What is cochlear synaptic tinnitus,walgreens ear wax removal kit cvs,can anesthesia cause hearing loss in dogs reasons - Step 3

10.09.2014
We will be provided with an authorization token (please note: passwords are not shared with us) and will sync your accounts for you. Many listeners with hearing thresholds within the clinically normal range nonetheless complain of difficulty hearing in everyday settings and understanding speech in noise.
In some ways, the fact that having NHTs does not automatically predict good performance in these conditions is not particularly surprising. Consistent with the idea that analysis of supra-threshold sound differs amongst NHT listeners, many APD patients seek help precisely because they notice difficulties in situations requiring selective auditory attention (Demanez et al., 2003), which places great demands on the auditory system. Differences in higher-order processing clearly contribute to individual differences in complex tasks such as the ability to selectively attend, process speech, or perform other high-level tasks (for instance see Surprenant and Watson, 2001).
Here, we argue that the fidelity with which the auditory system encodes supra-threshold sound is especially sensitive to the number of intact auditory nerve fibers (ANFs) encoding the input.
In this paper, we first consider how supra-threshold sound content is normally encoded, focusing particularly on temporal coding.
ANFs comprise the sole conduit for information about the acoustic environment, carrying spike trains from the cochlea to the central auditory system. Between 10 and 30 ANFs synapse on each IHC, depending on species and cochlear location (Figure 1B), and there are roughly 3500 IHCs along the 35 mm cochlear spiral in humans. Anatomical studies suggest that all three ANF types can innervate the same IHC, however, lower-SR fibers have thinner axons, fewer mitochondria, and tend to synapse on the modiolar side of the IHC. As a result of cochlear filtering, each ANF is driven by a narrow frequency band of sound energy. Although different perceptual attributes of natural sound are encoded by different spectro-temporal cues, many depend on reliable timing information. To exacerbate matters, everyday settings typically contain competing sound sources and reverberant energy.
Damage to lower-SR ANFs is likely to be especially detrimental to supra-threshold coding of sound envelopes, as high-SR fibers cannot robustly encode envelope timing cues in sounds at comfortable listening levels. Many psychophysical studies have been devoted to the development and discussion of behavioral measures to assess temporal coding in both NHT and hearing-impaired listeners (see Moore, 2003; Strelcyk and Dau, 2009). SSSRs refer to the scalp-recorded responses originating from subcortical portions of the auditory nervous system. In the cochlear nucleus (CN) of Horseshoe bats, recordings were made from 148 single neurons to constant frequency (CF) signals and to sinusoidally frequency modulated (SFM) and sinusoidally amplitude modulated (SAM) signals, which in a first approximation simulate the periodic modulations of echoes returning from wing beating insects. The probability of obtaining synchronized discharge activity to modulations was independent of the neurons' best frequencies (BFs). The effects of decreasing modulation magnitude were tested for 45 neurons with SFM- and for 46 neurons with SAM-signals. The intensity parameter was studied in 18 neurons with SFM- and 25 neurons with SAM-signals. Periodically amplitude modulated SFM-signals with different phase relations between amplitude maximum and particular frequency components were used for stimulation of 22 neurons. In order to determine the limiting rate of frequency and amplitude change for synchronization of response activity, the modulation frequency was varied between 50 Hz and 2,000 Hz in 59 neurons with SFM- and 46 neurons with SAM-stimuli. Data are discussed in relation to single unit recordings to periodically modulated signals in CN of other mammals and to results obtained from higher order auditory nuclei of Horseshoe bats. ReferencesBritt RH (1976) Intracellular study of synaptic events related to phase-locking responses of cat cochlear nucleus cells to low frequency tones.
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Department of Cell Biology, Institute for Childhood and Neglected Diseases, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California, USA. Laboratory of Electron Microscopy, Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, Göttingen, Germany. Department of Molecular Neurobiology, Max Planck Institute of Experimental Medicine and Center for Molecular Physiology of the Brain, Göttingen, Germany.
Lincoln Pharmaceuticals Limited manufactures, markets, and exports pharmaceutical products in India and internationally.
