I have tinnitus for no reason yuzu,ear nose and throat doctor in kl,costco hearing aid center hours,wholesale jewellery online china 18 - Step 1

22.09.2013
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Shatner and others (including me) are particularly concerned for veterans of the Iraq and Afghanistan wars.
To date, there is no cure for tinnitus, no pill to take, although there are some treatments which provide relief.
1 in 5 people in Northern Ireland suffer from tinnitus – a ringing, buzzing, humming or whistling sound in the ear. Around 9,000 are affected by the condition so badly that many have said that it made their life unbearable and had significant impact on their mental health. Statistics suggest that at least 178,900 people in Northern Ireland have tinnitus of varying severity.
For many, tinnitus is a condition that they learn to live with but for others, it can have a significant impact on day-to-day life including concentration problems, sleep problems and depression.
Tinnitus can improve over time and although there is currently no single treatment that works in the same way for everyone, if an underlying cause can be established it can often be effectively treated. Some people find their tinnitus is worse when they're stressed or anxious and improves when they're calm and relaxed. Optique Eye and Ear Care offer a speedy service to help improve the quality of hearing with audiology tests and access to the latest hearing aids on the market. At the moment there's no single treatment for tinnitus that works in the same way for everyone. If a specific cause can't be established, the focus will be on helping you manage the condition on a daily basis. Tinnitus is most noticeable in quiet environments, background noise such as music or the television can help distract you from the sound of tinnitus. Listening to natural relaxing sounds, such as the sound of rain or the ocean, can also help.
Tinnitus (pronounced ti-ni-tis), or ringing in the ears, is the sensation of hearing ringing, buzzing, hissing, chirping, whistling, or other sounds.
Although tinnitus is often associated with hearing loss, it does not cause the loss, nor does a hearing loss cause tinnitus.
Some instances of tinnitus are caused by infections or blockages in the ear, and the tinnitus can disappear once the underlying cause is treated. Certain drugs -- most notably aspirin, several types of antibiotics, anti-inflammatories, sedatives, and antidepressants, as well as quinine medications; tinnitus is cited as a potential side effect for about 200 prescription and nonprescription drugs.
Tinnitus can worsen in some people if they drink alcohol, smoke cigarettes, drink caffeinated beverages, or eat certain foods. If you're not brushing and flossing regularly, you are at risk for gum disease and potential health problems. Therapist Steven Sultanoff explains the utility of humor in counseling, and Jeffrey Briar leads a session of Laughter Yoga on Laguna Beach. Recently I reported on my newly developing tinnitus and the research that I found out about how to treat it. The most likely source of noise-induced damage for me would have been shooting guns, which I have done for many years. This just means that I can experiment with any and all of the tinnitus treatment options that I summarized in the previous post that I linked to above. My favorite one is Ginkgo biloba, only because I have some research experience with this herb and I have done extensive literature review of the 1,000-plus research articles on it. I have been supplementing with 20 mg of melatonin nightly for several years, so I have that one covered. The Ginkgo biloba supplement that I take is an extract that is standardized to 24 percent ginkgoflavones (flavonoids) and 6 percent ginkgolides (terpenes), which is the typical requirement in clinical research. Anything that causes vascular constriction is more than likely to be a negative impact on vascular tinnitus. If it comes to that, I will also up my B-complex and B-12 intake by converting to injectable forms, since that would be even more effective than the oral B-complex and the sublingual B-12 that I am taking now. I will post my progress as I see new results over the next few weeks and months, so stay tuned here (or be sure to subscribe to my newsletter by requesting my free supplements report here: Complete Nutrition). Although I am not personally concerned with this type of tinnitus, let me call to your attention the comment on treating this type with melatonin, as described in my previous post.
How to cite this article Mahmoudian S, Shahmiri E, Rouzbahani M, Jafari Z, Keyhani MR, Rahimi F, Mahmoudian G, et al. Tinnitus is a debilitating condition that is widespread yet difficult to successfully diagnose and treat. Regarding to McFadden (1982), Tinnitus is the "conscious experience of a sound that originates in an involuntary manner in the head of its owner or may appear to him to be so"1. Some underlying causes were defined for tinnitus, including otological diseases, tumors, ototoxicity, acoustic trauma, noise-induced and psychological disturbances. Since almost the majority of tinnitus questionnaires for assessing individual's reaction to tinnitus are in English language and there is still no standardized and valid questionnaire in Persian, the provision of a Persian version of these questionnaires according to the culture of Iranian society is inevitable. The first aim of the current study was to investigate the linguistic validity of the Persian Version of the THI as a measure of tinnitus-related reactions in three dimensions 95 International Tinnitus Journal, Vol.
