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24.01.2016
An armoured (or armored) fighting vehicle (AFV) is a combat vehicle, protected by strong armour and generally armed with weapons, which combines operational mobility, tactical offensive, and defensive capabilities. Armoured fighting vehicles are classified according to their intended role on the battlefield and characteristics.
Successful general-purpose armoured fighting vehicles often also serve as the base of a whole family of specialized vehicles, for example, the M113 and MT-LB tracked carriers, and the MOWAG Piranha wheeled AFV.
The AFV classification did not exist prior to the key innovations leading to the invention of the internal combustion engine, armour plating, the continuous track and the advent of armoured warfare in the 20th century. Modern armoured fighting vehicles are the realization of an ancient concept: that of providing troops with mobile protection and suppressive firepower. Siege engines, such as battering rams and trebuchets, would often be armoured in order to protect the crews from the defenders.
The first modern AFVs were armoured cars, dating back virtually to the invention of the motor car. The development of the AFV took a great leap forward during World War I, when the tracked tank was developed by Britain and France to break the stalemate on the Western Front. In Great Britain, the Landships Committee was formed by the First Lord of the Admiralty, Winston Churchill[10] on 20 February 1915.
In 1916, the French pioneered the use of a full 360A° rotation turret in a tank for the first time, with the creation of the Renault FT light tank, with the turret containing the tank's main armament. The tank proved highly successful, and as technology improved it became a weapon that could cross large distances at much higher speeds than supporting infantry and artillery. The Armoured personnel carrier, designed to transport infantry troops to the frontline, emerged towards the end of WWI.
The British Gun Carrier Mark I was the first Self-propelled artillery and was fielded in 1917.
By the end of World War II, most modern armies had vehicles to carry infantry, artillery and anti-aircraft weaponry.
The level of armour protection between AFVs varies greatly a€“ a main battle tank will normally be designed to take hits from other tank guns and anti-tank missiles, whilst light reconnaissance vehicles are often only armoured "just in case".
The level of protection also usually varies considerably throughout the individual vehicle too, depending on the role of the vehicle and the likely direction of attack. Weaponry varies by a very wide degree between AFVs a€“ lighter vehicles for infantry carrying, reconnaissance or specialist roles may have only a Cannon or Machine gun (or no armament at all), whereas heavy self propelled artillery will carry large guns, mortars or rocket launchers. This classification is not absolute; at different times different countries will classify the same vehicle in different roles. Helepolis was the largest and most powerful siege tower ever erected; during the Siege of Rhodes, the city defenders' superior defenses and firepower stalemated the attacking army, which were being slaughtered, denied mobility and unable to mount an effective counter-measures. Frequently cited is Leonardo da Vinci's 15th century sketch of a mobile, protected gun platform; the drawings show a conical, wooden shelter with apertures for cannons around the circumference.


The original chariot was a fast, light, open, two-wheeled conveyance drawn by two or more horses hitched side by side. The tank was envisioned as an armoured machine that could cross ground under fire from machine guns and respond with fire from mounted guns. The Director of Naval Construction for the Royal Navy, Eustace Tennyson d'Eyncourt, was appointed to head the Committee in view of his experience with the engineering methods it was felt might be required. In addition to the traversible turret, another innovative feature of the FT was its engine located at the rear. The need to provide the units that would fight alongside the tank led to the development of a wide range of specialised AFVs, especially during the Second World War. During the first actions with tanks it had become clear that close contact with infantry was essential, so that ground won by the tanks could be secured.
These had mounted guns on a tracked chassis (often that of an obsolete or superseded tank) and provide an armoured superstructure to protect the gun and its crew. The German 77 mm[citation needed] anti-aircraft gun, was truck-mounted and used to great effect against British tanks, and the British QF 3 inch 20 cwt was mounted on trucks for use on the Western Front. Most modern AFVs are superficially similar in design to their World War II counterparts, but with significantly better armour, weapons, engines and suspension. Whilst heavier armour provides better protection, it makes vehicles less mobile (for a given engine power), limits its air-transportability, increases cost, uses more fuel and may limit the places it can go a€“ for example, many bridges may be unable to support the weight of a main battle tank. For example, a main battle tank will usually have the heaviest armour on the hull front and the turret, lighter armour on the sides of the hull and the thinnest armour on the top and bottom of the tank. These weapons may be mounted on a pintle, affixed directly to the vehicle or placed in a turret or cupola. For example, armoured personnel carriers were generally replaced by infantry fighting vehicles in a similar role, but the latter has some capabilities lacking in the former. These designs historically struggled between the paradox of exposed-mobility, effective-firepower and cumbersome-protection. Demetrius ordered the construction of a "city-capturing" fortress, with multiple catapult positions and protective encasements, that could carry troops while moving toward the enemy fortifications. The machine was to be mounted on four wheels which would be turned by the crew through a system of hand cranks and cage (or "lantern") gears. It was to move on caterpillar tracks to enable it to cross ground broken up by shellfire and trenches. The first design, Little Willie, ran for the first time in September 1915 and served to develop the form of the track but an improved design, better able to cross trenches, swiftly followed and in January 1916 the prototype, nicknamed "Mother", was adopted as the design for future tanks.
Troops on foot were vulnerable to enemy fire, but they could not be transported in the tank because of the intense heat and noxious atmosphere. In 1925 Sir John Carden and Vivian Loyd produced the first such design a€“ the Carden Loyd tankette.


The next major advance was the Birch gun developed for the motorised warfare experimental brigade (the Experimental Mechanized Force). The first British design, "Bishop", carried the 25 pdr gun-howitzer, but in a mounting that severely limited the gun's performance. Although the Birch gun was a general purpose artillery piece on an armoured tracked chassis, it was capable of being elevated for anti-aircraft use. The increase in the capacity of transport aircraft has allowed AFVs to be practically transported by air.
A trend toward composite armour is taking place in place of steel a€“ composites are stronger for a given weight, allowing the tank to be lighter for the same protection as steel armour, or better protected for the same weight.
Other vehicles a€“ such as the MRAP family a€“ may be primarily armoured against the threat from IEDs and so will have heavy, sloped armour on the bottom of the hull. Leonardo quoted "I will build armored wagons which will be safe and invulnerable to enemy attacks.
The war wagon were medieval weapon-platforms development during the Hussite Wars around 1420 by Hussite forces rebelling in Bohemia. Tankettes saw use in the Italian Royal Army during the Italian invasion of Ethiopia, the Spanish Civil War, and almost every place Italian soldiers fought during World War II. This mounted a field gun, capable of the usual artillery trajectories, on a tank style chassis. Many armies are replacing some or all of their traditional heavy vehicles with lighter airmobile versions, often with wheels instead of tracks. Armour is being supplemented with active protection systems on a number of vehicles, allowing the AFV to protect itself from incoming projectiles. There will be no obstacle which it cannot overcome." However, modern replicas have demonstrated that the human crew would have been able to move it over only short distances. These heavy wagon were given protective sides with firing slits and heavy firepower from either a cannon or a force of hand-gunners and crossbowmen, supported by infantry using pikes and flails.
The vehicle was a De Dion-Bouton quadricycle with a mounted Maxim machine gun on the front bar. Rackham was ordered to design an armoured vehicle that could fight and carry troops or supplies.
The Germans created many examples of lightly armored self-propelled anti-tank guns using captured French equipment (example Marder I), their own obsolete light tank chassis (Marder II), or ex-Czech chassis (Marder III). These led to better protected tank destroyers, built on medium tank chassis such as the Jagdpanzer IV and Jagdpanther.



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