Lincoln Pharmaceuticals (LPL) has launched anti malarial drug ‘ARH 1’, developed using innovative technology known as Dose Optimization Technology under the Novel Drug Delivery System (NDDS). Right from inception, Lincoln puts a major thrust on developing innovative and technology based products aiming at optimizing the use of drugs for better therapeutic purposes. In the year 2013-14, the Indian Economy and GDP growth was marginally slow but, Pharma Industry has been growing inspite of slowdown. As the Company is primarily engaged in the business of manufacturing, marketing and Exports of Pharmaceutical products, the management of the Company is hopeful for growth of top line and bottom line. Though, there are many pharmaceuticals companies in the country manufacturing high quality medicines at affordable prices but inspite of the stiff competition in the country, this company introduces high quality medicines at affordable price for Indian public at large. As Pharma Sector is increasing in India, the Company is really having a good opportunity for growth.
Lincoln has increased its market share and also introduced lot of new products in the existing market in India. The Company is functioning in the competitive markets where there are number of small scale and medium scale manufacturers who are in the similar kind of products in the market and therefore there is a continuous pressures on the margin on the Company.
The Company maintains a system of well-established policies, guidelines, adequate internal controls, ensure efficiency of operations, compliance with internal policies, applicable laws and regulations.
I have been holding linclon from from the levels of 30 as i am into medicine busniess and i know the reach of lincoln and there namcold is the preffered brand in anticold segment and giving very very tough competion to sinarest of ceanture pharma. Could you please update on Lincoln Pharma, stock is coming down, can we enter at this price?
I was away from you all for certain unavoidable reasons.Thanks for nice words about my blog. This means that you will not need to remember your user name and password in the future and you will be able to login with the account you choose to sync, with the click of a button. This page doesn't support Internet Explorer 6, 7 and 8.Please upgrade your browser or activate Google Chrome Frame to improve your experience. Converging evidence from human and animal studies points to one potential source of such difficulties: differences in the fidelity with which supra-threshold sound is encoded in the early portions of the auditory pathway. Moreover, recent laboratory evidence suggests that the prevalence of NHT listeners with APD-like symptoms may be greater than one might predict based on the number of people seeking audiological treatment.
However, in this opinion paper, we focus on how low-level differences in the precision of spectro-temporal coding may contribute to differences in performance. In contrast, having NHTs likely depends only on having a relatively small but reliable population of ANFs that respond at low intensities. We then review animal evidence for cochlear neuropathy, a reduction in the number of ANFs responding to supra-threshold sound.
Thus, all the information we receive about our acoustic world is carried via the roughly 30,000 ANFs emanating from each cochlea. In contrast, high-SR fibers have thicker axons, more mitochondria, and synapse on the pillar side (Liberman, 1982). This large dynamic range may be mediated, at least in part, by the differing dynamic ranges of low-, medium-, and high-SR fibers. Thus, the temporal information encoded by the ANFs can be logically separated into two parts; the temporal fine-structure (TFS), corresponding to the timing of the nearly sinusoidal narrowband carrier fluctuations, and the slower temporal envelope of that carrier, whose temporal fluctuations are limited by the bandwidth of the corresponding cochlear filter. For instance, the computation of interaural time differences (ITD), important for spatial perception of sound, requires temporal precision on the order of tens of microseconds (Blauert, 1997). Both degrade the temporal structure of the sound reaching a listener’s ears, reducing the depth of signal modulations and interfering with the interaural temporal cues in an acoustic signal. Specifically, the average firing rate of high-SR ANFs (ignoring the temporal pattern of the response) saturates at levels roughly 20–30 dB above threshold, around the sound level of comfortable conversation (see red solid line in Figure 2E). On the other hand, SSSRs provide an objective window into how the subcortical nuclei of the ascending auditory pathway encode temporal information in sound. These responses phase lock both to periodicities in the acoustic waveform and to periodicities induced by cochlear processing (Glaser et al., 1976). Neurons belonging to separate response pattern categories to CF-signals differed in the synchronization pattern to periodic modulations.