The present study consists of translation and standardization of the original version of THI [25] into Persian version (Linguistic validation) then the reliability of the Persian version of THI has been identified.
In the first step according to the IQOLA protocol26, THI questionnaire was translated by two native speakers of Persian, bilingual in English and Persian, separately translated the original instrument into Farsi (Persian) language (translator 1 and 2).
At the second step of linguistic validation, we used two other translators (5 and 6) with high level of proficiency in Persian and English languages. Before the THI-P can be administered to assess the effects of tinnitus, its test-retest stability must be determined. The degree of hearing loss is defined as the severity of the hearing loss measured by audiometry. Patients were asked to complete the THI-P questionnaire as part of the initial assessment at the tinnitus center.
All analyses were performed using statistical package for social science (SPSS) version 16. Student t-test was used to test for differences between THI scores and its subscales and gender, hearing impairments and tinnitus laterality. From the 25 items of THI-US version translated to Persian version of THI, thirteen items (52%) including 2, 3, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 15, 16, 20, 21 and 22 as an easy translation, six items (24%) including 6, 12, 14, 17, 18 and 19 as a relatively easy translation and finally other six items including 4, 5, 13, 23, 24 and 25 as a difficult translation were evaluated by translators. The tinnitus characteristics of the 112 subjects attending the tinnitus center to consult about tinnitus management have been summarized in Table 1. The frequency distribution of tinnitus subjects who answered the various items in the THI-P questionnaire has been outlined in Table 3.
The correlation of age and total THI-P score was calculated by Pearson's product and for calculating the effect of sex and total THI-P score we applied independent student t-test. Pearson product-moment correlations were calculated between the first and second administrations of the THI-P among the tinnitus subjects to assess the strength of the relationship between tests and retest (Figure 2). We assessed the percentages of "Yes", "Sometimes" and "No" answers and then we calculated the reproducibility (internal consistency reliability) of items in THI-P using the Cronbach's-alpha coefficient. In recent years, the need to assess and consider the consequences of diseases as well as distressing symptoms has been specifically considered in all special facilities of medical and rehabilitation. Hence, as a first step, standardization and validation of appropriate tools such as psychometric questionnaires are very important in order to evaluate disease or monitor treatment outcomes.
One of our ultimate goals for validating the Persian version of THI and for conducting current study was to develop a standard self-report tinnitus instrument, appropriate to the Persian's culture so that it could be administered as a criterion measure in clinical and research approaches available to clinicians and other researchers who are involved in different aspects of tinnitus subjects.
It is widely agreed that in addition to desirable translation to validate an assessment tool, we should also use the terms adapted for socio-cultural setting of the population which will serve. The translation quality was assessed by translator 3 and 4 using a VAS criterion (from desirable up to absolute undesirable score).
In order to determine the divergent or discriminate validity of THI-P, we used the effects of three factors including hearing impairment, gender and age of the tinnitus subjects on the questionnaire scores. Regarding to other studies, in order to identify validity of THI questionnaires (German, Brazilian, Danish versions), authors administered the correlation between items in translated THI with the other standardized questionnaires (convergent validity structure)33. The most important specifications of one assessing instrument are always including repeatability, consistency and validity of obtained scores. The other part of consistency was related to the correlation between test-retest which was evaluated by Pearson correlation coefficient.
In this study, with omitting any of the THI-P items, the acquired score of Cronbach's alpha coefficient as calculated by the total score of Cronbach's alpha coefficient was very close (r = 0.943). In conclusion, this study demonstrated that the Persian version of THI (THI-P) is a valid and reproducible tool to assess the psychological complaints of tinnitus sufferers. We find that THI-P in structural and practical point of view is compatible with the original English version of THI. In this era, the determination of both objective and subjective effects of clinical intervention is critical, because clinicians using outcome measures could make decision about patient's status and the effective treatment. However, before you put your money on it, take a look at the Reverse My Tinnitus review below to learn what the course offers and if it can really help you in your battle against this so-called untreatable ailment. On aime y prendre une cup of tea, tester le fameux fish & chips, rever dans un bed & breakfast, faire un tour en double duckers (les bus rouges), puis bruncher avec vue sur la Tamise ou depuis le London Eye.
