In actual application, all forces that produce pipeline flow and those opposing it can be described or measured in terms of pressure or head.

Because of their lower specific gravities, static pressures of petroleum products are proportionally less. Special factors such as entrance to the pip, sudden changes in flow direction or cross-sectional area, flow through equipment like traps and meters, and corrosion or deposits in the line. Calculate the friction head loss per mile to move gasoline in an aluminum pipeline with an ID of 6.249 inches.

The conditions are the same as for the larger-pipe method; however, you are to determine the length of double line necessary tot reduce the head loss to 18 feet. As before, the total friction loss must be no greater than the maximum allowable 18 feet of head.

Required suction pressures, available head capacities, and other operating characteristics of the pumping unit.

The hydraulic gradient triangle is a right triangle that is constructed on the same scale as the profile.

You are to construct a hydraulic gradient triangle for a pipeline with normal design capacity of 550 GPM for diesel fuel at 60oF.

The following paragraphs describe the factors considered in locating mainline pumping stations and flood or suction stations for military pipelines.

The outlet of the lowest tank in the petroleum tank farm is 150 feet higher than the pump suction manifold entrance of proposed station 1.

Suppose that pumping station 5 (downstream) is at a lower elevation than station 4 (upstream). To determine where to install a pressure reducing station in the line, construct a feet-of-head scale, similar to the line AB of the hydraulic gradient triangle in Figure 4-3, equal to the safe working pressure of the pipe being used. The following methods are used to regulate static pressure in long downhill sections of military pipeline.

The pumping-station locations selected using the hydraulic-gradient-triangle method may not be suitable for many reasons. If a station does not have to pump under full pressure to pump at the required rate, it may be operated with fewer than the required number of pumping units. The smaller ID (6.187 inches) of the standard pipe creates a greater head loss per mile and consequently a steeper slope in the hydraulic gradient in that portion of the line in which it is used. Pressure Point Healing™ is a radical new approach and understanding of acupressure for pain relief, weight loss, stress reduction, and rejuvenation. These pressure points also correspond to many homeopathic remedies, based on the findings of Dr. Any elementary book on physics will tell you that "energy cannot be created nor destroyed,” so where does our energy go when we are sick?

We must realize that at this very moment in life we are the end result past thought and deed and also of everything we have ever put in our mouth and minds.

Once the outlet if found and you hold the contact fairly firm (but not so hard as to be excruciating), you seal off this escaping life energy and the toxic lock will reverse its polarity to that part of the body from where it originates. By using the electrodigital method, less treatments will be required and the faster the patron will heal.

By following these simple three measures, any form of therapy will find salvation, but most importantly our universal agent of electricity heals.

Palpatotherapy™ is a unique system of electronic point finding and ischemic pressure using an Aesthesiometer.

The author has compiled a complete Clinical Manual with specific protocols for the clinic, click here for more details. Also see myBulletins Page for additional diagnosis and repair information and parts listing. The easiest way to diagnose the PowerStroke is with an OBD II scan tool that has data stream capabilities. One thing to understand and remember is the PCM reads only voltage signals from the sensors.

As with performance problems, you first have to start with the Preliminary Checks and Code Retrieval.After checking the preliminaries, KOEO and Continuous codes, and the concern happens cold only, check the glow plug system function. Excessive black smoke could result from restricted intake or exhaust, inoperative leaking or weak turbo, intake hose(s) leaks, leaking or worn injectors, fuel return or supply restriction, stuck Exhaust backPressure Regulator valve or solenoid.

Excessive smoke could be caused by air in the fuel, contaminated fuel, loose or plugged injectors, worn or leaking injector o-rings, thermostat stuck open, oil consumption, or plugged crankcase depression regulator valve. Before replacing any part on a PowerStroke engine, check the engine serial number stamped in the block next to the oil filter header. Coupled military pipelines are low-pressure systems that operate at a normal working pressures of no more than 740 psi.

Atmospheric pressure is comparable to static pressure in liquids because it is caused by the weight of air above the earth's surface.

The height of the bar graphs shows the maximum net suction lift for water and petroleum products after vapor pressure has been deducted from atmospheric pressure.

With a specified pipe size and a given throughput requirement, the flow velocity is constant for all practical design purposes, using average conditions of climate and topography. A liquid's resistance to flow in a pipeline results from the following: Friction of the pipe walls.