Asymmetries in the response patterns present at high modulation magnitudes disappeared with smaller modulation magnitudes and histogram envelopes approach sinusoidal form. Sensitivity for small modulation heights could be improved by positioning the carrier frequency near the flanks of the excitatory response area. While synchronization was clearly present in the range of 10 to 30 dB SPL above minimum threshold, the response peaks to individual modulation cycles of tonic neurons tended to fuse at higher intensities. Due to their sharp tuning properties, the response pattern of filter neurons systematically changed depending on the phase relations of AM and FM, whereas the response pattern of neurons in other frequency ranges resembled the pattern to SAM-stimuli. The range of modulation frequencies covered by synchronized activity was broad, with most neurons (n=41 SFM,n=28 SAM) reaching upper rates between 400 and 800 Hz, or even higher (n=6 SFM,n=14 SAM).
Brain Res 112:313–327Britt R, Starr A (1976a) Synaptic events and discharge patterns of cochlear nucleus cells. The company’s product categories include antimalarial, antibiotics, anti-bacterial, analgesics, anti-inflammatory, anti-pyretic, anti-hypertensive, anti-fungal, antacids, anti-ulcers, anthelmintic, anti-cold, anti-allergic, anti-asthmatics, anti-emetics, gastrointestinal-agents, anti-diarrhoeals, anti-spasmodic, and pro-biotic, as well as cardiac and diuretic products.


Lincoln : It is the main division of Lincoln Pharmaceuticals Limited having flagship brand of Nam Cold with major focus in Anti Cold, Anti Biotic, Otolaryngology and Pain Management with a very diversified portfolio. Teresa: This division is totally devoted for gynac products with a complete portfolio of gynac range. The company’s product line also includes bone disorders, cardiovascular drugs, electrolytes, fertility agents, hemostats, iron preparations, laxatives, sedatives and tranquilizers, tonics and vitamins, and topical steroids. While mainstay treatment for malaria is complex and difficult to administer, ARH 1 is simpler and much more yielding making it easier for malarial patients to tolerate and recuperate from this disease. The R & D center is equipped with sophisticated instruments and equipment’s for in-house physical, chemical and microbiological analysis of all products. As Indian population getting aware towards health and about different human diseases which are showing up, new molecules are being evolved.
Since the company is trying to increase its market share by introducing high quality products and low price medicines, the management is confident to succeed in the most competitive markets. As the people in India and other parts of the world are getting more aware towards the health, Lincoln Pharma  is fully geared to meet the demand by introducing new molecules and also by opening new opportunities for the company by entering potential markets. This year, Lincoln is planning to introduce more new molecules and also different product basket to cater in India. Secondly, in the same way, the investments in the new geographical area, introduction of innovative products and new introductory pricing products would affect the performance of the company and its profitability. It also maintains an internal audit function conducted by independent Chartered Accountants firm for monitoring statutory and operational issues.
The information about the company referred in this blog is available in the public domain which might not be 100% truthful and has only been systematically produced for one to understand about the company. Measures of auditory subcortical steady-state responses (SSSRs) in humans and animals support the idea that the temporal precision of the early auditory representation can be poor even when hearing thresholds are normal. In contrast, the ability to analyze the content of sound requires a much more precise sensory representation of acoustic features across a large dynamic range of sound intensities. Specifically, in the lab, NHT listeners have vastly different abilities on the types of tasks that typically frustrate APD listeners. We argue that poor sensory coding of supra-threshold sound is most likely to be revealed in complex tasks like those requiring selective attention, which helps to explain the constellation of symptoms that lead to APD diagnoses. We argue that this neuropathy can help explain why some listeners have difficulty performing selective attention and other supra-threshold tasks, despite having NHTs. At each synapse, an electron-dense ribbon sits near the pre-synaptic membrane surrounded by a halo of glutamatergic vesicles. There are also systematic differences in the sizes of pre-synaptic ribbons and post-synaptic glutamate-receptor patches (Liberman et al., 2011). As represented in Figure 2C, high-SR fibers, whose response thresholds are at or near behavioral detection threshold, likely determine the ability to detect sounds in a quiet environment. For low-frequency cochlear channels, ANFs convey both TFS and envelope information; neural spikes are phase-locked to the carrier and the instantaneous firing rate follows the envelope. While perceptually, TFS information in low-frequencies is the dominant perceptual cue determining perceived location (at least in anechoic conditions; Wightman and Kistler, 1992), for broadband and high-frequency sounds, ITDs can be conveyed by the envelope alone. Thus, a reduction in the overall number of ANFs will reduce the precision with which both TFS and envelope temporal information are conveyed to higher centers (see also Lopez-Poveda and Barrios, 2013).
