high-side FET to near the low-side FET reduced overshoot by 6-7 volts.
This image is then multiplied with the filter function in a pixel-by-pixel fashion: where F(k,l) is the input image in the Fourier domain, H(k,l) the filter function and G(k,l) is the filtered image. To obtain the resulting image in the spatial domain, G(k,l) has to be re-transformed using the inverse Fourier Transform. However, in practice, the Fourier domain filter function can only be approximated by the filtering kernel in spatial domain. There are basically three different kinds of filters: lowpass, highpass and bandpass filters. A highpass filter, on the other hand, yields edge enhancement or edge detection in the spatial domain, because edges contain many high frequencies.
Areas of rather constant graylevel consist of mainly low frequencies and are therefore suppressed. A bandpass attenuates very low and very high frequencies, but retains a middle range band of frequencies. Bandpass filtering can be used to enhance edges (suppressing low frequencies) while reducing the noise at the same time (attenuating high frequencies). It suppresses all frequencies higher than the cut-off frequency and leaves smaller frequencies unchanged: In most implementations, is given as a fraction of the highest frequency represented in the Fourier domain image. The advantage is that the Gaussian has the same shape in the spatial and Fourier domains and therefore does not incur the ringing effect in the spatial domain of the filtered image. Applying this filter in the frequency domain shows a similar result to the Gaussian smoothing in the spatial domain. One difference is that the computational cost of the spatial filter increases with the standard deviation (i.e. Hence, the spatial Gaussian filter is more appropriate for narrow lowpass filters, while the Butterworth filter is a better implementation for wide lowpass filters. They attenuate all frequencies smaller than a frequency and higher than a frequency , while the frequencies between the two cut-offs remain in the resulting output image. We obtain the filter function of a bandpass by multiplying the filter functions of a lowpass and of a highpass in the frequency domain, where the cut-off frequency of the lowpass is higher than that of the highpass. In this way we could, for example, remove periodic patterns with a certain direction in the resulting spatial domain image. We will demonstrate this performance with Corrupting this image with Gaussian noise with a zero mean and a standard deviation of 8 yields We can reduce this type of noise using a lowpass filter, because noise consists largely of high frequencies, which are attenuated by a lowpass filter.
We lost too many of the fine-scale details and the image exhibits strong ringing due to the shape of the ideal low pass filter. In general, when using a lowpass filter to reduce the high frequency noise, we have to compromise some desirable high frequency information if we want to smooth away significant amounts of noise.
Filtering this image with an ideal lowpass filter (cut-off frequency ) yields The ringing is already recognizable in this image but is much more obvious in which is obtained after a histogram equalization. The effect gets even worse if we block more of the frequencies contained in the input image. Apart from the (desired) smoothing the image also contains a severe ringing which clearly visible even without histogram equalization. We can also see that the cut-off frequency directly corresponds to the frequency of the ringing, i.e.
As a result of attenuating (or blocking) the low frequencies, areas of constant intensity in the input image are zero in the output of the highpass filter.
Areas of a strong intensity gradient, containing the high frequencies, have positive and negative intensity values in the filter output.
In order to display the image on the screen, an offset is added to the output in the spatial domain and the image intensities are scaled. This results in a middle grayvalue for low frequency areas and dark and light values for the edges. The image shows the output of a Butterworth highpass with the cut-off frequency being 0.5.
An alternative way to display the filter output is to take the absolute value of the filtered spatial domain image.
If we apply this method to the clown image (and threshold the result with 13) we obtain This image may be compared with which is an edge image produced by the Sobel operator and, thus, shows the absolute value of the edge magnitude. In general, spatial filters are more commonly used for edge detection while frequency filters are more often used for high frequency emphasis.
Here, the filter doesn't totally block low frequencies, but magnifies high frequencies relative to low frequencies. For example, in each part of the house is made of stripes of a different frequency and orientation. The corresponding Fourier Transform (after histogram equalization can be seen in We can see the main peaks in the image corresponding to the periodic patterns in the spatial domain image which now can be accessed separately. Applying the inverse Fourier Transform and normalizing the resulting image yields in the spatial domain. Although the image shows some regular patterns in the formerly constant background, the vertical stripes are almost totally removed whereas the other patterns remained mostly unchanged. To perform the frequency filtering we transform both the image of the house and the mask into the Fourier domain where we multiply the two images with the effect that the frequencies occurring in the mask remain in the output while the others are set to zero.