Resistance usually is expressed in terms of the pressure required to overcome resistance, in psi or in feet of head of the liquid pumped. The normal head capacity (see Table 4-3) of a pumping unit is the total head against which it will pump at the most efficient operating point. Emergency head capacity (see Table 4-3) of a pumping unit is the total head against which it will pump to provide maximum pipeline capacity.

Pipe friction loss arises from the internal friction of the particles of the fluid itself (viscosity) and the resistance to flow at the pipe-wall surfaces. Friction loss through fittings results from the same surface friction as losses in straight pipe. The pipeline design requires one check valve and one gate valve every mile and U-loop expansion devices every 1,000 feet of pipeline.

The triangle's altitude (vertical distance) represents the available feet of head pressure at the discharge of the pumping station. This gradient represents the rate of head loss due to friction for a specific pipe size carrying a specific fluid at a specific rate of flow. A more exact method of determining friction head loss and the energy relationship for liquid flowing through a pipe between two points can be calculated by the Darcy-Weisbach and Bernoulli equations (Appendix A).

Draw the altitude (AB) of the triangle to the same scale as the vertical scale of the pipeline profile in Figure 4-3. Draw the base (AC) of the triangle to the same scale as the horizontal scale of the pipeline profile shown in Figure 4-3. Use Figure C-9 to find the friction head loss at 550 GPM in an aluminum pipeline (6.625-inch ID). The hypotenuse (BC) of the triangle is the straight line that connects points B and C (see Figure 4-3). Mainline pumping stations, with the exception of station 1, are placed by the modular method described above. When the suction pressure is greater or equal to 20 psi, the mainline station 1 can be fed by gravity flow from the tank farm. If gravity does not furnish enough suction pressure at any suitable site for station 1, determine if using the larger-pipe method or the double-line method will reduce friction loss enough to eliminate the need for a flood or suction pumping station. When gravity will not supply sufficient suction pressure for station 1, install a flood or suction pumping station as close to the tank-farm manifold as safety conditions permit. Place the hydraulic gradient triangle on the pipeline profile with point A (the right angle) at station 1. You would locate station 3 by placing point A of the hydraulic gradient triangle on the point fixed as station 2 on the profile.

To locate station 4, place point A of the hydraulic gradient triangle on the point representing station 3 on the profile, with the base extending in the direction of flow and parallel to the baseline of the profile. To locate station 5, place point A of the hydraulic gradient triangle on the point that represents station 4 on the pipeline profile, with the base extending in the direction of flow and parallel to the baseline of the profile. Conditions, availability of materials and equipment, or other considerations will dictate which method you should use to protect the line when static pressure exceeds the capability of the pipeline tubing. These valves will reduce upstream pressure about 25 to 800 psi and require no special tools to install. When the higher safe working pressures of standard pipe can withstand static pressure, replace the lighter pipes on long downhill sections with heavier pipes to control the increased pressure exerted during shutdown. The locations may be inaccessible, difficult to camouflage, or too small; they may have poor vapor drainage or involve other unsuitable terrain conditions.

If a station must be relocated upstream, the available discharge head is equal to the normal discharge head plus the head from friction and elevation gained between the new location and the original location. Pumping stations may be shifted a short distance downstream on the pipeline to take advantage of good sites.

Or, when the station has to use only 50 percent or less of normal pressure (or lower RPM throttled back), the line may be looped around the next upstream station, which can then be eliminated from the line.

Draw the true hydraulic gradient (Figure 4-6, Step 1) by placing the hydraulic gradient triangle on the profile of the last located pumping station. On a stiff piece of cardboard or clear plastic make a feet-of-head scale corresponding to the safe working pressure of the pipeline. The section of the pipeline between points P1 and P2 will build up dynamic pressure exceeding the safe working limits of the aluminum pipe used under design-flow conditions.

Make a new hydraulic gradient triangle for the standard pipe using the same scale as the pipeline profile. Conduct a test to determine if the safe working pressure of the standard pipe is exceeded at any point. Check the vertical distances between the new hydraulic gradient and the pipeline profile as in Step 2 above. Locate the next pumping station (Figure 4-6, Step 3) using the original hydraulic gradient triangle. It is a method of contacting and releasing the vital nerve centers of the body where toxic irritations have accumulated. At least 75% of people being treated this way will feel a warmth in the part or organ being treated which means regenerative repair is taking place.

For alkaline pain patterns, paint the tissue injury area with tincture of iodine before electrotherapy application, it will be rapidly absorbed.

Patients must comply with hydration therapy, drinking copious of pure water as part of the healing process. Charles' development, has identified over 2,000 points throughout the body based on acupuncture, reflexology, and the professor's own clinical research over the last thirty years.