Son esprit cocooning est plus que jamais ancre dans la tendance ! Paris foisonne et deborde d'adresses scandinaves.
The actor William Shatner has suffered from tinnitus since an explosion on the set of Star Trek occurred decades ago. Soram KhalsaAs an MD, Dr Soram specializes in Integrative Medicine combining diet, nutrition, acupuncture, herbs and nutrition. At Optique we can provide ear wax management which can sometimes be the cause of tinnitus and also offer hearing aids which are known to reduce the condition in suitable people.


They'll also look at your medical history and ask about the type and severity of the noises you hear. In fact, some people with tinnitus experience no difficulty hearing, and in a few cases they even become so acutely sensitive to sound (hyperacusis) that they must take steps to muffle or mask external noises. For reasons not yet entirely clear to researchers, stress and fatigue seem to worsen tinnitus. This is the post that offers the list of treatments that I found and what you can expect from them: Ringing In Ears Goes Away. It is well-known in travelers who sit nearly immobile in an airplane seat for a few hours at a time.
Contrary to popular belief and marketing hype, it is not well-supported as a memory enhancer. I now take a time-released form of magnesium, 500 mg per day in 4 separate doses (to avoid the laxative effect), with double the amount of calcium to balance the two together. No other kinds of Ginkgo supplements measure up, so don’t bother with them if you are going to take this herb. At some point, if I am not seeing the results that I want, I will add hydergine and vinpocetine to my tinnitus treatment program. Persian language version of the "Tinnitus Handicap Inventory": translation, standardization, validity and reliability.
This symptom is a debilitating condition that is widespread yet difficult to successfully diagnose and treat. For some patients with tinnitus this sensation does not interfere with their daily activities and for others it is disabling and restricts their work, sleep, and social activities10,11.
Numerous studies using various open-ended or self-report structured questionnaires have been conducted. For this reason we perform according to the International Quality of Life Assessment protocol (IQOLA) approved by WHO in 1991.
Craig Newman, author of the original questionnaire of THI, has permitted us to develop and use the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory in Persian Language Version.
They were asked, if needed, to mention a list of possible translations for some words, sentences and phrases. On the other hand, the words and items on the level of reading ability of 14 years old or less were noticed for linguistic validation of THI-P. All subjects gave written informed consent in accord with the declaration of Helsinki before examinations. So, in retest after one week from filling the first THI-P, the questionnaire was filled again by the same patients. Descriptive statistics, including frequency distributions, means and standard deviation were computed for each item of THI-P. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to study the effect of gender, hearing loss and the tinnitus laterality on the overall THI score as well as the functional, emotional and catastrophic subscales. In this study, the research method and the role of subjects were explained clearly and completely. The translation clarity exception in one item (item 17) which was evaluated as relatively desirable, in the other 24 items (96%) of THI-P was evaluated as desirable. Most of tinnitus subjects (72.7%) perceived one type of tinnitus sound, while others complained of sensation of more than one type of sound on different occasions. Scatter plots illustration the relationship between the THI-P score and the age in all subscales. As shown in Figure 2, the scatter plot indicates the correlation between the first (test) and second (retest) administration of the THI-P and their subscales on tinnitus subjects. Scatter plots illustration the correlation between the first (test) and second (retest) administration of the THI-P and their subscales. Researches in many different countries around the world in this area indicate the global emphasis on the importance of these assessments.
This symptom is as a common problem which can affect several aspects of patients' life including: going to sleep, understanding speech, depression, irritation, concentration and worse on awakening. To acquire this expressed goal, it was necessary to translate and standardize the original version of THI and then to evaluate the test-retest reliability of the THI-P. The measure of difficulty of Persian translation of THI was evaluated by translator 1 and 2 using a visual analogue scale from easy up to difficult (VAS; 100 mm total length).
The measure of this criterion administers three measures including clarity scores, common language and identifies conceptual equivalence.
Both convergent and discriminate validity methods were used for identifying validity of original English version of THI19.