While behavioral characterizations are important indicators of everyday hearing ability, in order to limit the length and scope of this opinion paper and still provide substantial discussion, here we focus on objective, physiological measures that can quantify the temporal coding precision of supra-threshold sound in the individual listener. While the response patterns of tonic neurons were characterized by an image-like reproduction of the time course of frequency or amplitude changes, phasic neurons respond with an activity peak to distinct portions of the modulation cycles.
Synchronized responses to SFM-signals were present down to modulation heights of ±20 Hz and to SAM-signals of 6%. In sharply tuned neurons, individual response peaks to SFM-signals could be distinguished over wider intensity ranges than with SAM-signals. It also provides creams, ointments, anti-infective, vitamins, minerals, and iron-preparations. Lincoln Pharmaceuticals Limited offers its products in various dosage forms comprising tablets, capsules, injectable, syrups, and ointments. Proglet Technology of Pa 12 Proglets ensures that the levels of the Paracetamol in the blood plasma are maintained for a longer period to give better efficacy and non-stop therapeutic action up to 12 Hours. In Exports , the company is steadily growing and in coming years, Lincoln is planning to enter in most of the West African Countries  where it is targeting to increase its presence and potential growth for the company. However, the company has taken all the measures to minimize the risk by way of introducing R&D development center and continuously incorporating suggestions and guidance given by the experts, doctors and medical councils from time to time. The company is in the process of completing ERP system in the organization and developed a system for processing the documents. The stock ideas in this blog are my personal opinions as an experienced investor and are only meant for educating the readers. In humans with normal hearing thresholds (NHTs), paradigms that require listeners to make use of the detailed spectro-temporal structure of supra-threshold sound, such as selective attention and discrimination of frequency modulation (FM), reveal individual differences that correlate with subcortical temporal coding precision. Specifically, current audiometric screenings test the lowest level of sound listeners can hear at various frequencies, but they do not test whether they can make judgments about the spectral or temporal content of the sound, analogous to seeing an eye doctor and being asked whether you can tell that light is present, without worrying about whether or not you can tell anything about the object the light is coming from. One recent study shows that when NHT subjects are asked to report spoken digits from one direction amidst otherwise similar speech, performance ranges from chance levels to nearly 90% correct, with the bottom quartile of listeners falling below 60% correct (Ruggles and Shinn-Cunningham, 2011).
Our hypothesis is that the convergence of multiple ANFs, while possibly redundant for detecting sound, is critical for analyzing supra-threshold sound. Sound in the ear canal leads to cochlear traveling waves that deflect IHC stereocilia, causing the opening of mechanoelectric transduction channels and a graded change in the IHC membrane potential. All three ANF types send their central axons to the cochlear nucleus (CN), where they branch, sending collaterals to the anteroventral, posteroventral, and dorsal subdivisions. At higher frequencies, ANFs do not phase lock to the TFS; however, responses convey temporal information by phase locking to envelope fluctuations.
Moreover, high-frequency envelope ITDs can be perceived nearly as precisely as low-frequency TFS ITDs (Bernstein and Trahiotis, 2002). TFS cues convey information important for speech intelligibility in noise (Lorenzi and Moore, 2008). While the importance of TFS coding for various aspects of sound perception cannot be overstated, we only briefly discuss TFS coding here. This drop off is particularly detrimental for relatively intense sounds with shallow modulation depths, where both the crests and troughs of the envelope of the signal driving the high-SR ANFs fall in the saturation range of intensities, resulting in relatively poor modulation in the temporal response of these fibers (Joris and Yin, 1992).