The fundamental characteristics of fluids must be considered when designing petroleum pipeline systems.

Density is a measure of the concentration of matter, weight is a measure of the force of gravity.

Specific gravity is the ratio of the weight of a volume of liquid to the weight of an equal volume of water.

The API gravity scale, used by the petroleum industry, is based on reciprocals of specific gravities and, therefore, produces whole numbers having a greater numerical spread. Low-pressure pipelines require that pumping stations be spaced closer than high-pressure lines to get the same throughput. For example, Figure 4-2 shows that diesel at normal atmospheric pressure (14.7 psi) theoretically can be lifted, by suction, over 38 feet at 50° F, about 35 feet at 100° F, and about 33 feet at 200° F. Maximum head capacity is for emergency operation only and is never used as the basis for design. The two sources of friction within a pipeline system are friction resulting from fluid flowing through the pipe and friction created by fuel passing by obstructions, such as valves, fittings, and pipelines of smaller diameters. Such losses for all fittings except plug valves are determined by converting each type fitting into its equivalent pipe length and then determining the friction loss.

Reducing friction loss may be required when design errors or other factors, such as terrain or time, have led to the placement of pumping stations too far apart to maintain the design flow rate.

Before starting, you must determine how to compute the friction loss (f1) for length (L1) of double line. Modular design is a simplified graphical method of locating pumping stations (except station 1) and pressure-reducing stations.

The base (horizontal distance) represents the distance that the fluid can be moved on level terrain, which is based on the available head of the pumping unit, the friction head loss in the pipeline, and the design flow rate. If the pipe size, type of fluid, or flow rate is changed, a new triangle must be constructed.

A complete hydraulic analysis should be prepared to verify the modular design as time permits. The height represents the available fluid head in feet at design rate of flow at the pumping-station discharge. The length represents the distance, in miles, that the available discharge head of the pumping station can move the fluid at normal design rate of flow on level terrain. This slope represents the loss of head per unit length of pipeline and establishes the gradient for determining station spacing. This station (base terminal) receives fuel from a petroleum-terminal tank farm or host-nation supply.

If analyses show that gravity feed with either method will not provide enough suction pressure, then install a flood or suction pumping station. Connections between the tank and the pumping station consist of 680 feet of 6.249-inch ID aluminum pipe, two gate valves, five 45-degree elbows, two 90-degree elbows and two through-run T s. To prevent vapor pockets in a gravity line, the grade from the tanks to the pumping station need not be uniform but should be free of excessive humps, pockets, and sharp bends. The location of pumping station 2 by use of the hydraulic gradient triangle depends on the positive suction pressure at station 1.

The base (AC) of the triangle is positioned parallel to the horizontal baseline of the profile in the direction of flow in the pipeline. If the pipeline profile does not intersect the hypotenuse of the hydraulic gradient triangle, the distance between two successive pumping stations on equal elevation is determined simply by the pressure drop due to pipeline friction. A downstream pumping station that is at a higher elevation than the preceding station is said to be on an upgrade.

The first point at which the hypotenuse or hydraulic gradient of the triangle intersects the profile is the appropriate location for station 4 (Figure 4-4). A downstream pumping station that is at a lower elevation than the preceding station is said to be on a downgrade. When pumping is interrupted and the pipeline is shut down, fluid in the line exerts static pressure between points of unequal elevation. With the scale, measure downward from the highest elevation on the profile; at its base, project a horizontal line in the direction of the downgrade. If these valves are available, using them is the best and easiest method of controlling excessive pressure. For example, the safe working pressure for 6-inch (0.219-inch wall thickness), standard-weight pipe is 1,000 psi.

After the hydraulic locations of the pumping stations have been plotted on the profile of the pipeline (Figure 4-4), a site reconnaissance is made and the locations are plotted on topographic maps.

If this occurs, the pumping station should be shifted upstream or downstream to a better site on the pipeline.

Pressure conditions at the design rate of flow at the new pumping-station location must be reviewed to determine if discharge pressure of the preceding pump will exceed the maximum working pressure of the pipeline.

A pumping station in a poor location either cannot pump at the required flow rate or it can pump at the required rate but with less than normal pressure. With unusually steep grades, it is possible that the safe working pressure of the pipe may be exceeded by dynamic head under normal design flow conditions. To determine whether the safe working pressure has been exceeded, compare the true hydraulic gradient triangle with the pipeline profile.