In current research the reliability of THI-P was evaluated from two 102 International Tinnitus Journal, Vol. We obtained 0.96 in Persian THI version, consistent with significant correlation in retest.
The findings showed that none of the items of the Persian version of the questionnaire need to be removed.
Also, THI-P could be administered as a standard measuring instrument for patients and clinicians all over Iran. Henceforth, THI-P could be used for both clinical and research purposes by different professionals like audiologists, otolaryngologists, psychiatrists and could be also used for monitoring, treatment and rehabilitative effects on the life's quality of tinnitus sufferers.
ENT and Head & Neck Research Center, Hazrat Rasoul Akram Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS), Tehran, Iran.
Department of Audiology, School of Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS). Department of Biometry, School of Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS).
On y goute avec plaisir un bon bagel avant de prendre un cafe sur la terrasse du Simon's says. Although patients do not typically experience pain with tinnitus, like pain syndromes, there is a feeling of helplessness associated with the condition. He is now a spokesperson for the American Tinnitus Association (ATA), helping to raise awareness of the disease and funding for research.
In 2010, the Veterans Administration paid out more than $1 billion for tinnitus disability claims alone. However, it is not easy to cure but there are different ways by which you can manage Tinnitus. It is often worse when background noise is low, so you may be most aware of it at night when you're trying to fall asleep in a quiet room. In severe cases, however, tinnitus can cause people to have difficulty concentrating and sleeping. In such a case, other therapies -- both conventional and alternative -- may bring significant relief by either decreasing or covering up the unwanted sound.
The noise causes permanent damage to the sound-sensitive cells of the cochlea, a spiral-shaped organ in the inner ear. I have upped my B-vitamins and at least once a day take B-12, 5000 mcg sublingually (which is more than 80,000 percent of the RDA, meaning that the government-defined recommendation is pathetically inadequate).
I saw video once that showed the veins in a patient’s hand becoming noticeably constricted only 10 minutes after taking a puff on a cigarette. These are the final two herbal ingredients in the list that I posted at Ringing In Ears Goes Away. Dennis Clark on The Worst Diet in Human HistoryJulie hutchison on The Worst Diet in Human HistoryDr. Objectives: The aim of current study was to compose and validate a Persian version of the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI-P). The prevalence of chronic tinnitus in the general population is estimated between 5-15% and causes to develop serious psychosocial complications in 1% to 3%1.
It is reported that tinnitus can be severe enough to cause significant discomfort in one's daily life12. Finding the effects of tinnitus on the quality of life and assessing the individual's reaction to tinnitus are very important. The aim of IQOLA is to translate and provide health questionnaires with high validity and reliability for using in different countries by their formal language26.
This version is both simple to administer and interpret and also a powerful psychometric tool.
After that, each of the expert translators were asked about the difficulties of the translations and they were attributed a score according to the 100 point visual analogue scale (VAS).
Afterward, the pooled back translation was compared and formed by translators and then an agreement was obtained for one English version of THI questionnaire for finding the coherency with original version. Therefore the formulated initial Persian version of the instrument was attended by 24 (10 female and 14 male) high school students in Tehran.
The Cronbach's Coefficient Alpha test (where values>0.70 indicate a satisfactory internal consistency) was used to test for the evaluating internal stability of the THI-P29, and Pearson correlation coefficient was calculated between the total score of the THI-P and the scores of its subscales, age and pure tone average (PTA). The common language score of THI-P was assessed as desirable in all 25 items (100%) and also the conceptual equivalence for three items (4, 10, 16) undesirable response (12%), for two items (23 and 14) in a relatively desirable level (8%), and the other items were desirable response (80%). The type of sound reported by most tinnitus subjects was subjectively described as high-pitch tone, matched by external stimuli (described by 52.3% of subjects). Table 2 summarized the mean air conduction thresholds across frequencies of 500-4000 Hz for left and right ears. As shown in Figure 1, the total score of THI-P and its subscales were not correlated with the age of tinnitus subjects.
Total score of the THI-P and its associated subscales are very close to corresponding values in the original THI-US (Table 6). In Iran, in order to converge and coordinate with the ongoing research at the international level concerning the evaluation of consequences of diseases, impairments, handicaps, treatments and rehabilitation, we should create a new movement. Sense of the various problems among the subject sufferer from tinnitus and understanding the impact of tinnitus on their quality of life are of the uttermost importance. Translation of the original questionnaire of THI in Persian language in overall was easy due to its simple sentences, whereas, the translators in six items acknowledged difficult translation (items of 4, 5, 13, 23, 24 and 25). The translation clarity in 24 items of THI-P was evaluated desirable and only one item (item 17) evaluated as relatively desirable.