Re-transforming the output into the spatial domain and normalizing it yields In this image, the dominant pattern is the one defined by the mask. The pixel values are the highest at places which were composed of this vertical pattern in the input image and are zero in most of the background areas. It is now possible to identify the desired area by applying a threshold, as can be seen in To understand this process we should keep in mind that a multiplication in the Fourier domain is identical to a convolution in the spatial domain.
Here, the aim is to remove the effects of a non-ideal imaging system by multiplying the image in the Fourier space with an appropriate function. The easiest method, called inverse filtering, is to divide the image in the Fourier space with the optical transfer function (OTF).
We illustrate this technique, also known as deconvolution, using We simulate a non-ideal OTF by multiplying the Fourier Transform of the image with the Fourier Transform of a Gaussian image with a standard deviation of 5.
Re-transforming the result into the spatial domain yields the blurred image We can now reconstruct the original image using inverse filtering by taking the Fourier Transform of the blurred image and dividing it by the Fourier Transform of the Gaussian kernel, which was used to initially blur the image.
The reconstructed image is shown in Although we obtain, in the above case, exactly the original image, this method has two major problems. If we, for example, add 0.1% spike noise to the blurred image, we obtain Inverse filtering the image (as described above) using this image in order to de-blur yields the low contrast result (Note that doing contrast enhancement to emphasize the original image features can produce an image very similar to the original, except for a loss of fine details). The situation can be slightly improved if we ignore all values of the Fourier space division in which the divisor (i.e. The effect of using a threshold of 3 can be seen in However, if we increase the threshold we have to discard more of the Fourier values and therefore lose more image information. If we, for example, blur the image by convolving it with the Gaussian image in the spatial domain, we obtain Although this should theoretically be the same image as obtained from the multiplication in the Fourier Space, we obtain small differences due to quantization errors and effects around the border of an image when convolving it in spatial domain. Reconstructing the original image by dividing the blurred image in the Fourier space with the Fourier Transform of the Gaussian yields or if we use a minimum OTF threshold of 5.
The images and are the results of estimating the OTF with a Gaussian image with a standard deviation of 3 and 10, respectively and applying an inverse filtering with a minimum OTF threshold of 10. For example, Wiener filtering and Maximum Entropy filtering are two techniques that are based on the same principle as inverse filtering, but produce better results on real world images. For example, we might want to find all locations in which are occupied by a certain letter, say X.
To do this, we need an image of an isolated X which can act as a mask, in this case To perform the pattern matching, we transform both image and mask into the Fourier space and multiply them. We apply the inverse Fourier Transform to the resulting Fourier image and scale the output to obtain in the spatial domain. This image is (theoretically) identical to the result of convolving image and mask in the spatial domain. However, apart from the X, these are also other letters like the R and the K which match well. In fact, if we threshold the image at 255, as can be seen in ) we have two locations indicating an X, one of them being incorrect. This results in a constant shift between the position of the letter in the original and its response in the processed image. The example shows that this straightforward method runs into problems if we want to distinguish between similar patterns or if the mask and the corresponding pattern in the data differ slightly. Another problem includes the fact that this operation is neither rotation- nor scale-invariant.
In our case (the letter was approximately 10?A20 pixels); it is substantially faster to do the matching in the frequency domain.
For example, scaling the Fourier magnitude of the above mask to 255 and thresholding it at a value of 10 yields all the frequencies with at least 4% of the peak magnitude, as can be seen in Now, we multiply this modified mask with the Fourier image of the text, thus retaining only frequencies which also appear in the letter X. Inverse Fourier Transforming this image yields We can see that the X is the letter which preserved its shape the best and also has higher intensity values.



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Comments Constant low ringing in ear water

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