Point A should be on the pumping-station location; the base should extend in the flow direction and parallel to the baseline of the profile to point C. If the bottom edge of the feet-of-head scale does not pass above the pipeline profile at any point, the safe working pressure of the standard pipe is not exceeded. Position the feet-of-head scale directly above the transition point between standard pipe and aluminum pipe (P3).

These nerve centers may be located at motor points (aka trigger points), at classical acupuncture points, but more importantly at locations of connective tissue that have been relatively unexplored therapeutically until now. A detailed academic and clinical study however, reveals a far more complicated network of pressure points, many of the most powerful points not appearing on any known charts, until now. Add to that the toxic collective, planetary consciousness of lust and greed, in most cases it will bring on our demise much sooner than necessary. The more you treat, and the longer you treat until the ablation of tenderness, the sooner you and your patients will feel fit once again.

It is also helped with megadoses of vitamins C and B1; and herb teas of cinnamon bark, gentian root, and calendula. Again, electrotherapy is a trigger to activate cell membranes to not only take up nutrients and oxygen, but also to release metabolic wastes, and without hydration, toxic salts will deposit in the tissues of least resistance- connective tissue. Electrodermal point location allows precise localizing of 'active points' with subsequent measurement with an analog pressure gauge in pounds or kilograms in order to determine the amount of tenderness as well as fulfilling therapeutic ischemic pressure. Palpatotherapy removes the vagary zone charts and allow precise location of specific points down to the millimeter. However, only the physical properties as they affect the storage of military fuels in terminals and their flow through pipelines are to be considered.

Volume and API gravity increase with temperature while density, specific gravity, and viscosity vary inversely. Lighter pipe, used in low-pressure pipelines, is easier to construct, and it avoids the mechanical failures inherent at higher pressures. The vapor pressure of a system is a function of the temperature and pressure of the system. Special factors such as entrance to the pipe, sudden changes in flow direction or cross-sectional area, flow through equipment like traps and meters, and corrosion or deposits in the line. Head capacity is a function of speed (operation), in RPM versus its rate of discharge (GPM). Pumping stations should operate at maximum head capacity only during critical tactical emergencies.

From these graphs, you can estimate the pumping unit's operating speeds, the volume of fuel throughput, or the operating head as long as you know two of the three factors. The total friction loss in a section of pipeline, usually expressed in feet of head per unit of pipe length, is the total of the two friction losses.

To do this, find the intersection of a straight line between the valve type and the inside pipe diameter scales in the equivalent pipe length of pipe fittings chart in Appendix C.

The three remedial methods for reducing friction loss are using larger pipe, using double-looped lines, and reducing the flow rate.

Solving this problem is based on the principle that total head or pressure loss in a section of pipeline, which consists of two sizes of pipe in series, is equal to the sum of the friction losses for each size and length of pipe. The principle is that the flow rate in each half of a double line is considered to be half that of a single line of the same length. Generally, when this triangle is applied to the pipeline profile at the same scale, with the right angle corner on the location of one pumping station and with the base parallel to the base of the profile, the point at which the hypotenuse (hydraulic gradient) or its extension intersects the profile is the maximum distance to the next pumping station. To determine the length, divide the available head of the pumping station by the friction loss per mile for the specific tubing at the specific design flow rate. Station 1 is located as far from the tank farm as possible for safety and convenience of operations. Station 2 will maintain the minimum suction pressure that is to be passed along to each succeeding station on the pipeline.

The point at which the hypotenuse of hydraulic gradient line (BC) intersects the profile is the proper location for station 2. Hills and valleys along the route cancel each other out, and there is no loss of pressure due to changes in elevation.

If the two stations are actually on equal elevation, station 3 will be located where Point C of the triangle lies on the pipeline profile (see Figure 4-4). The total pressure loss between the two stations equals the sum of the separate losses due to friction and the difference in elevation. The pressure loss between stations will amount to the difference between the friction loss in the pipe.

The point where BC intersects the profile is the proper location for station 5 (Figure 4-4). Since there is no counteracting friction loss from fuel flow to use up or offset the static head, the total static pressure caused by the elevation difference is exerted against the pipe and the valve, which stops the flow. The point where this horizontal line intersects the profile is the proper location of the pressure-reducing station (see Figure 4-5). The exact sites are located by measuring distances from easily identified landmarks or terrain features. Remember that a change in location also will change the suction and discharge pressures of the pumping station.