Majority of epidemiological tinnitus studies have reported a positive relationship between tinnitus and hearing loss4,34-35.


This valid tool allows us to quantify how much tinnitus impacts the life's quality of these individuals. Functional brain abnormalities localized in 55 chronic tinnitus patients: fusion of SPECT coincidence imaging and MRI. Prevalence of tinnitus and hearing thresholds of a non-noise-exposed population with and without tinnitus. Assessment of psychopathological aspects and psychiatric comorbidities in patients affected by tinnitus. Psychologic profile of tinnitus patients using the SCL-90-R and tinnitus handicap inventory. Psychological profile and somatic complaints between help-seeking and non-help-seeking tinnitus subjects. Tinnitus reaction questionnaire: psychometric properties of a measure of distress associated with tinnitus. Developmental and Psychometric Adequacy of the Screening Version of the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory.
Psychometric Adequacy of the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI) for Evaluating Treatment Outcome. Tinnitus with normal hearing sensitivity: extended high-frequency audiometry and auditory nerve brain-stem-evoked responses. Validity of the Italian adaptation of the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory; focus on quality of life and psychological distress in tinnitus-sufferers.
Brazilian Portuguese Language version of the "Tinnitus Handicap Inventory": Validity and Reproducibility. Impact of tinnitus as measured by the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory among tinnitus sufferers in Singapore. These phantom sounds are usually annoying, the way that radio static or high-pitched emergency signals are bothersome. This often leads to secondary medical problems, such as depression, anxiety, and exacerbated stress levels. It may eventually interfere with work and personal relationships, resulting in psychological distress.
Carpenters, pilots, rock musicians, street-repair workers, and landscapers are among those whose jobs put them at risk, as are people who work with chain saws, guns, or other loud devices or who repeatedly listen to loud music.
I’ve just restarted taking 50 mg of zinc per day, which I had stopped a while ago when I forgot to reorder it. Materials and Methods: The linguistic validation of the original version of THI into Persian version (THI-P) included translation, back translation and data gathering. Epidemiological studies indicated that in developed countries such as Germany about 1.5 million people, in the United States about 10 million out of 40 million tinnitus sufferers and a similar ratio in the United Kingdom have been reported that were seriously affected by tinnitus2-4. Tinnitus symptoms have been linked to various psychological and psychosomatic disorders13-15. One of the most important methods in the assessment of the severity of tinnitus and its effects on the lifestyle of a patient is the use of psychometrical evaluations. Finally, we formulated the initial Persian version of the instrument with proper and satisfactory translation.
The final version of THI-P was administered in all tinnitus subjects who were managed in our center between September 2009 and May 2010. The score of "Yes", "No" and "Occasionally" were 4, 0 and 2, respectively in three subscales: emotional, functional and catastrophic. All personal information in the questionnaire were confidential and only used in this research. The other descriptions of tinnitus included cricket, sizzling, hissing, humming and other sounds.
Tinnitus is a subjective idiopathic symptom in which it is not detected by blood examination and CT scan or like this.
In this regard, translator 1 and 2 were asked to provide a list of possible alternative translations for the replacement in relatively difficult and difficult items of THI-P. The prevalence of tinnitus among normal hearing subjects has been reported between 7%-10%36-37. About 12 million Americans are disturbed enough to seek medical help for the ringing in their ears; 2 million are literally disabled by their tinnitus, unable to work, sleep, or function normally.
In fact, 75% of people aged 18 to 30 experience tinnitus from listening to very loud music at live venues or through headphones.
It is shown that 48% to 60% of patients with chronic or disabling tinnitus have major depressive disorder (MDD)16.
Such self-report questionnaires include the Tinnitus Questionnaire (TQ)18, Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI)19, Tinnitus Severity Scale (TSS)20, Tinnitus Handicap Questionnaire (THQ)21, Subjective Tinnitus Severity Scale22 and Tinnitus Reaction Questionnaire (TRQ)23. The THI is a 25-item self-report instrument which is divided into three subscales including functional, emotional and catastrophic reactions to tinnitus.