Such measures may also be helpful in identifying some of the mechanisms that lead to individual differences in behavioral ability. Neurons with build up patterns to CF-signals (n= 8) and three phasic neurons did not lock their discharges to SFM- or SAM-signals. Sensitivity for small modulation heights of the SFM-signal was highest in sharply tuned neurons in the frequency range of 81–88 kHz (‘filter neurons’).
New product development, Quality improvement in existing products, process development and validation are undertaken here. The Company is also concentrating on the job work of various national and multinational companies and adding new products to its existing product range.
As a system and control, to make it more powerful across the organization, the internal audit , statutory audit as well as in house internal audit team are regularly checking the system audit and monitoring the statutory compliance and operational issue.
Animal studies show that noise exposure and aging can cause a loss of a large percentage of auditory nerve fibers (ANFs) without any significant change in measured audiograms.
Crucially, when subjects made errors, they almost always reported a digit coming from a non-target direction rather than an unspoken digit, suggesting that differences were unlikely due to higher-level deficits involving language such as differences in speech intelligibility. Both object formation and object selection rely on extracting precise spectro-temporal cues present in natural sound sources, which convey pitch, location, timbre, and other source features. We hypothesize that lower-SR ANFs may play a critical role in coding supra-threshold sound features, particularly under challenging conditions.
At the IHC’s synaptic pole, this sound-driven receptor potential drives an influx of calcium causing an increased probability of fusion of synaptic vesicles with the IHC membrane in the region of the ribbon. High-SR fibers have the lowest thresholds, low-SR have the highest thresholds, and medium SR thresholds are intermediate between the two (Figure 2A).
Although branches from all SR types are present in each CN subdivision, low- and medium-SR fibers give rise to more endings than high-SR fibers, especially in the small-cell cap of the anteroventral CN (Ryugo and Rouiller, 1988; Liberman, 1991). By virtue of their higher thresholds and extended dynamic ranges, the lower-SR fibers may be particularly important for extending the dynamic range of hearing.
Envelope cues are important for speech-on-speech masking release (Christiansen et al., 2013). We focus primarily on the implications of cochlear neuropathy on the fidelity with which envelope information is conveyed. In contrast, lower-SR fibers are more likely to encode these envelope fluctuations because they are likely to be at an operating point where the firing rate (in the steady–state) is still sensitive to fluctuations in the sound level. Given the frequency specificity possible with SSSRs, they have also been proposed as a potential tool for objective clinical audiometry (Lins et al., 1996).
Response patterns were essentially similar for SFM- and SAM-signals and systematically depended on modulation magnitude, carrier frequency and intensity parameters of the signals.
No correlations between minimum modulation depth of the SAM-signal and the neurons' BFs were found.


Some phasic neurons (n=3), required minimum modulation frequencies of 200 Hz to start synchronization. J Neurophysiol 39:162–178Britt R, Starr A (1976b) Synaptic events and discharge patterns of cochlear nucleus cells. The company is planning to start another Cephalosporin unit in the coming financial year which would help the company in integrating with all the segment of pharma products. I am not responsible for any loss arising out of any information, post or opinion appearing on this blog.It may automatically be assumed that I am a long-term investor in the stock idea being projected in my blog. Here, we argue that cochlear neuropathy may reduce encoding precision of supra-threshold sound, and that this manifests both behaviorally and in SSSRs in humans. Instead, the errors appeared to be due to failing to select the target stream from amidst the maskers. Given this, it makes sense that listeners with poor supra-threshold coding fidelity notice problems in crowded social settings, an ability that depends upon robust coding of supra-threshold sound features. We then discuss the use of the subcortical steady-state response (SSSR) to quantify temporal coding in the early portions of the auditory pathway, including the challenges inherent in interpreting the SSSR and relating it to single-unit neurophysiology.
Glutamate released into the synaptic cleft binds to the AMPA-type glutamate receptors at the post-synaptic active zone, causing depolarization and action potentials in the ANF.