If a station is relocated upstream, the next upstream station is relocated also so as to restore the proper 20-psi suction pressure. If a station fails to maintain flow at normal pressures, you can loop the line, or you can use larger pipe for a suitable distance on the downstream side of the pumping station to reduce friction loss by an amount that will permit it to pump at the design rate.

Add the suction pressure that is passed on form station to station by extending the available head scale form point B to B1, a distance equal to that suction head pressure or 54 feet (0.85 specific gravity fuel at 20 psi).

Move this scale along the hypotenuse of the true gradient triangle with the point E on the true hydraulic gradient and the scale perpendicular to the baseline of the profile. You can redesign by replacing the aluminum coupled pipe in the high-pressure segment of line with standard welded pipe.

The base is figured by dividing the available head capacity of the pumping unit by the line loss per mile based on design flow. See Table 4-2 for dimensions and safe working pressures for standard pipe supplied in pipeline assemblies. Using the feet-to-head scale for the aluminum pipe (D to E), prepared according to Step 2 above, locate the point on the profile where the pressure drops below the safe working pressure of the aluminum pipe tubing by moving the scale along the new hydraulic gradient based on standard pipe. Add the suction head pressure required at each pumping station (20 psi or 54 feet) to the feet-of head scale, which is the same as B1 in Step 1 above. At the foundation of most common disorders, will be found these toxic accumulations due to digestive ferments (organic acids), toxic bowel putrefactive products, lack of hydration and exercise, poor lymphatic drainage, tissue acidosis, heavy metal deposits, petrochemical infiltrations, and nerve center irritations (inflammatory byproducts, aka silent or humoral inflammation) complement this picture. Apply direct pressure onto the trigger point until the maximum pressure and referral pain has been achieved.

Mental and man-made poisons coupled with a lack of faith in God are the ruination of our world.

By this method, it is therapy specific, it that the diagnosis can be electronically measured and treatment by ischemic pressure can be gauged by precise compression. The fixture has a polished aluminum reflector and the door seals with a silicone gasket preventing moisture and dust. These characteristics are weight density, specific gravity, American Petroleum Institute (API) gravity, viscosity, temperature, and pressure. As liquid starts to flow down the pipe, it loses static head but gains velocity and dynamic head. However, the effect of total pressure on the vapor pressure is small, so the vapor pressure of a system is usually regarded as a function of temperature only.

These safe working pressures are based on the yield point of the pipe material and provide a designed minimum safety factor of 3.0. In other words, the design speed of the pump unit (RPM) must be considered together with the required head and desired throughput (GPM) to establish maximum efficiency in pipeline design. The total friction loss represents the total energy, or head, expended in moving the fuel through a pipeline.

Draw a vertical line up until it intersects the slanting line marked 6.249 (the ID of the aluminum pipe). The graphs required area profile of the pipeline route and the hydraulic gradient triangle. Because of its critical position, the station and the connecting line to the tank farm require careful planning and design to ensure that sufficient suction pressure is provided to the first mainline pumping station under design-flow conditions. Logically, the downstream upgrade station will be closer to the preceding station than a downstream station at an equal elevation.

The pressure gain (static head) is due to the lower elevation of the downstream pumping station. In this example, replace the lightweight pipe with standard-weight pipe below the elevation in which the pipe strength is exceeded by static pressure. Relocation upstream is the best choice because the only effect on operations is an increase in suction pressure over the normal 20 psi. From this point B1, draw a line on the profile parallel to the hypotenuse of the hydraulic triangle. In this example, the pump capacity is 1,800 feet of head, and the design flow capacity is 550 GPM.

The point (P3) at which the bottom edge of the scale first passes below the profile is the transition point where aluminum pipe may be used again in the pipeline.

The heart and brain are the master generators for the electricity in our body, and if you ever talk with anyone has had a heart attack he or she will tell you that all energy just seem drain away. Each Organ and tissue system ultimately succumbs to the evil forces and begins to lose energy through several outlets on the surface of the body. The densities of fluids are at the freezing point of water and under one atmosphere of pressure (the pressure at the earth's surface). This gives a spread of 90 degrees API between the heaviest and lightest petroleum products. Since a viscous liquid resists efforts to move it, absolute viscosity is defined as a measure of the force required to produce flow. This is the standard temperature for both design and operation of military pipeline systems.

Dynamic head is greatest at the ground level where the flow changes direction and the streams begin to rise in the air. Because elevation affects atmospheric pressure, pump engines are affected at elevations above 3,000 feet, and design loads on pumps are decreased about 4 percent per each 1,000 feet above 3,000 feet.