On the basis of these two translations and their VAS scores to each THI items, we formed the pooled version that was then reviewed by presence of translators for considering suggested replacing words and difficulty in translation. This questionnaire was used as an initial instrument for gathering data from tinnitus subjects at next steps. Each single item was read loudly and the participants were asked to follow the items on the given sheet. Age, gender, medical history and tinnitus characteristics were recorded as baseline information. In total, more than 92% of tinnitus subjects who attended the current study revealed high pitch tinnitus, matched by external stimuli (>3000 Hz). Independent Student t-tests did not demonstrate statistically difference between total THI-P score and those with or without hearing impairment, neither did those with unilateral or bilateral tinnitus (Table 4). The main problem with tinnitus is its subjective nature so that evaluation of this complaint always depends upon patient's words. These alternative items were reviewed again by translator 3 and 4 in order to optimize quality of translation and finally revised for appropriate items. In conceptual equivalence of the translation, three items had undesirable response (4, 10 and 16) and two items had relatively desirable response. In addition, tinnitus is a common symptom of the auditory system disorders that is usually associated with sensoryneural hearing loss6,7. Asplund reported that among subjects with tinnitus poor sleep and frequent waking were more common in men and women17.
In this regard the client was questioned in order to find out which activity or performance of the patient is affected by tinnitus. Analysis of the THI items suggested that this self-report instrument had excellent internal consistency reliability and adequate convergent and constructive validity28.
It is worth to mention that in this step, for differentiation of the level of difficulty in translation, average scores less than 25 were considered as easy, more than 30 as difficult and between 25 and 30 as relatively easy.
Thus, items with undesirable translation were revised by translator 5 and 6 and revised by suggested replacing proper words, sentences and phrases.
As reported in several studies for the original version (US), Italian, Turkish, Danish, Portuguese and Singapore translations of THI19,28,38-41, the Persian version of THI was not significantly different in the handicap scores between those with normal hearing and those with hearing impairment with regard to the degree of handicap severity. Eventually it became clear that internal consistency was high and the response of every item to the response of total items was matched.
All participants complained of chronic unilateral or bilateral subjective idiopathic tinnitus lasting for at least 6 months before consulting about their tinnitus.
An epidemiological study in Italy based on a tinnitus questionnaire demonstrated that the prevalence of tinnitus was 8% in normal hearing subjects while this amount rose up to 30.5% in the presence of auditory dysfunctions8. This agreed version of Persian THI translation was given to the two other translators who were expert to Persian philology (translator 3 and 4).
Finally, the results of the present investigation suggest that the THI-P was simple and clear, without losing its equivalence towards cultural issues. All values of item-total correlation coefficient are greater than 0.3 which also indicated high internal consistency in THI-P except item 19. Results: There was no significant difference between gender, age, hearing impairment and total score and subscales of THI-P. Therefore, the valid psychometrical evaluations such as THI can be administered as a robust instrument to objectify tinnitus distress, but additional measures might be needed in order to catch the dimensions of tinnitus-related problems.
Inoverall the translation quality of THI-P was evaluated as desirable from both aspects of a careful translation and adapted to the socio-cultural setting. Pearson product-moment correlations revealed adequate test-retest reliability for the THI-P (r = 0.96). Also the valid questionnaires are valuable in the evaluation of results from before to after special treatment and its effect on the individual's quality of life. Therefore, the symptom of tinnitus has forced clinicians to attempt to establish protocols for accuracy of tinnitus diagnosis and treatment9.
The Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI)25 has gained widespread acceptance as a self-report measure of tinnitus around the world. Therefore, these translators (3 and 4) for each question determined 3 scores on the basis of 100 point criteria. Therefore, the Persian translation of THI was not affected by hearing impairment, gender and age factors.
In this VAS, zero point means absolutely improper quality and 100 means absolutely proper and satisfactory quality.
After that, the subsequent processing was attended by audiologists from department and research center of otolaryngology of Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS).
Criteria for decision making in improper quality of each translation items was the average score less than 90 (determined by translators 3 and 4).
Accordingly, in this step, Persian version of the THI was obtained, which regarding to all translators 1 to 4, had satisfactory quality.



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Comments I have tinnitus for no reason yuzu

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