Hence, lower-SR fibers may have more downstream influence than suggested by the fact that they make up less than half of the population at the level of the auditory nerve (AN). Given all of this, a listener with degraded coding of envelope and TFS is most likely to notice perceptual difficulties when trying to understand speech in challenging settings, even if they do not notice any other deficits and have no difficulty in quiet environments. This focus is motivated particularly by recent data from guinea pigs and mice that suggest that noise-induced neuropathy preferentially damages the higher-threshold, lower-SR cochlear nerve fibers (Furman et al., 2013), rendering envelope coding especially vulnerable, as explained below.
If noise exposure causes a selective neuropathy that preferentially affects lower-SR fibers, then the ability to analyze envelopes at conversational sound levels is likely to be impaired.
In addition, SSSRs have been shown to be sensitive to deafferentation in that IHC loss leads to degraded SSSRs, especially at moderate sound levels (Arnold and Burkard, 2002). Synchronization behavior depended on intensity, center frequency, modulation magnitude and could be different for SFM- and SAM-signals in the same unit.
Furthermore, recent studies suggest that noise-induced neuropathy may be selective for higher-threshold, lower-spontaneous-rate nerve fibers. Yet none of the listeners in the study complained of hearing difficulties, even those at the bottom of the distribution; moreover, none had entertained the idea of seeking audiological treatment. With the help of simple models of brainstem responses, we suggest measures that may emphasize the effect of neuropathy on the SSSR. In this paper, we shall use the term lower-SR ANFs to refer jointly to the low- and medium-SR groups, which are sometimes distinguished in the literature. Activity of high-SR fibers is relatively easy to mask with continuous noise, as schematized in Figure 2D. Coding of pitch and speech formants also may rely, at least in part, on both TFS and envelope temporal information, although the precision needed to convey this information is less than that needed to extract ITDs (see Plack et al., 2005 for a review). Thus, we hypothesize that differences in the fidelity with which the auditory system encodes supra-threshold TFS and amplitude modulation accounts for some of the inter-subject differences that NHT listeners exhibit in tasks such as understanding speech in noise or directing selective auditory attention (also See Section Human Data Consistent with the Neuropathy Hypothesis). Both theoretical simulations and preliminary experimental evidence from envelope following responses (EFRs, described in Section Objective Measures of Subcortical Temporal Coding) recorded in mice and humans are consistent with this reasoning, as discussed in Section Evidence for Cochlear Neuropathy.
Based on our hypothesis, we suggest some approaches that may yield particularly sensitive, objective measures of supra-threshold coding deficits that arise due to neuropathy. Using these ideas, we suggest future experiments to (1) test our hypothesis that cochlear neuropathy contributes to the supra-threshold coding deficits seen in some listeners; and (2) develop sensitive, objective correlates of such deficits that may be useful, clinically.
Because they are so sensitive to sound, even near-threshold noise increases the background discharge rate of high-SR fibers. On an even slower time scale, speech meaning is conveyed by fluctuations in energy through time. Based on this idea, we argue that a method for measuring supra-threshold temporal coding fidelity may have important clinical applications, enabling quantification of supra-threshold hearing deficits that affect how well listeners operate in everyday environments, but that are not commonly recognized today. J Neurophysiol 39:179–194Bruns V (1976a) Peripheral auditory tuning for fine frequency analysis by the CF-FM bat,Rhinolophus ferrumequinum.
Finally, we comment on the potential clinical significance of these ideas and identify areas for future investigation.
Thus, a range of temporal features in both TFS and envelopes are necessary to enable a listener to parse the cacophonous mixture of sounds in which they commonly find themselves, select a sound source of interest, and analyze its meaning.
The insets in panel C show schematic peri-stimulus time histograms of the response to a moderate-level tone burst: onset rates are higher in the high-SR fiber than in the low-SR fiber.