Lay a straight edge on the chart with one end on the point representing 3 psi on the atmospheric scale and keep the edge parallel to the baseline. In design, this information serves as a parameter on which to base the distances between pumping stations on level terrain. From this intersection, trace a horizontal line to the friction loss scale on the left side of the chart. The triangle has measured the pumping distance for only the pressure added by the pumps at station 1, and the suction pressure does not have any bearing. A downstream station at a lower elevation than the preceding station will be farther from that station than it would be if both stations were at an equal elevation.

During shutdown, the total static pressure applied may be well above the safe working pressure, especially at low sections in the line. Relocation downstream without reduction of throughput can only be done by sacrificing part of the suction pressure.

Continue moving the scale along the true hydraulic gradient hypotenuse, and mark the profile at the point at which the bottom edge of the scale again passes through the profile P2.

For this pipe, the maximum safe working pressure is 1,500 psi, which is equivalent to 3,759 feet-of-head of 0.85 specific gravity fuel. After a few seconds, the referral pattern will start shifting and disappear until it is only under the pressure point. Now with Pressure Point Healing we can do something about these energy losses by returning it to the body to serve as a healing stimulus. Daily), vitamin B6, oral magnesium chloride (300 mg.), and herb teas like catnip and chamomile. API gravity is inversely proportional to specific gravity: the lower the specific gravity, the higher the API gravity.

Because of this spread, specific gravity is an important factor in the design of military pipelines. In the electric system, the unit of absolute viscosity is the poise, which is equal to one dyne-second per square centimeter (100 centipoises). The boiling point varies; at high altitudes, liquids boil at lower temperatures than at sea level. The reading should show that 3 psi atmosphere equals 9 feet suction lift for Type A motor gasoline (MOGAS).

You can calculate friction loss by using the Darcy-Weisbach equation shown in Appendix A or the graphs in Appendix C.

If the required suction pressure for station 1 cannot be created by gravity, a flood or suction pump is required.

To prevent this, place pressure-reducing stations on downgrades at all points where static pressure may become excessive. Draw a line parallel to the original true hydraulic gradient unit it intersects the pipeline profile. After that has been achieved, the pain level will decrease to the point where it is merely sensed as pressure and no longer painful. Added to that, by using frequency precise, electric impulses (Rife frequencies), a far greater magnitude of healing stimulus is returned via the somatic nervous system, which accelerates what the digit alone can only do. With this new manual you are given the diagrams and descriptions of each energy outlets and a method of palpatory examination. Viscosity and specific gravity are related; the relationship is expressed as kinematic viscosity, which is the ratio of absolute viscosity, in poises, to specific gravity of the liquid. Vapor pressure reduces the effect of atmospheric pressure acting on a liquid and affects pumping operations involving suction lift. Comparatively, Type A MOGAS cannot be lifted this distance by suction at 135°F, and the net lift at 100°F and 50° F is reduced to 7 feet and 21 feet respectively (16-9 and 30-9).

The point where this line intersects the pipeline profile is the proper location for the next pumping station. Added to that, if the corresponding homeopathic remedy (aka Weihe point) is placed over the point and irradiated with high frequency therapy (aka Violet or Derma Ray), a further acceleration of the stimulus is applied. As you press against these energy outlets, the more painful these outlets are, the more energy there is escaping from the organ, bone or tissue it leads back to. The heaviest fuel is the design fuel, which makes up 25 percent or more of the total requirement. The unit of kinematic viscosity is the stoke given in units of square centimeters per second (100 centistokes). The difference between the initial static head and the final static head or dynamic head is the head loss, which represents friction losses due to pipe and air. Therefore, normal suction pressure of 20 psi should be increased to 30 psi for operating temperatures over 100°F. Under normal conditions, a pipeline designed for diesel fuel can handle other fuels effectively. In summary, dynamic head is equal to the static head required to accelerate the flowing velocity of the stream. Place the new hydraulic gradient triangle, based on standard pipe (Figure 4-6, Step 2), with point B2 on the true gradient parallel to the baseline of the profile. For generations, so many cultures have used counterirritant therapies to bring about healing.

We have all kinds of analgesics and painkillers today, but society has long forgotten the practice of counter-irritation: An agent or force that induces local inflammation to relieve inflammation in underlying or adjacent tissues. This provides a basis for comparison of capacity and performance when heavier or lighter products are to be moved. The therapeutics of it in medicine is also called revulsion: the diminution of morbid action in one part of the body by irritation in another.

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