By virtue of their higher thresholds, the lower-SR fibers are more resistant to background noise. Importantly, almost all of these tasks, when performed in everyday settings, require analysis of temporal information at supra-threshold sound intensities. Thus with increasing levels of continuous broadband masking noise, lower-SR fibers likely become increasingly important to the encoding of acoustic signals, because they will increasingly show the largest changes in average discharge rate in response to transient supra-threshold stimuli (Figure 2D; also see Young and Barta, 1986). J Comp Physiol 106:77–86Bruns V (1976b) Peripheral auditory tuning for fine frequency analysis by the CF-FM bat,Rhinolophus ferrumequinum. J Comp Physiol 106:87–97Caspary DM, Rupert AL, Moushegian G (1977) Neuronal coding of vowel sounds in the cochlear nuclei. Exp Neurol 54:414–431Creutzfeldt O, Hellweg FC, Schreiner C (1980) Thalamo-cortical transformation of response to complex auditory stimuli. Exp Brain Res 39:87–104Engelstatter R (1981) Horphysiologische Untersuchungen an Neuronen der aufsteigenden Horbahn der echoortenden FledermausRhinolophus rouxi. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 1–109Evans EF, Nelson PG (1973) The responses of single neurons in the cochlear nucleus of the cat as a function of their location and the anaesthetic state. Exp Brain Res 17:402–427Godfrey DA, Kiang NYS, Norris BE (1975a) Single unit activity in the posteroventral cochlear nucleus of the cat. J Comp Neurol 162:247–268Godfrey DA, Kiang NYS, Norris BE (1975b) Single unit activity in the dorsal cochlear nucleus of the cat. J Comp Neurol 162:269–284Goldman LJ, Henson OW (1977) Prey recognition and selection by the constant frequency bat,Pteronotus p.
Behav Ecol Sociobiol 2:411–419Harnischfeger G (1979) An improved method for extracellular marking of electrode tip positions in nervous tissue. Acustica 34:81–85Moller J, Neuweiler G, Zoeller H (1978) Response characteristics of inferior colliculus neurons of the awake CF-FM bat,Rhinolophus ferrumequinum. J Comp Physiol 125:217–225Moller AR (1969) Unit responses in the rat cochlear nucleus to repetitive, transient sounds. Acta Physiol Scand 75:542–551Moller AR (1972) Coding of amplitude and frequency modulated sounds in the cochlear nucleus of the rat.
Acta Physiol Scand 86:223–238Moller AR (1974) Coding of sounds with rapidly varying spectrum in the cochlear nucleus. J Acoust Soc Am 55:631–640Nelson PG, Erulkar SD, Bryan JS (1966) Responses of units of the inferior colliculus to time-varying acoustic stimuli. J Neurophysiol 29:834–860Neuweiler G, Vater M (1977) Response patterns to pure tones of cochlear nucleus units in the CF-FM bat,Rhinolophus ferrumequinum. J Comp Physiol 115:119–133Neuweiler G, Brans V, Schuller G (1980) Ears adapted for the detection of motion, or how echolocating bats have exploited the capacities of the mammalian auditory system. Inaugural Dissertation, University of MarburgPfeiffer RR (1966) Classification of response patterns of spike discharges for units in the cochlear nucleus: Tone burst stimulation. J Neurophysiol 45:208–226Ribeaupierre F De, Goldstein MH, Yeni Komishan G (1972) Cortical coding of repetitive acoustic pulses.
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Z Vergl Physiol 57:376–408Schnitzler H-U (1978) Die Detektion von Bewegungen durch Echoortung bei Fledermausen. J Comp Physiol 132:47–54Schuller G, Beuter K, Schnitzler H-U (1974) Responses to frequency-shifted artificial echoes in the bat,Rhinolophus ferrumequinum. J Comp Physiol 89:275–286Schweizer H (1981) The connections of the inferior colliculus and the organization of the brainstem auditory system in the Greater Horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum). Academic Press, New York, pp 675–745Suga N, Jen PH, Jen H-S (1977) Further studies on the peripheral auditory system of ‘CF-FM’ bats specialized for fine frequency analysis of Doppler-shifted echoes. J Exp Biol 69:207–232Suga N, Neuweiler G, Moller J (1976) Peripheral auditory tuning for fine frequency analysis by the CF-FM bat,Rhinolophus ferrumequinum. J Comp Physiol 106:111–125Whitfield IC, Evans EF (1965) Responses of auditory cortical neurons to stimuli of changing frequency. J Neurophysiol 28:655–672Young ED, Brownell WE (1976) Responses to tones and noise of single cells in dorsal cochlear nucleus of unanesthetized cats.



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